Charminar by sanjeev.786

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									Charminar
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Charminar Perspective View


Night view

Charminar


Charminar Front view


Charminar, a view from down


Night view of the Charminar


View from South


Charminar in Hyderabad, India


A replica of the Charminar built in the Bahadurabad locality of Karachi, Pakistan in 2007


Charminar illuminating at night

Charminar (Telugu: చార్మినార్, Urdu: ‫ ,)چارم ی نار‬built in 1591 AD, is a landmark monument
located in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. The English name is a transliteration and
combination of the Urdu words Chār and Minar, translating to "Four Towers"; the eponymous
towers are ornate minarets attached and supported by four grand arches.[1][2] The landmark has
become a global icon of Hyderabad, listed among the most recognized structures of India.[3] The
Charminar is on the east bank of Musi river.[4] To the northeast lies the Laad Bazaar and in the
west end lies the granite-made richly ornamented Makkah Masjid.[1][2]

Contents
      1 History
      2 Structure
      3 Commercial Area
      4 See also
      5 References
      6 External links



History
Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty built Charminar in
1591 AD,[5] shortly after he had shifted his capital from Golkonda to what is now known as
Hyderabad.[6] He built this famous structure to commemorate the elimination of a plague
epidemic from this city. He is said to have prayed for the end of a plague that was ravaging his
city and vowed to build a masjid (Islamic mosque) at the very place where he was praying. In
1591 while laying the foundation of Charminar, Quli Qutb Shah prayed: "Oh Allah, bestow unto
this city peace and prosperity. Let millions of men of all castes, creeds and religions make it their
abode, like fish in the water.[citation needed]"

The mosque became popularly known as Charminar because of the two Urdu words char,
meaning four, and minar, meaning tower, combined to form Charminar.[7]

It is said that, during the Mughal Governorship between Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi rule, the south
western minaret "fell to pieces" after being struck by lightning and "was forthwith repaired" at a
cost of Rs 60,000.[1] In 1824, the monument was replastered at a cost of Rs 100,000.

In its heyday, the Charminar market had some 15,000 shops. Today the famous markets known
as Laad Baazar and Pather Gatti, near the Charminar, are a favour, of tourists and locals alike for
jewellery, especially known for exquisite bangles and pearls respectively.

In 2007, Hyderabadi Muslims living in Pakistan constructed a small-scaled quasi replica of the
Charminar at the main crossing of the Bahadurabad neighborhood in Karachi.[8]

Structure
The structure is made of granite, limestone, mortar and pulverised marble. Initially the
monument with its four arches was so proportionately planned that when the fort was opened one
could catch a glimpse of the bustling Hyderabad city as these Charminar arches were facing the
most active royal ancestral streets. There is also a legend of an underground tunnel connecting
the Golkonda to Charminar, possibly intended as an escape route for the Qutb Shahi rulers in
case of a siege, though the location of the tunnel is unknown.[9]

The Charminar is a square edifice with each side 20 meters (approximately 66 feet) long, with
four grand arches each facing a cardinal point that open into four streets. At each corner stands
an exquisitely shaped minaret, 56 meters (approximately 184 feet) high with a double balcony.
Each minaret is crowned by a bulbous dome with dainty petal like designs at the base. A
beautiful mosque is located at the western end of the open roof and the remaining part of the roof
served as a court during the Qutb Shahi times. There are 149 winding steps to reach the upper
floor. Once atop, the solitude and serenity of the beautiful interior is refreshing. The space in the
upper floor between the minarets was meant for Friday prayers. There are forty-five prayer
spaces.[1]

Charminar has the signature style of Islamic architecture.[10] This great tribute to aesthetics looks
sturdy and solid from a distance and, as one moves closer, it emerges as an elegant and romantic
edifice proclaiming its architectural eminence in all its detail and dignity. Charminar is a
beautiful and impressive square monument. Each of the corners has a tall, pointed minaret. These
four gracefully carved minarets soar to 48.7 m above the ground, commanding the landscape for
miles around. Each minaret has four stories, marked by a delicately carved ring. Unlike the Taj
Mahal, Charminar's four fluted minarets are built into the main structure. The actual mosque
occupies the top floor of the four-storey structure. Madame Blavatsky reports that each of the
floors was meant for a separate branch of learning before the structure was transformed by the
Imperial British administration into a warehouse for opium and liqueurs The monument
overlooks another beautiful and grand mosque called Makkah Masjid.< =



Sky around Charminar


Charminar

Commercial Area
Charminar is famous for many things, which cater to all the needs of the people of Hyderabad.
The area is famous for Laad Bazar which is very famous for the Bangles, also called
"Chudiyaan", mainly worn by women. There is no place for Shopping like the surrounding
Charminar Area, and the Traditional Food, like Biryani, Haleem, Mirchi ka salan, Double Ka
Meetha etc..The area is also famous for its variety of shops. During the season of Sankranthi, the
area is completely crowded with vendors selling kites.

See also
      Qutb Shahi dynasty
      History of Hyderabad
      Tourist attractions in Hyderabad
      Hyderabad state

References
   1. ^ a b c Charminar
   2. ^ a b Facts about Charminar: Hyderabad, as discussed in Britannica Compton's
       Encyclopedia Hyderabad: - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
   3. ^ Richard Goslan travels to India - Herald Scotland | Life & Style | Travel & Outdoors
   4. ^ Charminar (building, Hyderabad, India) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
   5. ^ Year after repair, rain damages Charminar minaret - Indian Express
   6. ^ "Qutb Shahi Style (mainly in and around Hyderabad city)". AP Government. Retrieved
       2010-05-16.
   7. ^ Rain damages Charminar minaret
   8. ^ M. Rafique Zakaria, Charminar in Karachi, Dawn, April 22, 2007
   9. ^ "Take a walk through history". The Hindu (Chennai, India). February 9, 2010.
   10. ^ "Heritage tag: Govt on a tightrope walk". The Times Of India. September 3, 2010.

