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									Jacques Whitford Presentation
   •   Introduction to Odour
   •   Emissions Review (NPRI)
   •   Particulate Emissions
   •   Noise Assessment




             February 21, 2007
                     What is Odour?

• Odour is the sensation resulting from the stimulation of the
  olfactory organs
• An odorant is a substance capable of eliciting an olfactory
  response.
• People associate odours with past experiences and
  involuntarily assess the odour as likable, dislikable or
  indifferent (e.g. – in a study by Iowa State University,
  children younger than 5 rated sweat and feces odours as
  likable, but above that age as unlikable).
                          Odour Response

•   The way the human response to an odour is evaluated, depends on
    the particular sensory property that is being measured, including:
         • Intensity (the strength of the perceived odour sensation),
         • Detectability (the minimum concentration that produces an olfactory
           response or sensation),
         • Character (property that identifies an odour and differentiates it from another
           odour of equal intensity), and
         • Hedonic tone (property of an odour relating to its pleasantness or
           unpleasantness ).
•   The combined effect of these properties is related to the annoyance
    that may be caused by the odour.
• Human ability to perceive odour varies widely, as does
  individual responses to a specific odour.
               Odour Quantification
• Mixtures of compounds
  require dynamic olfactometry
  for assessment of odour level.
• This involves exposing a
  selected and controlled panel
  of observers to precise
  variations in the
  concentrations in a controlled
  sequence, to determine the
  point at which only half the
  panel can detect the odour.
• This point is called the odour
  threshold or one odour unit.
       Odour in the Environment
• VOC emissions are emitted from the stacks and are carried
  downwind.
• The plume dilutes via entrainment of ambient air as it is
  carried downwind.
• Residents downwind of the stacks are exposed to the diluted
  concentrations of the VOCs and may or may not detect the
  odour depending on the concentration and chemical.
Emissions Review (NPRI)
     National Pollutant Release Inventory
                    (NPRI)
Background
• Nation-wide, facility specific, publicly accessible inventory
• Inception in 1992.
• Collects information about: On-site releases and disposal, off-site
  transfers for disposal and recycling, pollution prevention.
• Substances to be reported has changed over the years.

Reporting Criteria Threshold Determination:
1. Employee threshold (Number of employee hours)
2. Activity based (Some activities are exempt from the employee
   threshold)
3. MPO (Manufacture, Process or Otherwise Use) Threshold:
   varies by substance
4. Release Threshold: varies by substance
5. Concentration Threshold: varies by substance
                                    Raywal NPRI Reporting
                                             NPRI Reporting Summary for Raywal

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Tonnes




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          0
                1994      1995      1996       1997        1998   1999          2000     2001          2002         2003      2004        2005
                                                                         Year
           Toluene                         VOCs                                        V O Cs ad d ed as a          Rep ortin g of X ylen e
                                                                                       P art 4 S u b stan ce f or   ch an g ed f rom m ixed
           Xylene (mixed isomers)          Xylene (all isomers)
                                                                                       NP RI rep ortin g in         isom ers to all isom ers
           Isopropyl Alcohol               Acetone                                     2002                         in 2003
           MEK
                  Breakdown of VOC Emissions for
                            Markham
Miscellaneous
   (General                                        Open Sources
  sovlent use,                                         1%
fuel marketing,
    printing,
     surface                                                Transportation
    coating)                                                    19%
      67%




                                                                                                        Raywal
                                                               Industrial                                                 Steelcase
                                                                                         Normac          21%
                                                                  5%                                                         2%
                                                                                         Kitchens
                                                                                                                                  A.T.I.
                                                                                            5%
                                                                               Emerson                                             5%
                                                              Fuel
                                                           Combustion           Electric
                                                              8%              (Unionville)
                                            Incineration                          0%
                                                 0%
                  VOCs Released in 2000 in Markham                            Emerson
                                                                               Electric
                                                                             (Markham)
                                                                                 6%

                                                                                 Descor
                                                                               Industries
                                                                                  3%

                                                                                                                                   Canac
                                                                                                                                  Kitchens
                                                                                                                                    58%

                                                                                             VOCs Released in 2002 in Markham by Industry
            Emissions - Summary

• Raywal emissions did not jump substantially in 2002 –
  NPRI reporting criteria changed resulting in more
  emissions being reported.
• Raywal emissions (total VOCs) have decreased
  slightly over the last three reporting years.
• Raywal was about 1% of total VOC emissions in
  Markham in 2000-2002 (an approximate estimate).
                Particulate Emissions
• PM emissions from wood cutting, sanding, etc are controlled by
  pick-up points through the facility and vented to a baghouse.
• The baghouse uses cloth filter bags to remove PM from the air
  stream. Baghouses typically have 99% or greater removal
  efficiencies.
• The exhaust from the baghouse is vented back into the building –
  no external PM emissions.
• In the spray booths, filters are used to removed paint droplets
  from overspray. These filters are typically about 95% efficient.
• If paint droplets pass through the filters, they typically deposit in
  the stack or on the roof – a good indicator of poorly performing
  spray booth filters is paint around the top of the stack. This is not
  happening at Raywal.
Raywal Noise Assessment
       Noise Mitigation Recommendations
Source         Description            Noise Control Options        Estimated Noise
  ID                                                               Reduction (dBA)
 S2      Baghouse main body         Further vibration isolation,      5-10 dBA
                                    vibration damping, pipe
                                    wrapping
 S3      Baghouse clean air inlet Silencer                             15 dBA
 S4      Overall baghouse         Further vibration isolation,        5-10 dBA
         filtration unit          vibration damping, pipe
                                  wrapping
 S9      Booths 1&2 booth motor Enclosure                              10 dBA
 S15     Baghouse air inlet motor Enclosure                            10 dBA

								
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