Teacher Principal Effectiveness Legislative Committee

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					 Teacher & Principal 
Legislative Committee
     2012 Annual Conference
        April 20-22, 2012

  National School Boards Association

                     72nd Annual Conference
                       Sunday,      21,
                       Sunday April 21 2012

     Lucy Gettman, Director, Federal Programs, NSBA

      Shakera Walker, Teaching Ambassador Fellow,
              U.S. Department of Education

     Welcome & Introductions
     News from NSBA:
        Legislative Update
        Center for Public Education: A Principal Perspective
        Guiding Principles for Teacher Incentive Compensation
     News from USDE:
       Our Future, Our Teachers
     Discussion/News from you

Senate HELP Committee Bill
Title II - Supporting Excellent Teachers and Principals

•   States' set-aside funds must be used to assist LEAs in
    recruiting, preparing, placing, developing and retaining
    highly qualified teachers for high need schools and low-
    performing schools.

•   States must also set aside at least 2% of their funds for
    professional development for principals.

•   States may use funds to establish teacher evaluation

•   LEAs must achieve equitable distribution of high quality

                                                                1          1

        Senate HELPC BillR (cont.)I T Y
                T E A H E   Q U A L               A N D   D I S T R I B U T I O N

        Title II - Supporting Excellent Teachers and Principals

    •    LEAs must conduct a needs assessment in order to receive Title II
         funds regarding the number of properly licensed teachers, linking
         them to the teacher preparation program.

    •    Competitive grants funds are available for Teacher Pathways (for
         partnerships of LEAs and others) to prepare, recruit, train, place
         and support teachers in high-need schools.

    •    Other competitive grants include the: 1) Teacher Incentive Fund
         for performance-based teacher compensation and the 2)
         Principal Recruitment and Training Program for partnerships of
         LEAs and others to establish and implement principal residency,
         mentoring and training in eligible schools.

    House Bill    T E A C H E R   Q U A L I T Y   A N D   D I S T R I B U T I O N

    Title II - Encouraging Innovation and Effective Teachers Act
•       Eliminates Highly Qualified Teacher requirements

•       Shifts the emphasis in the Title II formula grant program from
        p o ess o a deve op e ( NC ) o es ab s g eac e
        professional development (In NCLB) to establishing teacher
        evaluation systems.

•       The formula itself is changed, based on the population of 5-17
        years olds and the population of those children in poverty.

•       Competitive grants in Part B may be used for a variety of

    House Bill    T E A C H E R   Q U A L I T Y   A N D   D I S T R I B U T I O N

    Title II - Encouraging Innovation and Effective Teachers Act
•       Eliminates Highly Qualified Teacher requirements

•       Shifts the emphasis in the Title II formula grant program from
        p o ess o a deve op e ( NC ) o es ab s g eac e
        professional development (In NCLB) to establishing teacher
        evaluation systems.

•       The formula itself is changed, based on the population of 5-17
        years olds and the population of those children in poverty.

•       Competitive grants in Part B may be used for a variety of

                                                                                    2          2

 Lucy Gettman, Director, Federal Programs

 Shakera Walker, Teaching Ambassador Fellow

                                              3          3
                 ISSUE BRIEF
Research indicates no other school-related factor has a greater impact on student achievement than the quality
and effectiveness of the student’s teacher. Further, research also points to school leadership as having the
second highest impact on improving the learning environment. School districts nationwide face challenges
involving teacher and principal recruitment, retention, and effectiveness, particularly in high-need subjects
and hard-to-staff schools. The pending reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
(ESEA) and Administration initiatives such as Race to the Top, the Teacher Incentive Fund and School
Improvement Grants have introduced substantive reform options into the lexicon of teacher and leader
preparation, credentialing, compensation and evaluation. These include 1) using multiple measures of
effectiveness, including student achievement, 2) improving and aligning teacher preparation programs with K-
12 systems, 3) aligning teacher and leader effectiveness across a p-12 continuum, and 4) implementing
innovations to meet the needs in high-need subjects and schools.

Recent Congressional and Administration Action:
ESEA reauthorization - Both the House and Senate Committee-passed bills to reauthorize the ESEA
include provisions to improve teacher and principal effectiveness. For example, both bills contain provisions
for teacher evaluation systems that use multiple measures; including student achievement (teacher evaluation
systems are optional for states in the Senate bill, mandatory in the House bill). Both bills have provisions for
alternative certification and licensure programs for teachers and principals, as well as other preparation,
recruitment, retention, and compensation reforms. Both bills authorize partnership grants between school
districts, higher education and non-profit organizations to develop evidence-based reforms. Overall, the
House bill delegates more flexibility to states and school districts, although restrictive funding provisions in
the House bill could hamper implementation. The Senate bill contains a costly requirement that LEAs
achieve equitable distribution of high quality teachers (comparability).

Waivers – While the ESEA reauthorization is under consideration by Congress, the U.S. Department of
Education is offering waivers to grant states relief from some mandates in No Child Left Behind. Teacher
quality is one of the areas that states must address in their waiver requests. States must be prepared to adopt
guidelines for teacher evaluation and school districts must customize and apply them locally.

RESPECT - The Department has launched a project called RESPECT, which stands for Recognizing
Educational Success, Professional Excellence, and Collaborative Teaching. The goal is to work with teachers,
school and district leaders, teachers’ associations and unions, and state and national education organizations
to spark a dialogue that results in strong policy and a sustainable transformation of the teaching profession.
The President’s FY 2013 budget proposed a new $5 billion grant program to support states and districts that
commit to pursuing bold reforms at every stage of the teaching profession. Under this program, funds would
be awarded competitively to states with participating districts, and, in non-participating states, to consortia of
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   National School Boards Association  1680 Duke Street  Alexandria, Virginia 22314-3493  (703) 838-6722  Fax: (703) 548-5613  http//

Teacher preparation – The Department also announced an initiative to improve teacher preparation by
rewarding effective programs and improving the quality of colleges of education. Linking student
achievement back to the teachers’ preparation program is a component of the initiative, as is a new
Presidential Teaching Scholarship program to fund scholarships for future educators to teach high-need
subjects or fields, and teach for at least three years in high-need schools.

Hiring and staffing decisions, as well as professional development programs, are the responsibility of local
school districts. Therefore, personnel decisions, including teacher and principal recruitment, retention,
compensation and evaluation, are local responsibilities carried out in the context of collective bargaining and
other local circumstances.

NSBA urges the 112th Congress and the Administration to provide funding for research and implementation
that supports a broad range of locally developed strategies to improve teacher and principal effectiveness to
increase student achievement through: professional development, fair and evidence-based evaluation systems,
alternative certification and credentialing programs, and other reforms, including:
        Provide incentives to states and districts to help recruit, retain and reward effective teachers and
        principals in schools that most need them, and for subjects with shortages (e.g. math, science, foreign
        languages, special education). Incentives should include support for locally-designed performance pay
        programs. Recruitment and retention incentives and funding (e.g. Title II of ESEA) should cover a
        portfolio of spending options for districts to reflect unique local conditions;
        Invest in professional development initiatives to enable educators to effectively teach 21st century
        skills, including the use of technology to transform learning;
        Fund, facilitate and disseminate quality research, best practices and innovations on effective teaching
        and school leadership; and,
        Assist in broadening the pool of new and effective teacher candidates by supporting programs that
        offer alternative routes to certification that can help increase the number of minority teachers, as well
        as mid-career professionals. All teacher preparation programs should collaborate with states and local
        districts to meet their needs, and be held accountable for the quality and preparation of their
        program’s graduates.
        Expand federal support focused on effective school leadership, through partnerships with universities
        and promotion of research-based programs.