External links

       Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Charminar


       Photos of Charminar on HyderabadPlanet.com
       Hyderabad on Wikitravel



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Hyderabad, India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

                      Hyderabad

                 — Metropolitan city —
       Charminar, the iconic monument of Hyderabad


               Nickname(s): City of Pearls




Hyderabad

              Location of Hyderabad in India


   Coordinates:    17.366°N 78.476°ECoordinates:
                   17.366°N 78.476°E


    Country       India

     State        Andhra Pradesh

    Region        Deccan
       Districts    Hyderabad, Rangareddy and Medak

       Founded      1591 AD

Government

        • Type      Mayor–Council

        • Body      GHMC, HMDA

       • Mayor      Mohammad Majid Hussain

     • Police
                    Anurag Sharma
  commissioner

Area

 • Metropolitan
                650 km2 (250 sq mi)
     city

Elevation           536 m (1,759 ft)

Population (2011)

 • Metropolitan
                6,809,970
     city

        • Rank      4th

• Density           18,480/km2 (47,900/sq mi)

• Metro             7,749,334

  • Metro rank      6th

Demonym             Hyderabadi

   Time zone        IST (UTC+5:30)

                    500 xxx, 501 xxx, 502 xxx, 508 xxx, 509
   ZIP code(s)
                    xxx

                    +91–40, 8413, 8414, 8415, 8417, 8418,
  Area code(s)
                    8453, 8455
     Vehicle
                   AP 09, 10, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, 28 & 29
   registration

Official language Telugu and Urdu

       Website     www.ghmc.gov.in


Hyderabad ( i/ˈhaɪdərəbæd/) is the capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located
on the banks of the Musi River in the Deccan Plateau in southern India. The city's area is 650
square kilometres (250 sq mi) and hosts a population of 6.8 million, while the metropolitan area
contains 7.75 million residents, making it India's fourth most populous city and the sixth most
populous urban agglomeration. The city was expanded in 2007 to form the Greater Hyderabad
Municipal Corporation.

Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah and remained under the
rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687 when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the
sultanate, and the city became part of the Deccan province of the Mughal empire. In 1724 Asif
Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty—also known
as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams ruled the princely state of Hyderabad for more than
two centuries, under subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. The city remained the princely
state's capital from 1769 to 1948—when the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession with the
Indian Union following the Operation Polo. The city became capital of Andhra Pradesh
following the 1956 State Reorganisation Act. Since 1969, Hyderabad has been a major center of
the Telangana movement, which demands a separate state for the Telangana region of Andhra
Pradesh.

Situated at the crossroads of North and South India, Hyderabad is noted for its unique culture. As
the former capital of the largest and richest princely state and with patronage from Nizams,
Hyderabad established local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. The city is a
tourist destination and has many places of interest(List of tourist attractions in Hyderabad),
including the Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golconda fort. Hyderabad is home to several
museums, bazaars, galleries, libraries, sporting and other cultural institutions. The Telugu film
industry is based in the city. From the 1990s Hyderabad emerged as a hub for the information
technology, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology industries, alongside traditional and service
industries. Hyderabad is a major centre for higher education and research and has 13 universities
and business schools.


Contents
        1 History
             o 1.1 Etymology
             o 1.2 Early and medieval history
             o 1.3 Nizam period
             o 1.4 Post-independence
       2 Geography
            o 2.1 Topography
            o 2.2 Neighbourhood and landmarks
            o 2.3 Climate
       3 Administration
            o 3.1 Local government
            o 3.2 Utility services
            o 3.3 Pollution control
            o 3.4 Healthcare
       4 Demographics
            o 4.1 Ethnic groups, language and religion
            o 4.2 Slums
       5 Economy
       6 Transport
       7 Culture
            o 7.1 Literature
            o 7.2 Music, performing arts and films
            o 7.3 Art and handicraft
            o 7.4 Architecture
            o 7.5 Cuisine
       8 Media
       9 Education
       10 Sports
       11 Sister Cities
       12 See also
       13 References
       14 Further reading
       15 External links



History
Main article: History of Hyderabad, India

Etymology

The etymology of Hyderabad is the subject of many myths and apocryphal accounts. One myth
holds that city founder Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah named the city Bhaganagar after Bhagmathi,
a local nautch (dancer) girl with whom he fell in love. He married Bhagmathi; she converted to
Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was renamed in her honour to "Hyderabad",
literally meaning "Hyder's abode" in Persian and Urdu.[1] Andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic
architecture, states that the city was originally called Baghnagar (the city of gardens).[2] Yet
another theory says Hyderabad was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also
known as Hyder.[3]
Early and medieval history

Archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date to 500 BCE.[4] The
region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda (English:
The Shepherd's Hill),[5] which was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 731 CE to 966 CE.[6]
Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda
came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty (1000–1310).[7] The Kakatiya dynasty's
headquarters was at Warangal, located 148 kilometres (92 mi) northeast of modern Hyderabad.[8]




The Golkonda fort, now in ruins, was the seat of power of several rulers of the Deccan.

When Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi Sultanate took over Warangal, Hyderabad region came
under the Khilji dynasty (1310–1321). Alauddin Khilji carried with him to Delhi the Koh-i-Noor
diamond, which was mined from the Kollur Mines in Golkonda.[9] Soon the Delhi sultanate was
occupied by Muhammad bin Tughluq, bringing Warangal under rule of the Tughlaq dynasty
until 1347. Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor of Muhammad bin Tughluq, revolted against
the sultanate and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan with Gulbarga (200
kilometres (124 mi) west of Hyderabad) as its capital. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until
1518, becoming the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan.[8]

In 1518, Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and
established the Qutb Shahi dynasty.[8] Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth sultan of the Qutb
Shahi dynasty, established Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591;[10] the city was
established to avoid water shortages experienced at Golkonda, the Sultanate's capital.[11] He
constructed the Charminar, Purana pul and Mecca Masjid in the city.[12] On 21 September 1687,
the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long
siege of the Golkonda fort.[13][14] The annexed area was renamed as "Deccan Suba" (Deccan
province), and during this period of Mughal rule, the capital was shifted from Golkonda to
Aurangabad (about 550 kilometres (342 mi) northwest of Hyderabad).[13][15]

Nizam period
See also: Nizam of Hyderabad

The sixth of Aurangzeb's successors, Farrukhsiyar, appointed Asaf Jah I as the Viceroy of the
Deccan in 1712, with the title of "Nizam-ul-Mulk" (Regulator of the Realm) Fateh Jung. In
1724, Asaf Jah I gained autonomy by defeating a rival to establish control over the Deccan Suba
and named it "Hyderabad Deccan", thus starting the dynasty which came to be known as the
Asaf Jahi dynasty. The rulers retained the title "Nizam ul-Mulk", and were referred to as Asif
Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad.[13][15] Following the death of Asaf Jah I in 1748, there was
political unrest due to the feud on ascension to the throne among the sons of Asaf Jah I, aided by
opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. The reign of Asif Jah II ended the
political instability. The Nizam signed the treaty of Masulipatnam in 1768 with the East India
Company; through this treaty the Nizam surrendered the coastal region to the East India
Company, in return the East India Company would have to pay a fixed annual rent to the
Nizam.[16]

In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams.[13][15] Due to regular threats
from the neighbouring rulers of Mysore, Maratha and Basalath Jung (Asaf Jah II's elder brother
supported by De Bussy), the Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company in
1798, allowing British troops to occupy Bolaram (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's
borders, for which the Nizams paid an annual maintenance to the British.[16] Starting from the
late nineteenth century, establishment of railways, transport services, under ground drainage,
running water, electricity, airport, telecommunication, universities and industries marked the
transformation of the city to a modern one. The Nizams ruled the state from the city until 17
September 1948, one year after India's independence from Britain.[13][15]

