Food and Nutrition by X9RE37qi


									                       Food and Nutrition
• Hunger – the physical sensation
• Food insecurity – recurring and involuntary lack of access
  to food
• Severe food insecurity – involuntarily cutting back on food
  or skipping meals due to inadequate resources
                     Food Security in US
• Over 9 million people in US suffer involuntary hunger at
  some point in year.
• According to U.S. government estimates, 38.2 million
  Americans live in hungry or “food insecure” households.
• Of these, about 1/3 are children, which represents nearly
  20% of all children

                Food Security in Missouri
• 12% of people in households (approximately 293,109 Missourians)
  live in households struggling with hunger or food insecurity from.
• Among the 12.3 percent of Missouri households considered to be
  food insecure, 4.4 percent (approximately 104,852 Missourians)
  were living in households that were considered to have “very low
  food security.”
• USDA 2005-06 annual report
            What does food insecurity mean?
                  Poverty & Obesity
  Americans are increasingly overweight and obesity across all
  income levels, but are highest for low income individuals. How can
  obesity occur with food insecurity?
                     Poverty Risks for Obesity
• Availability and cost of healthful foods in low income neighborhoods
• Fewer safe places to play or be physically active
• Underfunded school districts in poorer neighborhoods – cut physical education
  programs, increase income through vending machines
• Poverty is stressful and may lead to depression, both of which are associated
  with increased obesity
• Feast or famine cycle may increase risks of obesity

      Programs to Address Food & Nutrition
•   Commodity Foods Program
•   TEFAP – Emergency Food Assistance Program
•   Food Stamp Nutrition Education
•   WIC
•   School Lunch Program
•   Child & Adult Care Feeding Program
•   Senior Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program
•   And others…

