Revolutionary War Notes - PowerPoint by OAgU85U

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									Revolutionary War Notes
A Country Divided
 2/5th - Patriots
 Mostly in New
  England and VA
A Country Divided
 1/5th-
  Loyalits=
  Tories
 Mostly in
  NY and
  South
Colonies Divided
 Native
  Americans
 African
  Americans
 Have to decide
  which side will
  treat them best if
  they win
Americans- Disadvantages
 Had to start Army/Navy from Scratch
 No formal government to make decisions
 Scarce supplies: money, clothing, food,
  guns, ammo
Americans-Advantages
 Better leadership-Washington
 “Home Field Advantage”
 Tactics/Strategy-guerilla warfare
 Foreign Aid- France as an ally
 Motivated to save own land
British Disadvantages
 Far away from Britain, sending orders,
  getting news takes 2 months
 Fought using old strategies-unwilling to
  change
 Has a worldwide empire to worry about
British Advantages
 Best Army and Navy in the world
 Also 30,000 hired mercenaries
 Controlled major cities (NY and Boston)
 Richest nation in the world
 Strong and organized government
Early Strategies-American
 Score early victories to show they were
  for real
 Drum up support-gain more patriots
 Gain foreign allies-France, Spain
Early Strategies-British
 Occupy major coastal cities-take
  advantage of better Navy
 Drum up Loyalist support
 Crush the Continental Army before it has
  a chance to gain momentum
War in the North
 Patriots drive British from Boston, NYC
 Britain gets serious about war, sends
  huge amount of troops, ships, supplies
 Britain kicks patriots out of NYC
 Begins a year of defeats for Washington
  and Continentals
Trenton
 Dec. 25, 1776
 Continentals are in bad shape after many
  losses, casualties, few supplies
 Most soldiers enlistments ending
 If Washington does not take immediate
  action the revolution is likely over
Trenton
 Washington’s bold plan- cross Delaware
  River on Christmas night
 Surprise attack on German Hessians
 Result: 30 Hessians killed, 918 Captured
 Result: Only 4 Colonists killed
 Result: Many guns, ammo captured
 Result: Major morale boost for
  Washington and Continental Army
Princeton
 Jan. 3, 1777
 Washington builds on success, attacks
  1200 British and captures or kills 1/3
 Only 40 Continental casualties
3 Reasons Trenton and
Princeton were major victories
 1. Boosted Patriot morale
 2. Britain left New Jersey- remains in
  Patriot hands the rest of the war
 3. Continental Army gains much needed
  supplies and weapons
Saratoga
 Oct. 17, 1777
 Part of British Army went to Canada to
  attack from the North
 They were to meet up with main British
  Army in NYC
 The Continentals defeated the British in
  several battles around Saratoga
Saratoga
 British surrendered 5800 men, supplies
 Is a major turning point in war towards a
  Patriot victory
 France sees success, becomes an ally,
  sending troops and $$
 Later Spain becomes ally also
Foreign Officers Arrive
 Marquis de Lafayette – french officer
  become Washington’s Aide. Used his
  own money to provide warm clothes for
  his men.
 Persuaded France to send 6,000 troops
 German Baron Von Stueben – Trains the
  Continental Army at Valley Forge. Turns
  Army into a stronger fighting machine.
Valley Forge
 In late 1777, British force Continentals out
  of Philadelphia
 They set up a winter camp at Valley
  Forge, PA
 Awful conditions- few supplies, food,
  improper clothing for winter
 1/4 died from starvation, cold, disease
American Armed Forces
   Continental Army
     Inexperienced
     1 year enlistment

     Later for whole war

     231,771 total
Militia
164,087 Total
3,6,9 month enlistment close to home
Designed to protect local resources
African Americans
 Washington,
  Continental
  Congress
  opposed
  enlistment
 5,000 troops
Women
 Martha
  Washington
 Molly Pitcher-
  Mary Hays
 Usually had to
  fight in
  disguise
Spies
 Worked for both sides
 Often switched sides
Desertions
 Common- 18.2% of all troops
 Reasons:
     Homesick
     Money

     Starvation

     Punishment
Uniforms- Beginning
 Farm clothes
 Buckskins
 Boots/shoes
  scarce
Uniforms-Officers/Regulars
Weapons-smoothbore muskets
Flintlock firing mechanism
Muskets- range of 100 yards
Bullets- poured from hot lead
Cannons- inaccurate, heavy, usually
captured, tendency to explode
Rations
   Scarce
     Beef
     Pork