Finally, Congress and the Administration should refrain from creating state and local mandates, such as:
         Establishing new set-asides of federal funding streams, given stagnant and shrinking federal funds.
         Mandating certain reforms as a condition of receiving Title II or other federal formula funds, such as
         new academic standards, needs assessments or evaluations systems, or mandating professional
         development for personnel outside K-12 education.
         Mandating specific criterion, credentialing, qualifications and other requirements for teacher and
         leader evaluation systems.

NSBA believes the federal government should play a limited, but not unimportant, role by assisting states and
local school districts in their teacher and principal recruitment, retention and professional development
efforts through targeted incentives and fewer federal restrictions.

For additional information, please contact Lucy Gettman, director of federal programs, at the National School Boards
Association, at 703-838-6763, by e-mail,
                  Guiding Principles for Teacher Incentive Compensation Plans
                          for State and Local Leaders of AASA, AFT, NEA, and NSBA

                                                   February 2011

     The principles outlined in this document have been developed jointly by the American Association of School
  Administrators (AASA), the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), the National Education Association (NEA)
  and the National School Boards Association (NSBA). The principles were designed to offer guidance to our local
   leaders and members if they choose to participate in the U.S. Department of Education Teacher Incentive Fund
  (TIF) grant program, which requires incentive compensation plans. Just as these principles have been developed
   jointly, we strongly believe that TIF incentive compensation plans—in order to be successful and sustainable as
       part of a school improvement system—must be developed collaboratively with the relevant stakeholders.

We need to build and sustain a comprehensive and continuous system of school improvement and organizational
growth. Incentive compensation plans may be one component of the continuous improvement system, but they
should not stand alone. In order to support the school improvement process, the compensation system must be
aligned with the organizational mission and with other organizational operations, such as teacher evaluation,
professional development and induction. Schools also must provide the conditions that support teaching and
learning. Experience has shown that, when developing incentive compensation plans, it is best to start with
schoolwide plans, since they foster collaboration among school staff and are easier to develop and implement.

Incentive compensation systems must have well-defined communication procedures and purposeful planning and
implementation processes, and must be aligned with organizational goals. Careful communication starts with a broad
base of support among teachers and school staff, administrators, school boards and community members. Successful
planning and implementation require a detailed process for ongoing shared decision-making and ownership by the
people affected by the pay system. Ownership is achieved with willing participants and a clear link between teaching
practices, their impact on student learning, and the reward system. Alignment with the district’s organizational goals
will provide a stable and purposeful footing that everyone can agree to build upon.

We recommend the following guiding principles for developing and implementing an incentive compensation plan:

   1. School boards, administrators and unions/associations should review various models of incentive
      compensation plans, including research about their effectiveness, before developing a plan at the local level.
   2. School boards, administrators and unions/associations should work together to build ongoing community and
      stakeholder support for both the incentive compensation plan as well as the necessary funding.
   3. School boards, administrators and unions/associations should work together to develop and implement the
      plan utilizing collective bargaining where it exists. In locations where collective bargaining does not exist,
      teachers who would be using the new system should indicate their support for the program.
   4. In the implementation of the incentive compensation plan, teachers should be provided assistance, including
      time, curriculum and professional development to increase student achievement.
   5. The foundation of incentive compensation plans shall be professional-level base salaries.
   6. Funding for the plan shall be adequate and sustainable.
   7. The plan and its requirements should be transparent, easily understood and uniformly implemented.

   8. A detailed implementation plan, with agreed-upon benchmarks and timelines, should be developed.
   9. The incentive compensation plan should be based on a multifactor approach (e.g., teacher evaluations,
       student performance growth, specific goals set by the teachers and management, increased responsibilities,
       assessments of student learning) that is research-based and improves student achievement.
   10. All employees who meet the criteria for the incentive compensation plan should be compensated
       accordingly, and incentive compensation plans should foster collaboration not competition.
   11. Evaluations, if a factor in incentive compensation plans, should be fair, of high quality and rigorous, and
       shall take into account multiple measures of student progress.

About AASA
The American Association of School Administrators, founded in 1865, is the professional organization for more than
13,000 educational leaders across the United States. AASA’s mission is to support and develop effective school
system leaders who are dedicated to the highest quality public education for all children. For more information, visit

About AFT
The American Federation of Teachers, an affiliate of the AFL-CIO, was founded in 1916 and today represents 1.5
million members in more than 3,000 local affiliates nationwide. The broad spectrum of AFT membership embraces
pre-K through 12th-grade teachers; paraprofessionals and other school-related personnel; higher education faculty
and professional staff; federal, state and local government employees; and nurses and other healthcare professionals.
In addition, the AFT represents early childhood educators and retiree members. For more information, visit

About NEA
The National Education Association is the nation's largest professional employee organization, representing 3.2
million elementary and secondary teachers, higher education faculty, education support professionals, school
administrators, retired educators and students preparing to become teachers. For more information, please visit

About NSBA
Founded in 1940, the National School Boards Association ( is a not-for-profit organization
representing state associations of school boards and their 90,000 local school board members throughout the United
States. Its mission is to work with and through all its State Association members to foster excellence and equity in
public education through school board leadership. NSBA achieves that mission by representing the school board
perspective in working with federal government agencies and national organizations that impact education, and
provides vital information and services to state associations of school boards throughout the nation.


Our Future, Our teachers
The Obama Administration’s Plan for
Teacher Education Reform and Improvement

  Our Future, Our Teachers
   The Obama Administration’s Plan for
Teacher Education Reform and Improvement

   United States Department of Education

             September 2011


U.S. Department of Education
Arne Duncan
Secretary of Education

September 2011

This publication is in the public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted.
While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the citation should be: U.S. Department of
Education, Our Future, Our Teachers: The Obama Administration’s Plan for Teacher Education Reform and
Improvement, Washington, D.C., 2011.

This document contains contacts and website addresses for information created and maintained by other
public and private organizations. This information is provided for the reader’s convenience. The U.S.
Department of Education does not control or guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, or com-
pleteness of this outside information. Further, the inclusion of information or addresses, or websites for
particular items does not reflect their importance, nor is it intended to endorse any views expressed, or
products or services offered.

This publication is available at the Department’s website at


“From the moment students enter a school, the most important factor in their success is not the color of their
skin or the income of their parents, it’s the person standing at the front of the classroom... America’s future
depends on its teachers. That is why we are taking steps to prepare teachers for their difficult responsibilities
and encouraging them to stay in the profession. That is why we are creating new pathways to teaching and
new incentives to bring teachers to schools where they are needed most.”

