ICF Curriculum Workshop Nuclear Crisis on the Korean Peninsula

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					CIF Curriculum Workshop
       Nuclear Crisis
  on the Korean Peninsula


            South Korea
                           Mari Sudo
           Research Associate – Korean Peninsula
           Proliferation Research and Assessment
           Program
Outline

1. History of South Korea’s Nuclear Program and Its
   role in resolving the 1994 Nuclear Crisis on the
   Korean Peninsula
2. South Korea’s Nuclear Energy Development and Its
   Current Status
3. South Korea’s Concerns and Policies towards North
   Korea’s Nuclear Development
4. South Korea’s Role in Resolving the Nuclear Crisis
   on the Korean Peninsula
History of South Korea’s Nuclear
Program

   1953 – the Korea-US Security Treaty
   1970 – US troops withdrawal from
    Korea under the Nixon Doctrine
   1971 – President Park Chung Hee’s
    secret order to explore the
    possibility of developing an
    indigenous nuclear arsenal
   1972 – Negotiation with the French
    government on technology transfer
    for nuclear fuel reprocessing
   1975 – Stop nuclear development
    under the pressure of the US by
    signing the Nonproliferation Treaty
    (NPT)
   1977 – President Park’s official
    announcement that his country
    would abandon the pursuit of
    nuclear weapons
Nuclear Crisis and South Korea I

   The early 1990s – Increasing
    international suspicions about North
    Korea’s nuclear weapons program
   Nov. 1991 – President Roh Tae
    Woo’s announcement on the
    denuclearization of the Korean
    Peninsula
   Dec. 1991 – President Roh’s
    announcement on the nuclear-free
    Korean Peninsula
   Dec. 1991 – South and North Korea
    signed the Joint Declaration on the
    Denuclearization of the Korean
    Peninsula and the Basic Agreement
8 Nov. 1991,
Denuclearization of the Korean
Peninsula



 President Roh Tae Woo’s announcement;

 “South Korea will not manufacture,
 possess, store, deploy or use nuclear
 weapons.”
18 Dec. 1991,
Nuclear-Free Korean Peninsula



 President Roh Tae Woo’s announcement;

 “South Korea is free of nuclear weapons.”
31 Dec. 1991,
Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization
of the Korean Peninsula

    North and South Korea
    Promised;
    “Both sides will not test,
    manufacture, produce,
    receive, possess, store,
    deploy or use nuclear
    weapons.”
   Prohibition of possessing
    nuclear reprocessing and
    uranium enrichment facilities
   Search for a bilateral
    inspections regime
 Implementation of the
    declaration failed
Nuclear Crisis and South Korea II

   1992 – North Korea signed the IAEA safeguards
    agreement
   1993 – Nuclear Crisis (North Korea’s refusal to allow
    IAEA inspection of its waste sites)
   1994 – North Korea and the US signed the Agreed
    Framework
   1995 – Establishment of the Korean Energy
    Development Organization (KEDO)
   2000 – Inter-Korea Summit
   April 2003 – Three-Party Talks
   August 2003 – Six-party Talks
Korean Energy Development
Organization (KEDO)

   International Consortium to construct
    two light water reactors in Kumho-jigu,
    Shimpo, South Hamgyong Province
   Formed in March 1995 with executive
    board members; US, South Korea and
    Japan
   South Korea is responsible for 70% of the
    total cost of the LWR construction project
   After the six-party talks, continuation of
    the LWR construction under debate;
    Nov. 21: KEDO announcement of
    suspension of LWR project for one year
South Korea’s Nuclear Policy

Two Principles
1. Peaceful use of nuclear energy
2. Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula:
   the nation will not “manufacture, possess,
   store, deploy or use” nuclear weapons
Current Status of Nuclear Energy
Development

   4 research reactors
   4 HWRs and 12 LWRs in
    operation
   Nuclear power -- 30% of
    total energy consumption
   Concerns over potential use
    of South Korea’s advanced
    civilian nuclear technology
    in the field of nuclear
    weapons development
Three Objectives of South Korea’s
Non-nuclear Weapon Policy

1.   Participating in the international effort to
     prevent proliferation as a member of the
     international community
2.   Acquiring international guarantee for
     peaceful nuclear uses and deterring North
     Korea’s nuclear weapons program
3.   Establishing a foundation for peaceful
     reunification of the two Koreas
South Korea’s Policy toward
North Korea

“Engagement Policy (Sunshine Policy),” Launched
  by President Kim Dae Jung in 1997

Three principles of the policy;
   1. No tolerance for North Korea’s armed
      provocation
   2. An assertion that the South has no intention to
      undermine or absorb the North
   3. Cooperation and reconciliation with North Korea
      by pursuing dialogue
South Korea’s Policy towards North
Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development


  South Korea’s two priorities in its policy
  towards the North’s nuclear development

  1.   Deterrence of Pyongyang’s nuclear weapons
       development
  2.   Prevention of war on the Korean Peninsula
South Korea’s Concerns over North Korea’s
Nuclear Development and Three Goals for an
Ultimate Resolution

 Concerns as a member of regional and
 international community
1.   Nuclear weapons transfers to third countries
2.   Arms race and accompanied nuclear proliferation in
     the region and the world

Three goals for an ultimate resolution
1.   Persuading the North to go back to the NPT regime
2.   Having North Korea accept IAEA inspections
3.   Implementing the Joint Declaration on the
     Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula
Effort for Dialogue Through inter-
Korean and international channels

   June 2002 -- The Inter-Korea
    Summit
   11 rounds of North-South
    Ministerial Talks since the
    Summit

   April 2003 -- The Three-Party
    Talks (ROK didn’t participate)
   August 2003 -- The Six-Party
    Talks
   17-19 Dec. 2003 -- The 2nd Six-
    Party Talks Scheduled
South Korea’s Role in Resolving
the Nuclear Crisis

   Prompt and accurate information collection on North Korea’s
    nuclear activities
   Persistent dialogue through inter-Korean and international
    channels
   Trust-building between the two Koreas
   Closer cooperation with other regional players
   Personnel exchanges and cooperation in the field of economic,
    cultural and educational programs with North Korea

				
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posted:10/5/2012
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