     Salt Fish

     Bread

     Rice

     Beans

     Milk
Army Pay
 Washington- $500/month
 Major Generals- $162/month
 Privates- $6.67/month
 Often didn’t arrive on time or sometimes
  at all- led to mutinies
Medical Care
 Individual doctors-soldiers paid
 Army Hospital
 Lacked: medicine,
  beds, blankets
American Navy
 Built from scratch- few in numbers
 Bounties- 1/2 of profits from British
  warships
 Helped greatly when France and Spain
  join the fight
Privateers
 A privately owned ship that a wartime
  government gives permission to attack an
  enemy’s merchant ships
 1,000 in Revolutionary war
 Captured 606 British ships
 Claimed $18,000,000 in goods
 Accomplished most American victories at
  sea
Taking the War to England
 Privateer John
  Paul Jones sails
  along the British
  coast attacking
  ships.
 “I have not yet
  begun to fight”,
  Bonhomme
  Richard v Serapis.
British Armed Forces
   Organization
       Infantry, Cavalry,
        Artillery
       Grenadiers, Light
        Artillery
       Discipline Severe
       Recruiting
        Problems
Weapons
 Tower musket
 3 shots a minute
 Inaccurate
 Bayonets
Supplies
   Knapsack
     Clothing
     Blanket

     Provisions for 4 days

     Share of Tent

     60 rounds of gunpowder and bullets
Rations
 Food from Britain
 Inferior to Patriots
 Delayed, slow deliveries
 Often raided farms, homes to get food
  and live off of the land
 Supported by loyalists
Navy
 Controlled seas
 Kept most American ports closed
 Hard to recruit experienced sailors
War on Frontier
   George Rogers Clark-
    24 yr old
   Travels through PA, OH,
    IN, IL
   Recruits soldiers along
    the way
   Captures British forts at
    Kaskaskea, Vincennes
   Gave a huge amount of
    land to the Americans
War in the South- W. vs. T.
   Whigs: loyal to the Continental Congress
   Tories: loyal to England- many in the South
   Much violence between W. and T. in the South
   British strategy- move war to the South where
    there were more loyalists, slaves (Lord
    Dunmore’s Proclamation), tire out Patriots
   British Army was successful- captured
    Savannah and Charlestown
Camden- S.C.
   1780- Worst American
    Defeat of war
   British General
    Cornwallis defeats
    Patriot General Gates
   British drew Patriots
    into a European style
    battle
   1,000 Patriots killed
   1,000 Captured
    Swamp Fox- Altered Strategy
   Francis Marion- led a
    small band patriots on
    horseback
   Used guerrilla tactics
   Cut British supply lines,
    communications
   Nathaniel Greene
    replaces Gates
   Americans lead British
    on chase all through
    South, wasting British
    time and money
Final Battle Royal- Yorktown
 Oct. 19, 1781
 Cornwallis sets up a base on a peninsula
  at Yorktown, VA
 Patriots+French surround British by land
  and sea- begin massive siege
 Cornwallis surrenders 8,000 British
  troops- war effectively over
 See animation from classzone.com
Casualties
 Inaccurate records
 25,000 Patriots/10,000 British killed
 6000+ wounded
 Does not count those dying from disease,
  starvation, freezing
Financing the War
 Huge problem for Americans
 No money in treasury
 No authority to tax
 America left deeply in debt after war-
 $27 million
Treaty of Paris- 1783
 Britain acknowledges American
  independence
 Boundaries: W. to Mississippi, N. to
  Canada, S. to Florida
 Each side repays any war debts
 British return captured slaves-reality
Fate of Loyalists
 Approx. 80,000 left America
 4,000 African Americans went to Canada
 Many lost land, money, property
Ch. 7 Sec. 2 Reading Quiz
   1. In 1778 and 1779, the Patriots signed a
    treaty of Alliance with what two countries?
   2. Name one hardship endured at Valley Forge.
   3. What is a bayonet?
   4. George Rogers Clark led the Patriots fighting
    in what region of the colonies?
   5. Describe the contributions of John Paul
    Jones to the Patriot cause.
   Extra Credit: What happened on New Year’s
    Day 1778 at Valley Forge?

								
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