Post-independence
Main articles: Operation Polo and Hyderabad State (1948—1956)




Hyderabad state (in yellowish green) before reorganisation in 1956

Following independence of India from the British rule, the Asaf Jahi Nizam declared his
intention to remain independent and not becoming a part of the Indian union.[16] In 1948, the
Hyderabad State Congress began agitating against Nizam VII, with the support of Indian
National Congress and the Communist Party of India. On 17 September 1948, the Indian Army
took control of Hyderabad state through Operation Polo and Nizam VII joined the Union by
signing the "Instrument of Accession", which made him the Rajpramukh ("Princely Governor")
of Hyderabad State.[15][17] A peasant uprising, the Telangana uprising, was a communist-led
peasant rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and later against the princely
state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951.[18] The Constitution of India, which became
effective on 26 January 1950, made Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India and
Hyderabad city continued to be its capital. In 1955, B. R. Ambedkar, the then chairman of the
Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, expressed in his report that the city should be
designated as the second capital of India, due to its strategic, central location and available
amenities.[19]

Since 1956, the Rashtrapati Nilayam located in Hyderabad has been the second official residence
and business office of the President of India.[20] On 1 November 1956, the states of India were
reorganised by language group. Hyderabad state ceased to exist; it was split into three parts
which were added to what are now the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Nine Telugu and Urdu speaking districts of Hyderabad state, collectively known as Telangana
region, were merged with Telugu speaking Andhra State to create Andhra Pradesh.[21] Hyderabad
city became the capital of Andhra Pradesh. Several agitations—known collectively as the
Telangana movement—attempted to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra, and
demanded the creation of a new state from Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh; major agitations
took place in 1969, 1972 and from 2010.[22] In 2007, terrorist groups carried out a series of bomb
blasts in the city in May and August, leading to temporary communal tension and riot.[23] As of
2011, Hyderabad was a major centre of strikes and agitation related to the Telangana
movement.[24]

Geography
Main article: Geography of Hyderabad, India




Hussain Sagar lake, built during Qutub Shahi rulers, was once the source of drinking water for
Hyderabad.

Topography

Hyderabad is located in the north-western part of Andhra Pradesh and lies on the banks of the
Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan plateau in South India.[25][26] The city is spread
over 650 km2 (250 sq mi), making it one of the largest metropolitan areas in India.[25] Its
predominant topography is sloping rocky terrain of grey and pink granites. Several small hillocks
are scattered throughout. Hyderabad has an average altitude of 1,778 feet (542 m) above mean
sea level. The highest point in the city is Banjara Hills at 2,206 feet (672 m).[26][27] As of 1996,
the city houses 140 lakes and 834 water tanks smaller than 10 hectares (25 acres).[28] The lakes in
the city are often referred to as sagar which means sea. The Hussain Sagar lake, built in 1562, is
located near the city center. The Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar are two artificial lakes created
as a result of dams on the Musi.[26][29]

Neighbourhood and landmarks




A street map of the central area of the city

The historic city established by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah on the southern side of the Musi
River exists as the "Old City", while the "New City" encompasses the urbanised area on the
northern banks. The two are connected by many bridges that cross the river, of which "Purana
pul" is the oldest.[30] Hyderabad is twinned with neighbouring Secunderabad, separated by
Hussain Sagar Lake.

In southern part of central Hyderabad, historical and tourism sites such as the Charminar, the
Mecca Masjid, the Salar Jung Museum, the Nizam's museum, the Falaknuma Palace, the
traditional retail corridor comprising Laad Bazaar, Pearls Market and Madina circle are located.
North of the river are hospitals, colleges, major railway stations and business areas such as
Begum Bazaar, Koti, Abids, Sultan Bazaar and Moazzam Jahi Market, along with administrative
and recreational establishments such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Andhra Pradesh
Secretariat, the Hyderabad Mint, the Andhra Pradesh Legislature, the Public Garden, the Nizam
Club, the Ravindra Bharathi, the state museum, the Birla Temple and the Birla
Planetarium.[31][32][33]

Towards the north of central Hyderabad lies Hussain Sagar Lake, along with Tank Bund Road,
Rani Gunj and the Secunderabad Railway Station.[31] The majority of the city's parks and
recreation centres are located here—Sanjeevaiah Park, Indira Park, Lumbini Park, NTR Gardens,
the Buddha statue and Tankbund Park.[34] Upscale residential areas such as Banjara Hills, Jubilee
Hills, Begumpet and Khairatabad are located in the northwest part of the city. The northern end
houses industrial areas such as Sanathnagar, Moosapet, Balanagar, Pathan Cheru and Chanda
Nagar. The northeast end is dotted with residential colonies.[31][32][33] The "Cyberabad" area—
southwest and west parts of the city—has grown rapidly since 1990s, and is home to information
technology and bio-pharmaceutical companies along side landmarks such as the Hyderabad
Airport, Osman sagar, Himayath sagar and KBR National Park. On the eastern part of the city
lies the defence research centres and the Ramoji Film City.

Climate

Hyderabad has a combination of a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw) that borders on a
hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh).[35] The annual mean temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F);
monthly mean temperatures are 21–32 °C (70–90 °F).[36] Summers (March–June) are hot and
humid when the average highs are in the mid 30s Celsius;[37] maximum temperatures often
exceed 40 °C (104 °F) between April and June.[36] Winter lasts for only about two-and-a-half
months, during which the lowest temperature dips occasionally to 10 °C (50 °F) in December
and January.[36] May is the hottest month when daily temperatures range from 26–38.8 °C (79–
102 °F); January, the coldest month, has temperatures varying from 14.7–28.6 °C (58–83 °F).[37]
Temperatures in the evenings and mornings are generally cooler because of the city's moderate
elevation.

Rains brought by the south-west summer monsoon lash Hyderabad between June and
September,[38] supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 812.5 mm (32 in).[37] The highest
monthly rainfall total, 181.5 mm (7 in), occurs in September.[37] The heaviest rainfall recorded in
a 24-hour period is 241 mm (9 in) on 24 August 2000. The maximum temperature ever recorded
was 45.5 °C (114 °F) on 2 June 1966, and the minimum recorded temperature was 8 °C (46 °F)
on 8 January 1946. The city receives 2,731 hours of sunshine per year; maximum daily sunlight
exposure occurs in February.[38][39]