                         President Barack Obama
                         Remarks to the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
                         March 10, 2009

                                    Arne Duncan
                                    U.S. Secretary of Education

                                    Over the next ten years, 1.6 million teachers will retire, and 1.6
                                    million new teachers will be needed to take their place. This poses
                                    both an enormous challenge and an extraordinary opportunity for
                                    our education system: if we succeed in recruiting, preparing, and
                                    retaining great teaching talent, we can transform public education
                                    in this country and finally begin to deliver an excellent education
                                    for every child.
                                  Supporting a strong teaching force and school leadership is a top
priority for the Obama administration. Making improvements in teacher and leader effectiveness
is one of four pillars of the Administration’s education reform agenda. Unfortunately, our public
education sector has been among the hardest hit during these difficult economic times. That’s why
President Obama made it a national priority to ensure that teachers don’t lose their jobs because of
state and local budget cuts, including a $30 billion fund to prevent teacher layoffs in the American
Jobs Act. This is just one of the many ways that we are working to support teachers and leaders in
schools across the country; and we know much more work needs to be done to support teachers
while in the classroom and to reward them like the true professionals they are. Still, the first step is
with how we handle teacher preparation—what happens before many teachers even step foot in the
While there are many beacons of excellence, unfortunately some of our existing teacher preparation
programs are not up to the job. They operate partially blindfolded, without access to data that tells
them how effective their graduates are in elementary and secondary school classrooms after they
leave their teacher preparation programs. Too many are not attracting top students, and too many
states are not setting a high bar for entry into the profession. Critical shortage areas like science,
technology, engineering, math, and special education are going unfilled. And too few teacher
preparation programs offer the type of rigorous, clinical experience that prepares future teachers for
the realities of today’s diverse classrooms. Superintendents who hire large numbers of new teachers,
as I did in Chicago, have been frustrated at having to retrain new teachers.

Still, I’m optimistic about what’s happening across the country. Thanks in part to investments
that our Administration has made to support new data systems, over a dozen states now link
teacher preparation programs with meaningful P-12 impact data on how their graduates
are performing in the classroom so programs can improve themselves. Investments in the
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act have supported dozens of colleges of education
across the country as they develop new clinical programs that provide students with training
in the concrete skills they will need to be effective in the classroom. Leaders from all teacher
preparation pathways, both traditional and alternative route programs are uniting around a
vision of teacher preparation that puts student results and effective teaching front and center.
We want to build on this emerging consensus and on the reforms that our Administration
has supported to re-design the No Child Left Behind Act and spur a Race to the Top in
our schools. This package of teacher preparation initiatives will support and further the
transformation already underway in how we recruit and prepare teachers in this country.
Under this plan, teacher preparation programs will be held to a clear standard of quality
that includes but is not limited to their record of preparing and placing teachers who deliver
results for P-12 students. The best programs will be scaled up and the lowest-performing will
be supported to show substantial improvements in performance. Significant new scholarship
funding will help recruit the next generation of teachers to attend the most successful teacher
preparation programs across the country. We will invest needed resources in developing a
teaching workforce that reflects the diversity of our students. And standards for entry into
teaching will rise to a level worthy of this great profession.
Our goal is simple: We want every teacher to receive the high-quality preparation and
support they need, so that every student can have the effective teachers they deserve. This
administration looks forward to working with Congress, with leaders in the fields of teacher
preparation and development, and with all who share this vision to bring this plan to life.

Support for Reform
“We need to take the lead in recruiting and training teacher candidates. Let’s
start by giving them the best preparation anyone could imagine on the front end,
before they ever set foot in a classroom. Students need and deserve our best efforts
and our best educators. The Administration’s proposal Our Future, Our Teachers
provides a strong roadmap for promoting and highlighting excellence in
teacher preparation programs and providing long overdue support for teacher
preparation programs at minority-serving institutions.”

Dennis Van Roekel
National Education Association

“Research has shown that teachers are the most important school-based factor in
determining student achievement. Comprehensive teacher effectiveness reform must
include bringing accountability to teacher preparation. Ultimately, colleges of education
should be reviewed the same way we propose evaluating teachers - based primarily
on student learning. We applaud the Administration for taking an important step
in advancing these reforms, collecting better outcome data, and supporting state

Chiefs for Change

“Teacher preparation must, in the words of a recent NCATE Blue Ribbon Panel report,
be ‘turned upside down.’ We have to raise the bar for teacher preparation so that
excellent programs and practices are the norm across our nation. We applaud the
efforts of the Administration in its strategic plan Our Future, Our Teachers to develop
a comprehensive agenda that will promote effective teaching at every stage of the
career pipeline. We are eager to work together with the Department and with all
stakeholders to build a new system of teaching effectiveness that serves all our nation’s
James G. Cibulka
President, National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education
President, Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation

“Our Future, Our Teachers makes clear that the ability to teach is something to learn, and
therefore to be taught. This report puts the focus where it should be: beginning teachers’
readiness to practice independently. Setting performance requirements for responsible
teaching is one of the most important improvements that the U.S. could make to ensure
learning by all students. Clear standards for what teachers should be able to do when
they enter the classroom would shift the focus away from arguments over who should
prepare teachers and how to select program entrants and toward beginning teachers’
actual instructional skills. The Administration’s teacher education plan takes an
important stand -- it’s the outcomes of teacher preparation that matter most.”
Deborah Lowenberg Ball
Dean, School of Education
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor                                                          3

    “Identifying and learning from top-performing teacher-preparation programs
    is an important strategy to further the teaching profession in our country. It is
    critically important to analyze regularly the effectiveness of our teacher-preparation
    pathways, and that analysis should include an objective and rigorous examination of
    the average learning gains of students. States that annually conduct such analyses, such
    as Louisiana and Tennessee, are providing valuable feedback to teacher-preparation
    programs, including Teach For America, and helping to inform school and district
    hiring decisions.”
    Wendy Kopp
    CEO and Founder
    Teach for America

    “The quality of the nation’s new teacher pipeline has a tremendous impact on the overall
    quality of education that our students receive. The U.S. Department of Education’s insistence
    that states truly hold teacher preparation programs accountable will make it harder for weak
    programs to escape scrutiny. By investing in selective programs that take care to recruit
    minority teacher candidates and train them in effective methods of instruction, particularly in
    reading, the Department will establish a strong model for other programs to emulate. And by
    awarding fellowships to high achievers, the country will recruit the talent into the classroom
    our students deserve. The Administration’s plan will get us closer to the day when schools
    of education come to be seen as invaluable to the teaching profession as medical schools
    are to doctors.”

