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Revolutionary War Notes A Country Divided 2/5th - Patriots Mostly in New England and VA A Country Divided 1/5th- Loyalits= Tories Mostly in NY and South Colonies Divided Native Americans African Americans Have to decide which side will treat them best if they win Americans- Disadvantages Had to start Army/Navy from Scratch No formal government to make decisions Scarce supplies: money, clothing, food, guns, ammo Americans-Advantages Better leadership-Washington “Home Field Advantage” Tactics/Strategy-guerilla warfare Foreign Aid- France as an ally Motivated to save own land British Disadvantages Far away from Britain, sending orders, getting news takes 2 months Fought using old strategies-unwilling to change Has a worldwide empire to worry about British Advantages Best Army and Navy in the world Also 30,000 hired mercenaries Controlled major cities (NY and Boston) Richest nation in the world Strong and organized government Early Strategies-American Score early victories to show they were for real Drum up support-gain more patriots Gain foreign allies-France, Spain Early Strategies-British Occupy major coastal cities-take advantage of better Navy Drum up Loyalist support Crush the Continental Army before it has a chance to gain momentum War in the North Patriots drive British from Boston, NYC Britain gets serious about war, sends huge amount of troops, ships, supplies Britain kicks patriots out of NYC Begins a year of defeats for Washington and Continentals Trenton Dec. 25, 1776 Continentals are in bad shape after many losses, casualties, few supplies Most soldiers enlistments ending If Washington does not take immediate action the revolution is likely over Trenton Washington’s bold plan- cross Delaware River on Christmas night Surprise attack on German Hessians Result: 30 Hessians killed, 918 Captured Result: Only 4 Colonists killed Result: Many guns, ammo captured Result: Major morale boost for Washington and Continental Army Princeton Jan. 3, 1777 Washington builds on success, attacks 1200 British and captures or kills 1/3 Only 40 Continental casualties 3 Reasons Trenton and Princeton were major victories 1. Boosted Patriot morale 2. Britain left New Jersey- remains in Patriot hands the rest of the war 3. Continental Army gains much needed supplies and weapons Saratoga Oct. 17, 1777 Part of British Army went to Canada to attack from the North They were to meet up with main British Army in NYC The Continentals defeated the British in several battles around Saratoga Saratoga British surrendered 5800 men, supplies Is a major turning point in war towards a Patriot victory France sees success, becomes an ally, sending troops and $$ Later Spain becomes ally also Foreign Officers Arrive Marquis de Lafayette – french officer become Washington’s Aide. Used his own money to provide warm clothes for his men. Persuaded France to send 6,000 troops German Baron Von Stueben – Trains the Continental Army at Valley Forge. Turns Army into a stronger fighting machine. Valley Forge In late 1777, British force Continentals out of Philadelphia They set up a winter camp at Valley Forge, PA Awful conditions- few supplies, food, improper clothing for winter 1/4 died from starvation, cold, disease American Armed Forces Continental Army Inexperienced 1 year enlistment Later for whole war 231,771 total Militia 164,087 Total 3,6,9 month enlistment close to home Designed to protect local resources African Americans Washington, Continental Congress opposed enlistment 5,000 troops Women Martha Washington Molly Pitcher- Mary Hays Usually had to fight in disguise Spies Worked for both sides Often switched sides Desertions Common- 18.2% of all troops Reasons: Homesick Money Starvation Punishment Uniforms- Beginning Farm clothes Buckskins Boots/shoes scarce Uniforms-Officers/Regulars Weapons-smoothbore muskets Flintlock firing mechanism Muskets- range of 100 yards Bullets- poured from hot lead Cannons- inaccurate, heavy, usually captured, tendency to explode Rations Scarce Beef Pork Salt Fish Bread Rice Beans Milk Army Pay Washington- $500/month Major Generals- $162/month Privates- $6.67/month Often didn’t arrive on time or sometimes at all- led to mutinies Medical Care Individual doctors-soldiers paid Army Hospital Lacked: medicine, beds, blankets American Navy Built from scratch- few in numbers Bounties- 1/2 of profits from British warships Helped greatly when France and Spain join the fight Privateers A privately owned ship that a wartime government gives permission to attack an enemy’s merchant ships 1,000 in Revolutionary war Captured 606 British ships Claimed $18,000,000 in goods Accomplished most American victories at sea Taking the War to England Privateer John Paul Jones sails along the British coast attacking ships. “I have not yet begun to fight”, Bonhomme Richard v Serapis. British Armed Forces Organization Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery Grenadiers, Light Artillery Discipline Severe Recruiting Problems Weapons Tower musket 3 shots a minute Inaccurate Bayonets Supplies Knapsack Clothing Blanket Provisions for 4 days Share of Tent 60 rounds of gunpowder and bullets Rations Food from Britain Inferior to Patriots Delayed, slow deliveries Often raided farms, homes to get food and live off of the land Supported by loyalists Navy Controlled seas Kept most American ports closed Hard to recruit experienced sailors War on Frontier George Rogers Clark- 24 yr old Travels through PA, OH, IN, IL Recruits soldiers along the way Captures British forts at Kaskaskea, Vincennes Gave a huge amount of land to the Americans War in the South- W. vs. T. Whigs: loyal to the Continental Congress Tories: loyal to England- many in the South Much violence between W. and T. in the South British strategy- move war to the South where there were more loyalists, slaves (Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation), tire out Patriots British Army was successful- captured Savannah and Charlestown Camden- S.C. 1780- Worst American Defeat of war British General Cornwallis defeats Patriot General Gates British drew Patriots into a European style battle 1,000 Patriots killed 1,000 Captured Swamp Fox- Altered Strategy Francis Marion- led a small band patriots on horseback Used guerrilla tactics Cut British supply lines, communications Nathaniel Greene replaces Gates Americans lead British on chase all through South, wasting British time and money Final Battle Royal- Yorktown Oct. 19, 1781 Cornwallis sets up a base on a peninsula at Yorktown, VA Patriots+French surround British by land and sea- begin massive siege Cornwallis surrenders 8,000 British troops- war effectively over See animation from classzone.com Casualties Inaccurate records 25,000 Patriots/10,000 British killed 6000+ wounded Does not count those dying from disease, starvation, freezing Financing the War Huge problem for Americans No money in treasury No authority to tax America left deeply in debt after war- $27 million Treaty of Paris- 1783 Britain acknowledges American independence Boundaries: W. to Mississippi, N. to Canada, S. to Florida Each side repays any war debts British return captured slaves-reality Fate of Loyalists Approx. 80,000 left America 4,000 African Americans went to Canada Many lost land, money, property Ch. 7 Sec. 2 Reading Quiz 1. In 1778 and 1779, the Patriots signed a treaty of Alliance with what two countries? 2. Name one hardship endured at Valley Forge. 3. What is a bayonet? 4. George Rogers Clark led the Patriots fighting in what region of the colonies? 5. Describe the contributions of John Paul Jones to the Patriot cause. Extra Credit: What happened on New Year’s Day 1778 at Valley Forge?
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