                                   [hide]Climate data for Hyderabad
 Month Jan Feb Mar                 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep                         Oct Nov Dec Year
Average
           28.6 31.8 35.2 37.6 38.8 34.4 30.5 29.6 30.1 30.4 28.8 27.8 32.0
 high °C
          (83.5) (89.2) (95.4) (99.7) (101.8) (93.9) (86.9) (85.3) (86.2) (86.7) (83.8) (82.0) (89.6)
   (°F)
Average
           14.7 17.0 20.3 24.1 26.0 23.9 22.5 22.0 21.7 20.0 16.4 14.1 20.2
 low °C
          (58.5) (62.6) (68.5) (75.4) (78.8) (75.0) (72.5) (71.6) (71.1) (68.0) (61.5) (57.4) (68.4)
   (°F)
Rainfall
            3.2    5.2     12.0 21.0 37.3 96.1 163.9 171.1 181.5 90.9 16.2 6.1 804.5
  mm
         (0.126) (0.205) (0.472) (0.827) (1.469) (3.783) (6.453) (6.736) (7.146) (3.579) (0.638) (0.24) (31.673)
(inches)
  Avg.
  rainy      .3     .4      .9      1.8    2.7     7.6     10.6   10.1     8.9     5.7     1.6     .4    51.0
  days
 Mean
monthly 279.0 271.2 263.5 273.0 282.1 180.0 142.6 136.4 168.0 226.3 246.0 263.5 2,731.6
sunshine
 hours
                      Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980) [40]
                      Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990) [41]




Administration
Main article: Administration of Hyderabad, India




The Andhra Pradesh State Assembly building houses the bicameral Andhra Pradesh Legislature.

Local government

The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) is in charge of the civic administration
of Hyderabad city. It was formed in April 2007 by merging Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad
(MCH) with 12 municipalities of 3 districts—Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy and Medak that covers
an area of 650 km2 (250 sq mi). The GHMC has 5 administrative zones that are divided into 18
circles, which together encompass 150 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a
corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect the Mayor who is the titular head of
GHMC, the executive powers of the GHMC lie with the Municipal Commissioner appointed by
the Government of Andhra Pradesh. The GHMC undertakes the city's infrastructure work,
building regulation, government-aided schools, hospitals, municipal markets, parks, solid waste
management and demographic records. In 2009 municipal election, the Indian National Congress
and Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen alliance formed the majority.[42] The Secunderabad Cantonment
Board is a civic administration agency overseeing an area of 40.1 km2 (15.5 sq mi)[43]:5 that
houses several military camps.[44]:2 The Osmania University campus is administered
independently by the university authority.[43]:6

The Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA) is the apolitical urban planning
agency that encompasses GHMC area and the suburbs. It coordinates and supervises the
developmental activities of GHMC and other municipalities of the suburbs, and manages the
administration of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB),
the Andhra Pradesh Transmission Corporation, the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport
Corporation (APSRTC) and others.[43]:13 Its jurisdiction extends to 54 mandals located in 5
districts covering an area of 7,100 km2 (2,700 sq mi).[45]

The Hyderabad City Police is responsible for the enforcement of law and order. Hyderabad
police commissionerate jurisdiction is divided into five police zones, each headed by a deputy
commissioner.[46] The Hyderabad Traffic Police is headed by a deputy commissioner who is
answerable to the Hyderabad city police commissioner.[47] The area under the jurisdiction of
Hyderabad City Police is smaller than the GHMC area, thus the suburbs of the city fall under the
jurisdiction of Cyberabad Police Commissionerate. As of 2012, The "Greater Hyderabad Police
Commissionerate" is a proposed plan of Andhra Pradesh Government which would be formed by
merging Hyderabad and Cyberabad Police Commissionerates.[48]

Hyderabad houses the offices of the regional governing bodies, along with the Andhra Pradesh
Legislature, the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat, and the Andhra Pradesh High Court. Lower city
civil court and the metropolitan criminal court are under the jurisdiction of the High Court.[49]
GHMC area contains 24 State Legislative Assembly constituencies which come under 5 Lok
Sabha (the lower house of the Parliament of India) constituencies.[50]

Utility services

The HMWSSB regulates rainwater harvesting, water and sewerage services.[45] It sources water
from multiple dams located in the suburbs.[51] In 2005, the HMWSSB started operating 150
kilometres (93 mi)-long water supply pipleline from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam to meet the
increasing requirement.[51] The Andhra Pradesh Central Power Distribution Company manages
electricity supply.[45] Firefighting services are provided by the Andhra Pradesh Fire Services
department. As of March 2012, the city has 13 fire stations.[52] The state-owned Indian Postal
Service is the major service provider in the city with five head post offices and multiple sub-post
offices; courier services owned by private enterprises are also available.[26] In 1999, the state
government launched e-Seva, the electronic bill payment service for multiple utility agencies.[53]

Pollution control

Hyderabad produces around 4,500 metric tonnes of solid waste everyday, which is transported
from three collection units located in Imlibun, Yousufguda and Lower Tank Bund to the garbage
dumping site of Jawaharnagar.[54] The "Integrated Solid Waste Management" project was started
in 2010 by GHMC to manage waste disposal.[55] The Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board
(APPCB) is the regulatory and screening authority of pollution. The rapid rate of urbanisation
with increased economic activities had encouraged migration to Hyderabad. These changes led
to increased air pollution, industrial waste, noise pollution and water pollution.[56] As of 2006,
contribution of different sources to air pollution were as follows—20–50% from vehicles, 40–
70% combining vehicle discharge with road dust, 10–30% from industrial discharges and 3–10%
from household garbage burning.[57] The estimated deaths from particulate matter are about
1,700–3,000 persons every year.[58] The ground water in Hyderabad has water hardness up to
1000 ppm.[59] The region's ground water levels are shrinking, and dams are facing water shortage
due to burgeoning population and consequent increased water demand.[51][60] Inadequately
treated effluents from industrial treatment plants are polluting the drinking water sources of the
city.[61] APPCB and local authorities have designed and implemented multiple actions to control
pollution.[58]

Healthcare
See also: Healthcare in Hyderabad, India




The Nizamia Unani Hospital provides medical care in both Unani and Allopathic medicine systems.

The Andhra Pradesh Vaidya Vidhana Parishad, a department of the state government,
administers healthcare in Hyderabad.[62] Medical services are provided by government-run
hospitals and clinics, corporate and charity organisations.[63] As of 2010–11, the city had 50
government hospitals,[64] 300 corporate and charity hospitals, and 194 nursing homes (smaller
privately run acute inpatient care providers); together these facilities provide the city with
approximately 12,000 hospital beds, which is less than 50% of the required number of
25,000.[63][65] For every 10,000 people in the city, there are 17.6 hospital beds,[66] 9 doctors
(specialist), 14 nurses and 6 physicians (general consultants).[65] In addition the city houses about
4,000 individual clinics,[67] and 500 medical diagnostic centres.[63] The majority of residents
prefer treatment at private facilities and only 28% of residents uses government facilities due to
distant locations, poor quality of care and long wait times.[68]:60–61 As of 2012, 15 corporate
chains had acquired space to develop speciality hospitals.[67] Overall, healthcare services in
Hyderabad are standardised and affordable, as compared to many other cities in India.[69]
Hyderabad also has outpatient and inpatient facilities that use Unani, Homeopathy and
Ayurvedic medical treatment.[70]