    Kate Walsh
    National Council on Teacher Quality

    Understanding the influence of teaching training programs on student learning is an
    important first step toward creating a system which supports ambitious teaching and
    learning for our nation’s youth. The U.S. Department of Education is right to demand states
    use multiple measures to assess teacher training program quality, and I welcome the
    administration’s support of emerging tools like new teacher performance assessments
    that can be used to support deep program improvement in teacher education.”
    Tom Stritikus
    Dean, College of Education
    University of Washington

    Our Future, Our Teachers provides a valuable roadmap for the future of teacher education as
    we seek to improve the ways our teachers are recruited, selected and prepared for their critical

    David Ritchey
    Executive Director
4   Association of Teacher Educators

The Challenge
Teacher preparation programs play an essential role in our elementary and
secondary education system, which relies on them to recruit, select, and prepare
approximately 200,000 future teachers every year.1 Strong programs recruit, select,
and prepare teachers who have or learn the skills and knowledge they need to be
hired into teaching positions, be retained in them, and lead their students to strong
learning gains. Weak programs set minimal standards for entry and graduation.
They produce inadequately trained teachers whose students do not make sufficient
academic progress.
Unfortunately, while there are shining examples of strong programs throughout
the country, too many of our teacher preparation programs fall short. As a whole,
America is not following the lead of high-performing countries and recruiting the
nation’s best and brightest into teaching. Instead, only 23% of all teachers, and
only 14% of teachers in high-poverty schools, come from the top third of college
graduates.2 Our differences with other nations are not due to teacher preparation
alone. We must do more to support and reward excellent teaching at various stages
                                                   in the education system. However,
                                                   we can do more in the area of
                                                   preparation. After admission, too
                                                   many programs do not provide
                                                   teachers with a rigorous, clinical
                                                   experience that prepares them for
                                                   the schools in which they will work.
                                                   Only 50 percent of current teacher
                                                   candidates receive supervised
                                                   clinical training. More than three
                                                   in five education school alumni
                                                   report that their education school
                                                   did not prepare them for “classroom
                                                   realities.” 3
                                                                        Programs often do not respond to
                                                                        school district needs for teachers
                                                                        prepared to teach in high-need
                                                                        subjects like science, technology,
                                                                        engineering, and math, and high
                                                                        need fields like teaching English
 Julie Greenberg, Laura Pomerance and Kate Walsh, Student Teaching in the United States (Washington, DC: National
Council on Teacher Quality, 2011), 1,
  Byron Auguste, Paul Kihn, Matt Miller, Closing the talent gap: Attracting and retaining top-third graduates to careers in
teaching (Washington, DC: McKinsey & Company, 2010), 5,
 Arthur Levine, Educating School Teachers (Washington, D.C.: The Education Schools Project, 2006), 32, http://www.

    Learners and students with disabilities. Over half of all districts report difficulty
    recruiting highly qualified teachers in science and special education, and over 90%
    of high-minority districts report difficulty in attracting highly qualified math and
    science teachers.4
    Finally, in a challenge that transcends any individual preparation program, the teaching
    workforce does not reflect the diversity of the nation’s students, with a student body
    that is increasingly black or Hispanic being taught by a teaching force that remains
    predominantly white.5
    These challenges persist for many reasons, including a lack of accountability for teacher
    preparation program performance. Despite requirements under the Higher Education
    Act that states identify and improve low-performing programs in their states, few
    states hold programs to any meaningful standard of quality. In the most recent year
    for which data is available, states identified only 37 low-performing programs at
    the over 1,400 institutions of higher education that prepare teachers – and 39 states
    identified no low-performing programs at all. Thirty-nine didn’t identify a single low-
    performing program. Over the last dozen years, 27 states have never identified a single
    low-performing program. 6

      U.S. Department of Education, Policy and Program Studies Service Report Highlights: State and Local Implementation of the No
    Child Left Behind Act Volume VIII—Teacher Quality Under NCLB: Final Report (Washington, DC, 2009), 3,
    rschstat/eval/ teaching/nclb- final/highlights.Pdf
     U.S. Department of Education, Secretary Arne Duncan’s Remarks to National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education on
    6 November 2010 (Washington, DC),
6   6
     Chad Aldeman, et al., A Measured Approach to Improving Teacher Preparation (Washington, DC: Education Sector, 2011), 4 – 16,

The Opportunity
Despite this grim picture, there are significant causes for                                                  Reports from
optimism. At the program level, Fayetteville State University, a                                             Louisiana
historically black university with an acceptance rate of 61% and
in-state tuition of less than $4,000, is preparing some of the most                                          “Louisiana was the first
effective high school teachers in North Carolina.7 At Kansas’                                                state to systematically break
Emporia State University, clinical training isn’t simply an “add on”                                         the silos separating teacher
semester after years of instruction in educational theory. Instead,                                          preparation and K-12 schools. 
academic training supplements an intensive and continuing                                                    Now, K-12 student results are
clinical experience that begins in a student’s sophomore year and                                            linked to teachers and mapped
continues through to graduation. Additionally, some alternative                                              back to the higher education
pathway programs are attracting new talent into the profession and                                           programs that prepared those
developing new models for rigorously preparing and supporting                                                teachers… I applaud the U.S.
their teachers. Teacher residency programs in Boston, Chicago, and                                           Department of Education
Denver are pioneering a new vision for preparing teachers and posting                                        for working to take the
extraordinary early results – a vision strongly supported by the Obama                                       Louisiana-model nationwide.
Administration through the Teacher Quality Partnership grant                                                 Teacher preparation program
program.                                                                                                     accountability for K-12 results
                                                                                                             is an idea whose time has
At the state level, Louisiana and Tennessee have developed                                                   come.”
statewide systems that track the academic growth of a teacher’s
P-12 students back to the preparation program from which that                                                Paul G. Pastorek
teacher graduated. North Carolina’s Institute for Public Policy has                                          Former State Superintendent of
done the same for all public college teacher preparation programs in                                         Schools
the state. The picture these feedback systems paint of differentiation                                       Louisiana Department of
in teacher preparation program effectiveness is striking. In                                                 Education
Tennessee, after controlling for elementary and secondary student
population differences, the most effective programs produce
graduates who are two to three times more likely to be in the
top quintile of teachers in a subject area in the state, while the
least effective programs produced graduates who are two to three                                             “All adults, including those
times more likely to be in the bottom quintile.8 That’s powerful                                             preparing teachers, must be held
information for hiring superintendents and for teacher preparation                                           responsible for the outcomes
program leaders who can use the data to drive program changes and                                            in our public schools. We have
improvement.                                                                                                 waited far too long… The U.S.
                                                                                                             Education Department’s plan
Moreover, there are marked differences within institutions.                                                  is right on target.”
Tennessee’s data suggest that while one of its colleges of education
excels in producing high-performing math and science teachers, in                                            Diane Roussel
the past it has been less effective in preparing English language arts
                                                                                                             Former Superintendent of
teachers. That’s important for the program to know in improving
                                                                                                             Jefferson Parish Public Schools
its teacher preparation program and for public schools to know
                                                                                                             Jefferson Parish, Louisiana
when recruiting and hiring new teachers. The early lessons from

 Fayetteville State University Office of Institutional Research, Fact Book Fall 2010 (Fayetteville, 2010),
17, Fall_2010_Fact_Book_draft_copy.pdf
 Tennessee Higher Education Commission, Report Card on the Effectiveness of Teacher Training Programs
(Nashville, 2010),                                                   7