     The Emergency Food Assistance Program
               Emergency Food Providers
• The America's Second Harvest Network of over 200 food banks
  and food rescue organizations distributed nearly 2 billions pounds
  of food and grocery products in 2005.
                           Food Bank Limits
• Increasing demand
• Decreased supply
• Manufacturers reduce their waste;
• Retailers have improved inventory systems and more often sell
  their surplus
• Agricultural economy is strong, reducing suplus available.
• Federal emergency funding has not increased since 2002
    Commodity Supplemental Food Program (CSFP)
• Provides commodity food packages
• Originally a mother & infant program, today 90% of recipients are
  elders with income at or below 130% of poverty.
• State agencies store the food and distribute it to public and
  nonprofit private local agencies for further distribution to low-
  income clients.
• Program at risk of being cut due to rising food costs, decreases in
  bonus commodity purchases, and decreased discretionary funding.
                           Food Stamps
                      (Electronic Benefits Transfer Cards)
• Federal Program 7 USC § 2011
   – Mostly federal funding (100% federal funding of food stamp benefits)
   – States pay for 50% of administrative costs
• States administer the program
   – See RS Mo § 205.960 - 964
   – Have some limited options in additional program choices
• In FY 2005, approximately 25.7 million individuals participated in
  the Food Stamp Program.
                  Who gets food stamps?
• Over half of all food stamp recipients are children
• Another quarter are elderly or disabled persons.
• Of the remainder, close to half are working or participating in the
  Food Stamp Employment and Training program or are subject to
  other program work requirements (e.g., TANF).
• Of the 5% of all food stamp recipients neither working nor subject
  to a work requirement, half are caring for a young child.
• Nationally, only 65% of those eligible for food stamps participate in
  the program.
• 796,350 persons each month
   – about 13.7% of people in Missouri
   – An increase of 88% since 2000
• On average, 86 cents per person per meal
• $740.1 million in food stamps spent in Missouri in 2006, generating
  an estimated 1.36 billion in economic activity and creating an
  estimated 4,488 farm jobs.
• Missouri has a 95% participation rate and an error rate of 2.59%
• Unusual program because of broad eligibility
• Two types of eligibility:
   – Income eligibility
   – Categorical eligibility
                        Income Eligibility
• Income based on “household” (7 USC § 2014)
   – Persons living alone or groups who purchase and prepare meals together
   – More than one household can live together
    – Parents and minor children / Husband & Wife must be a household
• Monthly income
    – Must meet both the gross and net income tests
    – Gross income up to 130 percent of poverty line; Net income at poverty line
                       Income Amounts
                    Deductions from Income
• Standard ($134 – more for larger households)
• Earned income – 20% of earned income (average $171)
• Dependent care – up to $200 for kids < 2 and $175 for other kids if
  necessary to work/train
• Medical care for elders & disabled (average about $140 each)
• Child support payments
                   Excess shelter deduction
• Excess shelter costs (up to $417 - average $254)
• Formula:
    –   Determine adjusted income (income – other deductions)
    –   Determine half of adjusted income
    –   Determine if shelter costs are more than half of adjusted income
    –   Subtract excess amount, but not more than the limit, from adjusted income
                        Assets (Resources)
• $2,000 in resources, such as a bank account. ($3,000 for
  aged or disabled)
• Transfer for purpose of qualification disqualifies for one
                       Excluded Resources
•   Home and lot; personal property/household goods;
•   Life insurance; non-liquid assets
•   Work tools
•   Resources of people who receive SSI or TANF
• State rules vary
• Don’t count as assets if they are needed for work or you
  live in them
• 1 per adult or working teen is exempt
• Exempt amount capped by FMV of $4,650
                  Categorical Eligibility
• TANF & SSI are automatic eligible
• Because these individuals have already been determined
  to have low income and assets
                Sliding scale of benefits
• “Allotments” vary by size of household
  – More income, less benefits
  – Maximum for a family of four is $506
  – Average benefit is $92 per person per month
             Maximum Allotments
         Formula to determine allotments
• The net monthly income of the household is multiplied by .3, and
  the result is subtracted from the maximum allotment for the
  household size to find the household's allotment.
• Allotments apply for the “Certification period” (as short as one
  month to as long as two years)
• Must reapply within 1-2 months of end of certification period
• Unemployed - if able-bodied adult without dependents (ABAWDs)
  who has received benefits for 3 months in the past 36 months while
• Previously cut off (violated rules/ quit job)
• Institutionalized (hospital, jail, certain others)
• On strike
• Drug felon
• Undocumented immigrant
• Certain legal immigrants
               Emergency Food Stamps
  – Available in 5 days if sudden change in family situation –
  – In 2006, FNS provided $740 million in disaster food stamp
                       Do you qualify?
• Full-time law student with three children, ages 5, 7, and 9
• Work average of 25 hours a week
•   $1,014 earned income
•   $240      child support paid
•   $1,254
•   Child care costs: $70 a month (aftercare)
•   Shelter costs : $575 a month (includes utilities)
                            Legal Issues
• Deterrence and diversion upon application
    – Was my client permitted to file an application?
    – Was my client “encouraged” to file?
    – Was my client required to give information beyond the
    – Did the agency respond promptly?
• Failure to screen applicants for expedited food stamps
                       Legal Issues, cont.
• Denial of application for “failure to verify eligibility”
    – Did my client receive a notice listing verification requirements?
    – Did my client refuse to cooperate?
• Inaccessibility
    – Can my client obtain an application?
    – Was my client notified of the opportunity of a phone interview?
                       Legal Issues, cont.
• Overpayments
    – Was my client sent a legally sufficient notice of overpayment?
    – Does the claim include amounts the agency cannot recoup?
    – Is the amount of the overpayment correct?
    – Did the agency wait too long to state the claim?
    – Was my client advised of the right to request waiver for inability
      to pay?
                  School Based Programs
• Lunch and Breakfast
• Federal money for public and private school free or reduced price meals for
  low income children
• free meals if below 130% of poverty guidelines
• reduced cost meals if below 185% of poverty guidelines
• Backpack program
• Summer meals program
               WIC Program
• Special Supplemental Nutrition Program
  for Women, Infants and Children
•   Federally funded
•   Administered by the States (state and local health agencies)
•   Provides food assistance and related services
•   (medical screening & nutritional education) &
•    WIC vouchers that can be redeemed for specific foods (milk,
    cheese, eggs, infant formula, cereals, fruit and vegetable juices)
                           WIC Eligibility
• low income pregnant women and children under 5
• low income is 185% of poverty level
                      Current Legislation
• 2007 Reauthorization of Farm Bill
• House and Senate versions are in committee
• Both versions
    – increase and index food stamp minimum $10 benefits and standard
      deductions for households under three persons
    – Senate version increases asset limit to $3500 before indexing
• President has threatened veto

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