According to the 2005 National Family Health Survey, 24% of Hyderabad's households were
covered under government health schemes or health insurance, the highest covered proportion in
India among the surveyed cities.[68]:4 The total fertility rate in the city is 1.8,[68]:95 and 66% of
married women used contraceptives.[68] Only 61% of children had been provided with all basic
vaccines, second least among the surveyed cities.[68]:98 The infant mortality rate was 35 per 1,000
live births, and the mortality rate for children under five was 41 per 1,000 live births.[68]:97
According to the survey, about one third of women and one fourth of men are overweight and
obese, about 49% of children below 5 years are anaemic and up to 20% children are
underweight.[68]:44, 55–56 More than 2% of women and 3% of men suffer from diabetes in
Hyderabad.[68]:57
Demographics
Main article: Demographics of Hyderabad, India

[hide]Hyderabad Population

 Census           Pop.        %±

  1971            1,796,000   —

  1981            2,546,000   41.8%

  1991            3,059,262   20.2%

  2001            3,637,483   18.9%

  2011            6,809,970   87.2%
                  [71]
World Gazetteer



Hyderabad, covering an area of 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi),[72] has a population of
6,809,970, making it the fourth most populous city in India.[73] There are 3,500,802 male and
3,309,168 female citizens. The area under the municipality increased from 170 square kilometres
(66 sq mi) to 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) in 2007 when the Greater Hyderabad Municipal
Corporation was created.[74] As a consequence, the total population leaped from 3,637,483 in
2001 census to 6,809,970 in 2011 census, an increase of over 87%. Migrants from rest of India
constitute 24% of the city population.[44]:2 The sex ratio is 945 female per 1000 males,[75] higher
than the national average of 926 per 1000.[76] Among children aged 0–6 years, 373,794 are boys
and 352,022 are girls, leading to the ratio of 942 girls per 1000 boys.[75] The city's population
density is 18,480 /km2 (47,900 /sq mi),[77] and literacy rate 82.96% (male 85.96% and female
79.79%), higher than the national average of 74.04%.[78] The Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration
has a population of 7,749,334, the sixth most populous urban agglomeration in the country.[73]

Ethnic groups, language and religion

Residents of Hyderabad are called Hyderabadi. Telugu people comprise the majority of
Hyderabad's population, followed by Urdu-speaking and Marathi communities. The minority
communities of Hyderabad are Kannada (including Nawayathi), Marwari, Bengali, Tamil,
Malayali, Gujarati, Punjabi and Uttar Pradeshi. Among the foreign-origin communities Yemeni
Arabs form the majority; African Arabs, Armenian, Abyssinians, Iranian, Pathan and Turkish
people are also present. The foreign-origin population declined after Hyderabad State became a
part of the Indian Union.[79]

                                   Religion in Hyderabad district—2001[80]
Religion                                                                             Percent

Hinduism                                                                                       55%

Islam                                                                                          42%

Christianity                                                                                    2%

Others                                                                                          1%


Telugu and Urdu are the first and second official languages of Hyderabad;[81] English is also
used particularly among white-collar workers.[82] Telugu in Hyderabad has a varied dialect called
the Telangana dialect,[83] and the Urdu spoken in the city is called Deccani Urdu.[84] A significant
minority of the city speaks different languages such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Kannada and
Tamil.[79]

In Hyderabad, Hindus form the majority of the population. Muslims, although present
throughout the city, predominate in and around the Old City. The other religious communities
are Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist and Parsi. Iconic temples, mosques and churches are housed
in the city.[85] According to 2001 census, Hyderabad district's religious make-up included Hindus
(55%), Muslims (42%), Christians (2.4%), Jains (0.4%), Sikhs (0.28%) and Buddhists (0.02%);
0.22% did not state any religion.[80][86]

Slums

According to a 2012 report submitted to the World Bank by GHMC, Hyderabad has 1,476 slums
with a total population of 1.7 million; among those 66% live in 985 slums located in the core of
the city and the remaining 34% live in 491 in suburban tenements.[87] Among the slum-dwellers,
22% of the households migrated from different parts of India and 63% of the households had
remained in the slums for over 10 years.[44]:55 The literacy rate is 60–80% and the female literacy
rate is 52–73%. One third of the city's slums have basic service connections, and 90% have water
supply lines. There are 405 government schools, 267 government aided schools, 175 private
schools and 528 community halls in the slums of Hyderabad.[88]:70 According to a 2008 survey
by the Centre for Good Governance, 87.6% of the household are nuclear families, 18%
households are very poor with an income of 20,000 (US$378) per annum, 73% of the
household live below poverty line (a standard poverty line recognised by the AP Government is
  24,000 (US$453.6) per annum), 27% chief wage earners (CWE) are casual labour and 38% of
the CWE are illiterate. About 3.72% of the slum children of age group 5–14 years do not go to
school and 3.17% of the children work as child labour—among those 64% are boys and 36% are
girls; the largest employer of child labour are street shops and construction sites. Among
working children, 35% are engaged in hazardous jobs.[44]:59

Economy
Main article: Economy of Hyderabad, India
See also: Industries in Hyderabad, India, Biopharmaceutical industry of Hyderabad, India, List of
companies based in Hyderabad, India, List of tourist attractions in Hyderabad, and Software industry in
Andhra Pradesh




A jewellery and pearl shop in Laad Bazaar, near the Charminar

Among the cities of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the state's GDP,
state tax and other revenues.[89] As of 2011, the per capita annual income of Hyderabad was
44,300 (US$837.27).[90] As of 2006, the largest employers in the city are the Governments of
Andhra Pradesh (113,098 employees) and Governments of India (85,155).[91] The World Bank
Group ranked the city as the second best Indian city for doing business in 2009.[92] In 2010, the
economic analysis group GaWC ranked Hyderabad in its third tier (Gamma+ World City) of
cities by importance.[93] Hyderabad and its suburbs house the highest number of special
economic zones among India cities.[90]

Hyderabad is known as the "City of Pearls" due to its role in the trade of those precious jewels.
Until the 18th century the city was the only global trade center for large diamonds.[14][94] Many
traditional and historical bazaars are located in the city.[95][96] The Laad Bazaar and nearby
markets have shops that sell pearls, diamonds and other traditional ware and cultural antiques.[95]
The commercial market structure of Hyderabad is divided into 4 sectors—The Central Business
Districts (CBD), the sub-central business centres, the neighbourhood business centres and local
business centres.[97] Several central business districts are spread across the city.[98] According to a
survey in 2007, the retail industry and traditional markets are growing in the city.[99]