     “Teacher preparation       Tennessee, Louisiana, and North Carolina are informing work being done
   has been ‘shaken-up’ in      by every Race to the Top winning-state developing similar feedback systems
    Louisiana. We’ve lived      and by states and teacher preparation programs across the country looking to
       through the difficult    upgrade their teacher training programs.
 ‘redesign’ years and we’re
   continuing to work out       In many ways, most heartening is that leaders within the teacher education
    the kinks of the value-     community are recognizing the urgency of the challenges facing teacher
   added data system. The       education and leading reform efforts. A recent Blue Ribbon panel convened
  proposed initiatives will     by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
  provide impetus to seek       called for teacher preparation to be “turned upside down” and laid out an
      improvement in new        ambitious plan for reforming programs through greater selectivity, more
   areas of need in teacher     rigorous accountability, and a focus on clinical practice.9 The American
 preparation. . . .  Bottom     Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE), which endorsed
line: I support Secretary       the report, is working with 21 states to develop a teacher performance
            Arne Duncan’s       assessment that will replace low-level pencil and paper licensure tests with
                initiative.”    an assessment built around high professional expectations to which both
                                teachers and preparation programs would be held accountable. AACTE
 Vickie S. Gentry, Ph.D.        has called for teacher preparation program accountability based on student
                                outcomes as well as program input characteristics.
         Dean, College of
     Education & Human          The federal role is to support states in their work. It is not to usurp the
             Development        significant progress already being made across the country. It is not to
      Northwestern State        prescribe any particular model for how teachers should be prepared. But
               University       the right set of federal policies and investments can accelerate and support
             Natchitoches,      progress already underway, and the federal government can shine a spotlight
               Louisiana        on exemplary models for replication and scaling. It can and should address
                                challenges that for too long have been neglected by supporting state-
    “In the effort to assure    level policies that reward the best programs, improve the mid-performing
         districts that their   programs, and transform or ultimately shut down the lowest-performers.
          teachers will add
        the most “value” to
     student achievement,
     preparation programs
        have been carefully
      redesigned and some
         even closed… The
        Louisiana model is
      one...that should be
        replicated in other
          Barbara Freiberg

     President, East Baton
       Rouge School Board
        East Baton Rouge,       9
                                 Blue Ribbon Panel on Clinical Preparation and Partnerships for Improved Student Learning, Transforming
                                Teacher Education Through Clinical Practice: A National Strategy to Prepare Effective Teachers (Washington, DC:
                 Louisiana      National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2010),
8                               zeiB1OoqPk%3D&tabid=715

The Plan

I. A Focus on Results: Institutional Reporting and State Accountability                  Focus on
   (Higher Education Act Title II Regulations)                                           outcomes:
This plan begins with finally providing prospective teacher candidates, hiring           K-12 student
school districts, and teacher preparation programs themselves with meaningful            growth,
data on program quality to inform academic program selection, improvement,               employment
and accountability. Existing reporting and accountability requirements under             outcomes,
the Higher Education Act have not led to meaningful change, in part because              and customer
the data collected under them is not based on meaningful indicators of program           satisfaction.
effectiveness. Rather than focus on the measures that matter most for each
program, institutions and states are asked to fill out a questionnaire with 440 fields
heavily focused on program inputs as opposed to outcomes.
Beginning this fall and continuing into the winter, the Department will work with the
teacher preparation community to streamline regulations that reduce the reporting
burden of these requirements and focus instead on the best measures of program
impact. The goal is to develop better regulation while reducing the reporting
burden on states and teacher preparation programs. While the final regulations
will be developed in consultation with the field, in general the Department aims to
reduce input-based reporting elements that are not strong indicators of program
effectiveness or safety and replace them with three categories of outcome-based


                          1. Student growth of elementary and secondary school students taught by program
                             graduates. Building on the lessons of the Race to the Top states, Louisiana,
                             North Carolina, Tennessee, and the New York City school district, states
                             would be asked to report on the aggregate learning outcomes of K-12 students
                             taught by graduates of each preparation program. In doing so, they should use
                             multiple, valid measures of student achievement to reliably ascertain growth
                             associated with graduates of preparation programs.
                          2. Job placement and retention rates. In order to gauge the effectiveness of
     Statewide               programs in preparing, placing, and supporting teachers in a way that is aligned
       Reform:               with school district needs, states would be asked to report on whether program
                             graduates are hired into teaching positions, particularly in shortage areas, and
   No teacher                whether they stay in those positions for multiple years.
   licensed or
                          3. Surveys of program graduates and their principals. Finally, building on the
      certified              lessons of the California State University teacher education feedback system,
      absent a               to gather qualitative data that can inform improvement efforts and provide a
performance-                 complete picture of program quality, states would be asked to survey recent
         based               program graduates and their principals or gather other qualitative evidence as
 indication of               to whether relevant preparation programs provided graduates with the skills
       quality.              needed to succeed in their first years in the classroom.
                  States would not be required to implement these measures immediately and the final
                  requirements and timelines of these regulations will be determined only after extensive
                  input from the field. In all likelihood full implementation will be phased in over several
                  years in recognition of the existing and near-term capacity of state data systems.
                  The good news is many have already implemented significant components of these
                  proposals. Many already track teacher employment data and link students to their
                  teachers and teachers to their preparation programs and others are making substantial
                  progress supported in part by $48.6 billion in federal resources supplied along with the
                  Recovery Act’s State Fiscal Stabilization Fund and an additional $400 million in State
                  Longitudinal Data Systems grants.10
                  Regardless of the form of the final regulations and each state’s implementation choices,
                  collection and distribution of outcome-based data can inform better decision-making
                  at all stages of teacher preparation. States can make better decisions about which
                  programs to approve and in which to invest. School districts and principals seeking
                  reliable pools of effective teachers can make better decisions about which programs to

                       According to the Data Quality Campaign (
                       • 35 states already have systems in place that link K-12 student and teacher data;
                       • 28 states already share aggregate teacher effectiveness data with teacher preparation programs;
                       • 24 states already share graduate certification data with teacher education programs; and
                       • 14 states already share graduate employment data with teacher education programs.

partner with and from which to hire. Prospective teachers can make better decisions
about which program to attend. And the programs themselves can identify areas for
improvement and refine their curriculum.

II. Promoting Excellence: Presidential Teaching Fellows
Building on the data systems established as per HEA Title II regulations, the
President’s Fiscal Year 2012 Budget includes a $185 million state teacher preparation
reform grant program that would revamp and upgrade the existing $110 million
TEACH grant program. The revised TEACH grant program, renamed the
“Presidential Teaching Fellows” program, would provide formula aid to states that
commit to establish rigorous systems for teacher certification and licensure and
teacher preparation program accountability. The bulk of funds (a minimum of $135         No barriers
million worth) would be used for scholarships of up to $10,000 for high-achieving,
final-year students attending high-quality traditional or alternative teacher
                                                                                         to effective
preparation programs. The aim is to send TEACH funds to the best programs for            alternative
the best students with a priority on those with financial need.                          route teacher
                                                                                         prep programs.
State policies. Presidential Teaching Fellows funds would be allocated by formula to
states that commit to ensuring high standards for teacher preparation and entry into
the profession.
   •	 First, states would ensure that teacher certification or licensure is determined
      on the basis of teacher performance, as measured by a performance-based
      assessment or demonstrated evidence of effectiveness. Certification no
      longer would be based on simply passing a low-grade, paper-and-pencil test
      that does not indicate an ability to teach effectively in a live classroom.
   •	 Second, states would set rigorous standards for identifying top-tier and low-
      performing teacher preparation programs in their state based on information
      that includes but is not limited to outcome data collected under HEA Title
      II. States would assist first, but ultimately have to withdraw approval from
      teacher preparation programs persistently identified as low-performing, based
      on three categories of outcome-based measures – student learning growth, job
      placement and retention, and customer satisfaction survey results.
   •	 Finally, states would approve any teacher preparation program, including
      non-traditional pathways, that can meet the same high teacher preparation
      standard for approval.
A set-aside of up to 20 percent of funds would support state implementation of
these activities. Further, states could set aside an additional 5 percent of funds,
beyond the 20 percent, to develop a “master teacher” designation in consortia with
other states. Master teachers would receive portable certification and could be
eligible for leadership opportunities and additional compensation.