Industrialisation began during Nizam's rule in the late 19th century, helped by railway expansion
that connected the city with major ports.[100][101] From 1950s to 1970s, Indian enterprises were
established in the city,[102] such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), National Mineral
Development Corporation, Bharat Electronics, Electronics Corporation of India Limited,
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
(HAL), Andhra Bank and State Bank of Hyderabad. This changed the economic pattern from
traditional manufacturing to a cosmopolitan industrial service sector.[32] Since 1990s, the growth
of information technology (IT), IT-enabled services, insurance and financial institutions
expanded the service sector. These primary economic activities boosted ancillary sectors of trade
and commerce, transport, storage, communication, real-estate and retail.[101] The service industry
remains dominant in the city where 90% of the employed workforce are engaged in the
sector.[103] According to a 2005 survey 77% of males and 19% of females of the city are
employed.[104]




HITEC city, the hub of information technology companies

Hyderabad is known as "India's pharmaceutical capital" and "Genome Valley of India" due to the
presence of several pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.[105] It is among the global
centres of information technology for which it is known as Cyberabad (Cyber City).[106][107]
During 2008–09, Hyderabad's IT exports reached US$ 4.7 billion,[108] and 22% of the
NASSCOM's total membership is from the city.[90] The development of a township with
technological infrastructure called HITEC City prompted multinational companies to establish
facilities in Hyderabad.[106] The city is home to more than 1300 IT firms, including global
conglomerates such as Microsoft (operating its largest R&D campus outside the US), Google,
IBM, Yahoo!, Dell, Facebook,[44]:3[109] and major Indian firms including Mahindra Satyam,
Infosys, TCS, Genpact and Wipro.[44]:3

As with the rest of India, Hyderabad has a large informal economy that employs 30% of the
labour force.[88]:71 According to a survey conducted in 2006 and again in 2009, Hyderabad has
50,000 street vendors and their numbers continue to grow.[110] Among the street vendors, 84%
are male and 16% female, with four fifths having stationary shops. Most are financed through
personal savings; only 8% borrow from moneylenders.[111] Vendor earnings vary from 50
(US$0.95) to 800 (US$15.12) per day.[110] Other unorganised economic sectors include dairy,
poultry farming, brick manufacturing, casual labour, and domestic help. The people involved in
the informal economy constitute a major portion of urban poor.[88]:71

Transport
Main article: Transport in Hyderabad, India
A congested road near Charminar showing pedestrians, auto-rickshaws and street vendors

In Hyderabad, public transport such as buses, auto rickshaws and multi modal railways are the
most common modes of transport.[112] As of 2007, the vehicle distribution is 75% two-wheelers,
14% cars, 1% taxis, 4% goods vehicles, 2% buses and 4% other vehicles.[43]:28 As of 2012, there
are 77,035 auto rickshaws and 3,800 RTC buses.[113] In some parts of the city cycle rickshaws
are hired to travel smaller distances.[43]:32 As of 2001, two-wheelers and cars are involved in 50%
of road accidents, public transport buses and trucks in 10% and auto-rickshaws in 15% of road
accidents. Among these, 12% are fatal accident and 88% are injurious (including the 40% of
accidents that occur due to non-availability of pedestrian facilities).[43]:32[112] As of 2010, the
maximum speed limits assigned for individual vehicles within city limits are 50 km/h (31 mph)
for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h (22 mph) for auto-rickshaw and 40 km/h (25 mph) for light
commercial vehicle and transport buses.[114]

Three National Highways (NH) pass through the city—NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202.[115] Five state
highways—SH-1, SH-2, SH-4, SH-5 and SH-6 begins at or passes through Hyderabad,[43]:1 and
traffic congestion is widespread.[116]:2-3 Like many other Indian metropolitan cities, Hyderabad
also faces parking problems, particularly in the city centre. In Hyderabad the roads occupy 6% of
the total city area.[43]:3 The HMDA developed multiple projects such as Inner Ring Road, Outer
Ring Road, interchanges, overpasses and underpasses to ease the traffic congestion. As of 2008,
Hyderabad Elevated Expressway is the longest flyover bridge in India.[117]
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, completed in 2008, was the second public-private partnership among
Indian airports.

The bus service, governed by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC), is
the most frequently used means of public transport within the city.[118] According to the Guinness
World Records (2005), APSRTC operates the world's largest fleet of buses in terms of number of
commuters, estimated to carry 13 million passengers a day.[119] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station,
located at centre of the city, is the main bus station.[120] Alongside APSRTC, Setwin operates
minibuses in the city.[121] Hired modes of transport include taxi and the widely used auto
rickshaws.[122]

The Secunderabad Railway Station is the headquarters of the South Central Railway zone of the
Indian Railways and the largest railway station in Hyderabad. Other major railway stations are
Hyderabad Deccan Station, Kachiguda Railway Station and Begumpet Railway Station.[123]
Hyderabad's light rail transportation system, known as the MultiModal Transport System, is used
by over 150,000 passengers daily, as of 2010.[124] Hyderabad Metro, the city's under-construction
rapid transit system, is scheduled to operate three lines by 2014.[125] The Rajiv Gandhi
International Airport (RGIA) (IATA: HYD, ICAO: VOHS) was inaugurated in 2008, replacing
the previous Begumpet Airport.[126] In 2011, the Airports Council International, an autonomous
body representing world airports, judged RGIA as the world's best airport in the category of
serving 5–15 million passengers, and world's fifth best airport for Airport service quality.[127]

Culture




A Bull decorated during Sadar carnival, celebrated by Yadav community.

Main article: Culture of Hyderabad, India

See also: Muslim culture of Hyderabad

Distinct linguistic and cultural traditions of North and South India mingle in Hyderabad, among
which the combination of Hindu and Muslim traditions is notable.[128][129]:viii Telugu and Urdu are
the most commonly spoken languages among the residents.[130] The traditional Hyderabadi garb
is Sherwani and Kurta–Paijama for men and[131] Khara Dupatta and Salwar kameez for women.
[132][133]
        Burqas and Hijabs are commonly worn by Muslim women in public.[134] Most youths
wear western clothing.[135] Festivals celebrated in Hyderabad include the Ganesh Chaturthi,
Diwali, Bonalu, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

Literature

Hyderabad received royal patronage for arts, literature and architecture from its former rulers;
this attracted men of letters and arts from different parts of the world. Such multi-ethnic
settlements popularised cultural events such as mushairas (poetic symposium).[136] The Qutb
Shahi reign patronised the growth of Deccani Urdu literature—the Deccani Masnavi and Diwan
(collection of poems) composed during this period are among the earliest available manuscripts
in Urdu language.[137] Nizam's reign saw many reforms in literary work, and introduction of
Urdu as a language of court, administration and education.[138] In 1824, a collection of Urdu
Ghazals (a specific poetic form) named Gulzar-e-Mahlaqa, penned by Mah Laqa Bai—the first
female poet in Urdu—was published in Hyderabad.[139] The Hyderabad Literary Festival, held
since 2010, is an annual event which showcases the city's literary and cultural aspects.[140]
Organisations engaged in research and development of literary works include Sahitya Akademi,
Urdu Academy, Telugu Academy, National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, The
Comparative Literature Association of India and Andhra Saraswata Parishad. The State Central
Library, Hyderabad, established in 1891, is the largest public library in the state.[141] The other
major libraries are the Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam, the British Library and the
Sundarayya Vignana Kendram.[142]