                 Scholarships. The vast majority of Presidential Teaching Fellow funds would go to
                 teaching scholarships. States would give subgrant funds to top-tier programs regardless
                 of pathway. In turn, top-tier programs would award final-year Presidential Teaching
                 Fellow scholarships of up to $10,000 each to high-achieving students with a priority
                 for students from a low-income background. These students would prepare to teach in
                 a high need subject, such as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, or in a
                 high-need field, such as teaching English Learners and students with disabilities, and
                 would commit to teaching for at least three years in a high-need school.
                 This program would be a revision of the existing TEACH Grant program, maintaining
 Presidential    and strengthening the program’s core purpose of providing scholarships to recruit
     Teaching    teachers to work in high-need schools. Under the current program, approximately
      Fellows    $110 million a year in grants are provided to all teacher preparation programs, without
                 consideration of quality, and to students as early as their freshman year, before they
    to receive   may have the maturity or experience to commit to the teaching profession. As a
   a $10,000     result, nearly 80 percent of recipients are expected not to fulfill their teaching service
 scholarship     requirement and will have to repay their grant with interest. Further, of the few teacher
and teach for    preparation programs that states currently identify as at-risk or low-performing, two-
  3 years in a   thirds receive funds under the TEACH grant program. By targeting funds to top-tier
   high-need     programs and to students in the final year of program participation, the Presidential
       school.   Teaching Fellows program will provide a strong incentive to graduating students and
                 better ensure that program funds support individuals who fulfill their service requirement
                 and enter the profession with the skills, knowledge, and disposition to be effective teachers
                 in high-need schools and subjects.

                 Current TEACH grant recipients would continue to receive ‘grandfather’ aid for the
                 duration of their academic program. All teacher candidates, whether or not they
                 attend a top-tier program, will have access to income-based loan repayment that caps
                 monthly federal student loan payments to 10 percent of income and public service loan
                 forgiveness that wipes clean remaining federal student loan debt following 10 years of
                 public service work, including teaching.


III. Targeted Investments: Hawkins Centers for Excellence at
     Minority Serving Institutions
While the HEA regulations and Presidential Teaching Fellows program will create
conditions for reform for all programs and students in a state, targeted investments
are also necessary. Research indicates that disadvantaged students benefit academically
and socially from having teachers with whom they can identify. But such teachers are
underrepresented in the workforce: 14 percent of teachers identify as African-American
or Hispanic, compared to 38 percent of students. Only 2 percent of teachers are African-
American men and only 2 percent are Latino men. 11
Minority-serving institutions (MSIs), which collectively prepare more than half of all
minority teachers, must play a major role in preparing the next generation of effective
minority teachers. While many MSIs struggle in significant part because of a lack of
funds compared to peer institutions, a number of MSI teacher education programs
demonstrate better than average results despite being dramatically underfunded.
According to a recent and extensive University of North Carolina study, Fayetteville
State University, a non-selective and relatively low tuition school, consistently produces
teachers who generate higher than average K-12 student academic achievement gains.
Fayetteville State is more successful thancolleges with comparable incoming student
body demographics and more successful than colleges that are have more selective
admissions requirements.

  U.S. Department of Education, Secretary Arne Duncan’s Remarks to National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education
on 6 November 2010                                                                                                           13

              To support teacher preparation programs at MSIs, the Administration is requesting
              $40 million for the Augustus F. Hawkins Centers of Excellence program. This
              program, authorized by Congress in 2008 but never before funded, would provide
              competitive grants to teacher preparation programs at MSIs or MSIs in partnership
              with other institutions of higher education. These projects will undertake a series of
              reforms to be developed in consultation with leaders of preparation programs at those
              institutions. Potential reforms may include:
                 •	 Heightened entry and/or exit standards for teacher candidates;
       $40       •	 Comprehensive interventions to help promising candidates meet heightened
 million to         standards, particularly passing rigorous entry and licensure exams;
  upgrade        •	 Redesign to ensure that programs are deeply, clinically-based with academic
       and          coursework informing and supplementing field experience;
                 •	 Training of all candidates in evidence-based methods of reading instruction
       MSI          and the use of data to drive classroom practice; and
                 •	 Partnerships with local school districts or with non-profit organizations with
education.          demonstrated experience and effectiveness in preparing and placing high-
                    quality candidates.
              Eligible institutions include Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCUs),
              Historically Black Graduate Institutions, Hispanic-serving Institutions, Tribal
              Colleges or Universities, Alaska Native-serving Institutions, Native Hawaiian-
              serving Institutions, Predominantly Black Institutions, Asian American and Native
              American Pacific Islander-serving Institutions, and Native American-serving Nontribal
              Institutions with a qualified teacher preparation program. Consortia of MSIs as well as
              partnerships of non-MSIs and MSIs together are also eligible to apply. The statutorily
              required minimum grant is $500,000, but awards are expected to average $2 million
              per year. Grants would be awarded for three years, with an additional two years of
              continuation funding available conditioned on meeting performance targets. Eligible
              institutions may use up to 2 percent of the funds provided to administer the grant.


A Comprehensive Agenda
These proposals are part of a broader effort by the Obama Administration to ensure an effective,
well-supported teacher for every child. They build on work currently being advanced through
the Race to the Top and enabled by the Administration’s reform of the No Child Left Behind
Act. Together, these existing initiatives and the initiatives detailed in this document form a
comprehensive agenda to recruit, prepare, place, support, develop, and advance teachers to
promote effective teaching at every stage of the career pipeline:

Recruitment. Through the TEACH recruitment campaign, launched in October 2010 and
accessible at the Administration has worked to promote the teaching
profession and recruit high-potential, diverse individuals, including recent graduates and mid-
career professionals, into teaching. Better data around program quality will allow new recruits to
make more informed decisions in selecting preparation programs, and the $10,000 scholarships
offered under the Presidential Teaching Fellows program will support students enrolled in high-
performing programs.

Preparation. In addition to the proposals outlined in this document, the Administration has
already invested over $140 million in innovative programs that provide intensive clinical training
to prepare our next generation of teachers. With funds made available from Congress through
the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the Obama Administration was able to offer 5
years of support for 40 projects under the Teacher Quality Partnership program. These grants
will prepare teachers, based on the model of effective teaching residency programs, supporting
partnerships between colleges, universities, and high-need schools to provide novice teachers
with comprehensive induction in their first years of teaching and to support new pathways for
those entering the profession from other fields.

In reforming the No Child Left Behind Act , the Administration has proposed a $250 million
investment in a new Teacher and Leader Pathways program, building off of the current Teacher
Quality Partnership Program to provide grants to school districts, nonprofits, and universities
to create and scale up high-performing teacher preparation programs, with an emphasis on
programs that offer a rigorous clinical experience and provide evidence of success in preparing
teachers who achieve strong results in high-need schools. Regulatory reform and the new
Presidential Teaching Fellows will put in place a stronger state system for ensuring the quality
of teacher preparation, while this new investment supports and scales up individual high-
performing programs.