Music, performing arts and films

In princely Hyderabad, the nobles had a tradition of courtesan dance and poetry, which led to the
development of certain styles of court music and dance. Taramati of the early 16th century and
Mah Laqa Bai (18th century) are two courtesans who popularised Kathak dance. Besides western
and Indian popular music genres such as the filmi music, the residents of Hyderabad play city-
based Marfa Music especially during weddings, festivals and other celebratory events.[143] The
state government organises Golconda Music and Dance Festival, Taramati Music Festival, and
Premavathi Dance Festival.[139][144] Though not noted for theatre and drama,[145] the state
government promoted the art of theatre with multiple programmes and festivals.[146] The
Ravindra Bharati, Shilpakala Vedika and Lalithakala Thoranam are auditoria for theatre and
performing arts in the city. The Hyderabad International Convention Centre (HICC), also known
as HITEX, has become a well-known venue internationally.[147] Numaish is a popular annual
exhibition of local and national products.[148]

The city is home to the Telugu film industry, popularly known as "Tollywood";[149] as of 2012, it
is the second largest film center in India in number of films produced, after Bollywood.[150] Since
2005, films in local Hyderabadi dialect have gained popularity.[151] The city hosts the annual
International Children Film Festival and the Hyderabad International Film Festival.[152] In 2005,
the Guinness World Records declared Ramoji Film City as the world's largest film studio.[153]
Art and handicraft




18th century bidriware, displayed at the Musée du Louvre

The Golconda and Hyderabad styles are branches of the Deccani painting.[154] The Golconda
style that was developed during the 16th century is an insightful native style blending foreign
techniques, sharing similarity with neighbouring Vijayanagara paintings. Significant use of
luminous gold and white colours is generally found in Golconda style.[155] The Hyderabad style
of painting originated in the early 17th century under the Nizams. Highly influenced by Mughal
painting, this style makes use of bright colours, and mostly depicts regional landscape, culture,
costumes and jewellery.[154] A fine art metal handicraft of the region known as Bidri ware was
popularised in the 18th century. Bidri ware is a Geographical Indication (GI)-awarded craft of
India.[156][157] The Kalamkari, a handicraft producing hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile
is popular in the city.[158] Museums in Hyderabad include the AP State Archaeology Museum,
the Salar Jung Museum (housing "the world's largest one-man-collection"), the Nizam Museum,
the City Museum and the Birla Science Museum which contains a planetarium.[159]

Architecture

A distinct Indo-Islamic architecture style enriched with regional influences is reflected in the
city's buildings.[2][160] The Qutb Shahi architecture of the 15th century is manifest in colossal
arches found in Golconda fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar, Mecca Masjid and Charkaman—
the chief ingredients used in these constructions are granite and lime mortar. Later, from 17th
century, Asif Jahi architecture emerged. Structures such as the Osmania University, Osmania
General Hospital and High Court are designed and constructed in the styles of medieval and
Mughal architecture. The Nizams applied European styles in some of the constructions such as
Falaknuma and King Kothi Palaces.[161] Other historical sites include the Chowmahalla Palace,
the Purani Haveli, and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature.[156][162] Osman Ali Khan, the Nizam VII,
is called the maker of modern Hyderabad due to his patronage of architecture in the city.[156] In
2012, The government of India declared Hyderabad as the first "Best heritage city of India".[163]
Hyderabadi Biryani (on left), and other dishes

Cuisine
Main article: Hyderabadi cuisine

Hyderabadi cuisine became prominent with the Nizams.[164] It comprises a broad repertoire of
rice, wheat and meat dishes, and the skilled use of various spices.[165] The Hyderabadi Biryani
and Hyderabadi Haleem, with a blend of Mughlai and Arabic cuisine,[166] have become iconic
dishes of India.[167] Hyderabadi cuisine is highly influenced by Mughals and partially by
French,[164] Arabic, Turkish and Irani influences along with native Telugu and Marathwada
cuisines.[133][166] Other popular native dishes include Nihari, Chakna, Baghara baingan and in
desserts Qubani ka meetha, Double ka meetha and Kaddu Ki Kheer (a sweet porridge made with
sweet gourd).[133][168] Cuisines popular among expatriates and other residents are South Indian,
Italian, Mexican, Chinese and Continental.[168][169]

Media
Main article: Media in Hyderabad, India

Among the early newspapers in Hyderabad was The Deccan Times established in the 1780s.[170]
The major Telugu dailies published in Hyderabad are Eenadu, Sakshi and Andhra Jyothy, the
major English papers are The Times of India, The Hindu and The Deccan Chronicle,[171] and
Urdu papers include The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily and Etemaad. Multiple coffee table
magazines, professional magazines and research journals are regularly published there.[172] In
1919 the British cantonment of Secunderabad established the first Radio station in Hyderabad
State. Deccan Radio was the first local general radio station, going on air on 3 February
1935.[173] In 2000, radio stations were permitted to broadcast in FM,[174] with channels now
including All India Radio (AIR), Radio Mirchi, Radio City and Big FM.[175]

Television relay in Hyderabad was began in 1974 with the launch of Doordarshan (DD), the
Government of India's public service broadcaster.[176] DD transmits two free-to-air terrestrial
television channels and one satellite channel. Private satellite channels were started in July 1992,
with the launch of Star TV.[177] Satellite TV channels are accessible via cable subscription,
direct-broadcast satellite services or internet-based television.[174][178] In Hyderabad, the first dial-
up Internet access was started in the early 1990s, originally limited to computer software
development companies.[179] In 1995 public dial-up internet service was started and in 1998
private internet access service was initiated.[180]

Education
Main article: Education in Hyderabad, India

See also: List of institutions based in Hyderabad, India and List of Defense research centers in
Hyderabad, India




Osmania University, college of Arts

Schools in Hyderabad are affiliated to either CBSE, SSC[181] or ICSE, run by government or
private entities (local governing bodies, individuals, missionaries or other agencies). An
estimated two-thirds of students study at private schools.[182] Languages of instruction include
English, Hindi, Urdu[183] and Telugu. Schools follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing their
secondary education, students typically enroll in schools or junior colleges that have a higher
secondary facility. Admission to professional colleges in Hyderbad is through Engineering
Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test. The majority of colleges are affiliated with
either Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University or Osmania University.[184]