In-service development and support. Through Race to the Top and the Administration’s
ESEA Flexibility plans, new state systems of teacher evaluation and support will ensure that
all teachers – both veteran teachers and recent graduates of preparation programs – receive
professional development and career advancement opportunities that are aligned with their
identified strengths and needs. To inform these decisions, states and districts must work with
their teachers to set a clear and meaningful definition of teacher effectiveness, one that considers
both a teacher’s success in achieving student growth, a teacher’s demonstrated contribution to a
school’s or district’s success, and a teacher’s instructional skills as measured by multiple measures
of professional practices, such as observations by trained observers against a rubric that is based
on clear standards and a shared understanding of what effective teaching looks like and what
effective teachers should be able to do. This shared understanding of effectiveness will support
collaborative learning environments in schools where teachers can learn from each other and
benefit from professional development that is aligned with their needs, and can allow districts
to reward, retain, and advance effective teachers in a way that promotes the effectiveness of all
adults in a school building and ensures that every child has access to effective teaching.              15


                                                     The RESPECT Project:   

                                   Envisioning a Teaching Profession for the 21st Century 

                           The following is a discussion document for use in conversations with 
                           teachers and principals about the teaching profession. It is hoped that 
                           these conversations will inform future policy or program directions, so 
                           thoughtful input about the vision described in this document is 
I.  Introduction   

The Challenge:  In order to prepare our young people to compete in the global job market and 
to keep up with both persistent and emerging challenges facing our country, the United States 
must ensure that teaching is a highly respected and supported profession, that accomplished, 
effective teachers guide students’ learning in every classroom, and that effective principals lead 
every school.  

Despite the fact that teaching is intellectually demanding, rigorous, and complex work, too 
often American educators are not treated like professionals. They receive little classroom 
experience before certification, and once in the profession, they are not supported, 
compensated, or promoted based on their talents and accomplishments. Too often teachers 
and principals operate at schools with a factory culture, where inflexible work rules discourage 
innovation and restrict teachers’ opportunities to work together as a team and to take on 
leadership roles. As a result, the field of education is not highly regarded – many of America's 
brightest young college graduates never consider entering the field,i and others leave 
prematurely, while too many of our own students are left without the education they need to 
thrive in the 21st century.  

The Vision:  It is time for a sweeping transformation of the profession.  We must develop 
innovations in the way we recruit, prepare, credential, support, advance, and compensate 
teachers and principals.  As in other high‐performing countries, our schools of education must 
be both more selective and more rigorous. To attract top students into the profession, and to 
keep talented teachers from leaving, we must dramatically increase potential earnings for 
teachers.  We must create career and leadership opportunities that enable teachers to grow 
their roles and responsibilities without leaving the classroom, and we must intentionally 
develop teachers who are gifted managers into school leaders and principals. Rather than 
linking teacher compensation solely to years of service or professional credentials, teachers’ 
pay should reflect the quality of their work and the scope of their professional responsibility. To 
ensure that the students who need the best teachers and princiapls get them, salaries should 

                                                                         Use for Discussion Purposes 

also reflect taking on the additional challenges of working in high‐need schools (urban and 
rural) or in hard‐to‐staff subjects, and care should be given to ensure that teachers in these 
schools are well supported by principals in a positive school culture that values their expertise. 

To transform the profession, we envision a school model and culture built on shared 
responsibility and on‐going collaboration, rather than a top‐down authoritarian style. Our call 
for historic improvements in the professional opportunities and compensation of teachers and 
principals is matched by an equally dramatic effort to change how teaching is organized and 
supported. We see schools staffed with effective principals who are fully engaged in training 
and supporting teachers, who involve teachers in leadership decisions, and who provide 
teachers with authentic, job‐embedded professional learning.  

Teachers and principals work every day with our nation’s children – an intrinsically rewarding 
and joyful job. We need to redesign the profession and the working conditions so we unleash 
the inherent joy in teaching and learning, enable innovation in our schools and classrooms, and 
deliver the outcomes that our children deserve and our country’s future demands. Moving 
towards this vision will require tough choices, but the urgency for change and the opportunity 
for real and meaningful progress have never been greater. 

Our Plan/the RESPECT Project.  To support this vision, the U.S. Department of Education has 
begun working with educators–teachers, school and district leaders, teachers’ associations and 
unions, and state and national education organizations–to spark a national conversation about 
transforming teaching for the 21st century.  We call it the RESPECT Project.  RESPECT stands for 
Recognizing Educational Success, Professional Excellence, and Collaborative Teaching. 
Educational Success recognizes our commitment to improving student outcomes. Professional 
Excellence means that we will promote continuously sharpen our practice, and that we will 
recognize, reward, and learn from great teachers and principals. Collaborative Teaching means 
that we will concentrate on shared responsibility and decision‐making. Successful collaboration 
means creating schools where principals and teachers work and learn together in communities 
of practice, hold each other accountable, and lift each other to new levels of skill and 

Our goal is for a national conversation about the RESPECT Project to serve as a catalyst for 
remaking education on a grand scale. To do so, we must lift up the accomplished teachers in 
our classrooms and bring in a new generation of well‐prepared, bright young men and women. 
Together these teachers will make teaching a valued and respected profession on par with 
medicine, law, and engineering.  We must staff our schools with strong principals who nurture 
and develop great teaching.  By transforming the teaching profession, this country’s most 
important work will become our most valued work.  II.  A New Vision of Teaching and Leading 


                                                                         Use for Discussion Purposes 

A truly transformed education profession requires us to think boldly as a country about how we 
might redesign our educational systems to attract, prepare, support, retain, and reward 
excellent teachers and principals.  Just as critically, we must think about how the classroom, the 
school environment, and the school day and year might be reshaped to sustain and enhance 
this transformation.   

A Reorganized Classroom 

         A new vision of education would begin with the recognition that teachers are 
passionate, skilled professionals whose focus is on effectively engaging students, ensuring their 
learning, and shaping their development. We would like to see the classroom transformed into 
a place where accomplished teachers creatively apply their knowledge and skills, and where 
their expertise is acknowledged by parents, students, and administrators.  To this end, we 
envision schools and classrooms that are configured based on students’ needs and teachers’ 
abilities, rather than on traditionally prescribed formulas.  In these schools, teams of teachers, 
assistant principals, and principals collaborate to make decisions about how schools and classes 
are structured, creating spaces where teachers can visit one another’s classes to learn from 
each other and to work together to solve common challenges. 

Structuring classrooms to maximize the impact of instruction could take many different forms. 
For example, classrooms with many high‐need students might contain fewer students than 
other classes.  The most accomplished teachers might be asked to serve a larger number of 
students per class with teams of resident or provisional teachers extending the reach of the 
most accomplished teachers, while offering newer teachers the opportunity to learn by 
observing and assisting a master teacher. Likewise, the format and mode of instruction might 
differ according to student need and the technology available. The traditional physical 
classroom space might shift to clustering arrangements or stations where groups of students 
engage in distinct tasks, some collaborative and some individual, that use a variety of activities 
to continually engage students in different modes of learning. 