As of 2012, there were 13 universities located in Hyderabad, of which two are private
universities, two deemed universities, six state universities and three central universities. The
central universities in the city are the University of Hyderabad,[185] Maulana Azad National Urdu
University and English and Foreign Languages University.[186] The Osmania University
established in 1918 was the first university in Hyderabad. As of 2012, it is India's second-most
popular destination for international students.[187] The Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Open University,
established in 1982, is the first distance learning open university in India.[188]
Indian School of Business campus

Notable business and management schools in Hyderabad are the Indian School of Business,[189]
and the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India.[190] Institutes of national importance
include the Institute of Public Enterprise, the Administrative Staff College of India, and the
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy. Hyderabad is home to five major medical
schools—Osmania Medical College (established in 1846), Gandhi Medical College, Nizam's
Institute of Medical Sciences, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Shadan Institute Of Medical
Sciences,[191] and many affiliated teaching hospitals. The Government Nizamia Tibbi College,
established in 1810, is a unani medicine college.[192] The city is also a major centre for
biomedical, biotechnology and pharmaceutical studies and research;[193] the National Institute of
Pharmaceutical Education and Research is located here.[194] The International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and the Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University are
notable agricultural engineering institutes. The city is home to many of India's premier technical
and engineering schools, including the International Institute of Information Technology,
Hyderabad, the Indian Institute Of Technology (IIT-H), and the Birla Institute of Technology &
Science. The premier professional fashion designing institutions in the city are Raffles
Millennium International, NIFT Hyderabad and Wigan and Leigh College.

Sports
See also: List of stadiums in Hyderabad, India
Indian Air Force, HAL Dhruv at the 2007 Military World Games

Cricket and football (soccer) are the most popular sports.[195] The city has hosted national and
international sports events such as the 2002 National Games of India, the 2003 Afro-Asian
Games, the 2004 Hyderabad Open, the 2007 Military World Games, the 2009 BWF World
Championships and IBSF World Snooker Championship (2009). The Lal Bahadur Shastri
Stadium and the Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium host cricket matches;[196] the latter
serves as a home ground of Hyderabad Cricket Association. Hyderabad has been the venue of
multiple international cricket matches, including matches in 1987, 1996 and 2011 Cricket World
Cups. The Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex is a venue for field hockey, and the G.M.C.
Balayogi Stadium at Gachibowli is an athletics and football venue.[197]

The Hyderabad cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, a first-class cricket
tournament among India's states and cities. The Deccan Chargers, a franchise in the Indian
Premier League, won the 2009 Indian Premier League held in South Africa.[198] The city houses
many elite clubs formed by the Nizams and British, such as the Secunderabad Club, the Nizam
Club and the Hyderabad Race Club known for its horse racing,[199] especially the annual Deccan
derby.[200] The Andhra Pradesh Motor Sports Club organises popular events such as the Deccan
1/4 Mile Drag, TSD Rallies and 4x4 Off road.[201] The Hyderabad Golf Club is an eighteen-hole
golf course.[202] Notable sports persons of international stature from Hyderabad include cricketers
Ghulam Ahmed, M. L. Jaisimha, Mohammed Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Venkatapathy Raju,
Shivlal Yadav, Arshad Ayub, Noel David, football players Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed
Nayeemuddin, Shabbir Ali,[203] tennis player Sania Mirza,[204] badminton players S. M. Arif,
Pullela Gopichand, Saina Nehwal, Jwala Gutta, Chetan Anand, hockey players Syed Mohammad
Hadi, Mukesh Kumar and bodybuilder Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan.

Sister Cities
               Geographical
    City                             Nation       Reference
                 location

                                                  [205]
Brisbane    Queensland                Australia

                                                  [205]
Ipswich     Queensland                Australia

                                      United      [206]
Dubai       Dubai
                                Arab Emirates

                                                  [207]
Miyoshi     Hiroshima                 Japan

                                      United      [208]
Riverside   California
                                States
                                          United    [209]
Indianapolis Indiana
                                    States

                                          United    [210]
San Diego     California
                                    States



See also
       India portal

       Hyderabad portal



       List of million-plus cities in India
       List of people from Hyderabad


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       mobilization. University of Chicago Press. p. 6. ISBN 0-226-55571-2.
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Further reading
History
      Austin, Ian (1992). City of legends:the story of Hyderabad. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-84724-0.
      Law, John (2011). Modern Hyderabad (Deccan 1914). Newman Press. ISBN 978-1-4067-3816-2.
      Krishnan, Usha R (2002). Jewels of the Nizam. India Book House. ISBN 978-81-7508-306-6.
      Khalidi, Omar (1999). Romance of the Golconda diamonds. Mapin Publishing. ISBN 978-1-
       890206-10-9.
      Scott, Allan N.; Weld, Charles Richard (1862). Sketches in India: [photographic pictures] taken at
       Hyderabad and Secunderabad, in the Madras presidency. The University of Michigan. ISBN 978-
       1-144-61614-2.

Administration

      Kate, P.V. (1987). Marathwada Under the Nizams, 1724–1948. Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-
       7099-017-3.
      Lynton, Harriet Ronken; Rajan, Mohini (1974). The Days of the beloved. University of California
       Press. ISBN 0-520-02442-7.
      Pernau, Margrit (2000). The passing of patrimonialism: politics and political culture in
       Hyderabad,(1911–1948). Manohar Publication. ISBN 81-7304-362-0.
      Jayaram, R (1988). Administrative system under the Nizams. Ultra Publications. ISBN 81-900998-
       4-1.

Culture

      Leonard, Karen Isaksen (2007). Locating home: India's Hyderabadis abroad. Stanford University
       Press. ISBN 0-8047-5442-X.
      Yimene, Ababu Minda (2004). An African Indian community in Hyderabad: Siddi identity, its
       maintenance and change. Cuvillier Verlag. ISBN 3-86537-206-6.
      Ahmad, Akbar S. (July 1985). "Muslim society in South India: the case of Hyderabad". Journal of
       Muslim Minority Affairs (Routledge) 6 (2): 317–331. doi:10.1080/13602008508715945.
      Zebrowski, Mark (1983). Deccani painting. University of California Press. ISBN 0-85667-153-3.
      Naidu, Ratna (1990). Old Cities, New Predicament : A Study Of Hyderabad. SAGE Publications.
       ISBN 81-7036-202-4.

Architecture

      Bilgrami, Syed Ali Asgar (1927). Landmarks of the Deccan. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-
       206-0543-8.

Modern Hyderabad

      Khalidi, Omar (1988). Hyderabad after the fall. South Asia Books. ISBN 978-0-930811-02-0.
      Kobayashi-Hillary, Mark (2005). Outsourcing to India: the offshore advantage. Commonwealth
       Business council. ISBN 978-3-540-23943-7.
      Juluri, Vamsee (2003). Becoming a Global Audience (Intersections in Communications and
       Culture). Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 978-0-820455-79-2.


External links
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       Hyderabad, India at the Open Directory Project
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