In this new vision, classroom learning would be guided by rigorous academic standards and high 
expectations, while being supported by data and technology.ii High‐quality data measuring 
student learning would be made available and accessible to teachers on an ongoing basis‐‐‐in 
real time where appropriate. Teachers would be trained on how to use the data to inform and 
adapt instruction hour‐to‐hour, day‐to‐day, and year‐to‐year.  

Technology would also play a strong role in personalizing learning and supplementing 
classroom instruction so that students can learn at their own pace.  The introduction of 
technology into more classrooms would be accompanied by additional support (e.g., additional 
classroom aides and extensive training on how to best utilize the new technology to meet 


                                                                         Use for Discussion Purposes 

learning objectives) to ensure that new instruments truly enhance‐‐‐rather than diminish ‐‐‐the 
teacher’s instruction.  To the extent that technology facilitates teachers’ ability to engage more 
students simultaneously, the use of technology might allow for higher student‐teacher ratios, 
freeing up some teachers to provide additional support to students who need more of their 


A New School Day and School Year 

    In a transformed education profession, the academic needs of the student body would 
determine the structure of the school day, week, and year. Students would no longer be held in 
lock‐step, age‐based cohorts (grades), but would instead progress through the system based on 
what they know and can do. Some students may need a longer school day or school year, while 
others performing at or above grade level might be able to learn within the time traditionally 
allotted or at an even faster pace. For teachers, this means that the hours of instruction might 
vary depending on the student population. Teachers working with students in need of 
additional learning time might have extended hours of instruction to provide every student 
with time and support to master the content.  For principals, this requires strong leaders who 
work with teams of teacher leaders to assess the needs of students and determine the most 
effective strategies to utilize time.   

Teachers would work professional weeks and days—as many do already—that extend beyond 
the traditional school day to include the extra hours needed to get the job done. Removing the 
outdated punch‐the‐clock model that currently exists in many schools would enable teachers to 
have more choice and flexibility in how they use each day to accomplish their goals.  More 
flexibility in the school day would also allow teachers time for reflection, for the review of 
student data, for ongoing professional development, for research and tool development, and 
for collaborative problem solving and planning with colleagues, including special education 
teachers and those who teach English Learners.  In some cases, time spent on duties out of 
class might far exceed the amount spent in the classroom.  Even when the hours of instruction 
remain roughly the same, many teachers would work year‐round to provide additional 
instruction for certain students, to collaborate with colleagues, and to engage in meaningful 
professional learning. For example, a cohort of teachers who are focused on remediating 
students who are falling behind might have a lighter load during the normal school schedule, 
but they might use additional periods to help students who need more time. Others might 
participate in strategic planning for the school, extracurricular activities with students (college 
tours, summer field trips, etc.), or curriculum development during the extended time.  
Principals will maximize use of the additional time, not by adding to teachers’ workloads, but by 


                                                                         Use for Discussion Purposes 

teaming with teacher leaders at the school to provide the structures, schedules, and systems 
needed to support great teaching. 

Finally, to provide the flexibility that teachers might need at different points in their careers—
and to allow schools to meet students’ needs most efficiently—part time teaching 
opportunities could be available so that some teachers may work fewer hours a day, fewer days 
a week, or fewer months a year.  Teaching is uniquely suited to this type of flexible staffing, and 
it should be an option offered to teachers and schools with unique needs, for example those in 
rural or hard‐to‐staff areas.   

An Environment of Shared Responsibility among Teachers and Principals 

    Today’s schools are still places where, by and large, a set number of students and one 
teacher work at individual desks behind a closed door. Too many teachers remain in isolated 
classrooms, lacking collaboration and feedback from their peers and school administrators. We 
envision a shift in philosophy away from the closed‐door approach and toward greater 
communication and cooperation. Similarly, the NEA Commission on Effective Teaching and 
Teachers (CETT) proposes a change in the culture of teaching and calls for teaching 
professionals to boldly challenge the status quo by teaching, collaborating and leading in new 

Strong Principals. Effective principals will recognize the potential they have to create a school 
environment where teachers want to work and where effective teachers can thrive.  They 
maintain a constant presence in the school and in classrooms, listening to and observing what is 
taking place, assessing needs, and getting to know teachers and students. They will mobilize the 
school around a clear mission and shared values.  With the aim of meeting clear performance 
goals, principals will find creative ways to maximize the time and productivity of their most 
precious resource:  their teachers. They will create spaces in the workday for teachers to 
collaborate, to view each other’s classrooms, to solve problems as a team, and to build their 
expertise.  Sometimes teachers will be encouraged to reach outside of the school’s walls to 
build community partnerships and seek additional professional learning to help students 
succeed.  Principals will recognize effective teaching and know how to facilitate educator 
professional development and career paths. Principals will be evaluated based in part on how 
well they recruit, nurture, develop, and retain effective teachers and teacher leaders, just as 
superintendents will be measured partly by how well they support effective schools and 

Distributed Leadership.  A culture of shared power and responsibility will require principals 
who bring together coalitions of teacher leaders who have the skills to meet the school’s 


                                                                         Use for Discussion Purposes 

objectives and create a culture of continuous learning and shared decision‐making.  Teams of 
teacher leaders and principals will work in partnerships to identify challenges, propose 
solutions, and share in distributed leadership and decision‐making at all levels, including hiring, 
structuring the school day and school year, and designing professional learning.   
A Teaching Career that Attracts, Trains, Supports, and Rewards Excellence 

At present, too many teachers enter the classroom unprepared.  Some fail to become effective 
but still remain in the profession, while other effective teachers leave because they feel 
unsupported and underpaid.iv  Moreover, many of our nation’s highest performing college 
students never consider entering this rewarding and important field.  

A new vision of the teaching profession revises each step of the current career trajectory:  
raising the bar for entry, training teachers well during pre‐service programs with high standards 
for exiting successfully, and supporting and rewarding effective teachers at each stage of their 
career so that they continue to grow, be recognized for professional accomplishment, and 
ultimately stay in education. Leaders in this profession continually assess teachers’ 
effectiveness and accomplishments, simultaneously empowering school leadership to 
personalize professional development, to deliberately reward contributions to the larger 
community, to provide opportunities for advancement, and to dismiss teachers who are 
ineffective despite ample support.  

Entering the Profession. Currently too many teacher preparation programs fail to attract and 
select highly qualified candidates with the knowledge, skills, and habits of mind to take on the 
challenge and complexity of teaching today’s students. Moreover, once in a program, many 
candidates don’t receive the practical training they need to manage classrooms and teach 
students with a range of needs and abilities. In addition, individuals who may wish to become 
teachers later in their careers often find themselves excluded from the profession because they 
haven’t pursued traditional pathways into the field, even though they may have the aptitude 
and knowledge to do an exceptional job. Finally, certification for all new teachers, whether they 
enter teaching through traditional paths or not, sets a low bar that is often disconnected from 
classroom performance.     

In a 21st century profession, teacher preparation programs would set a high bar for both 
entering and exiting their programs successfully. To enter programs, aspiring teachers would 
come from the top tier of students in the country, demonstrate subject‐area expertise (or be in 
the process of becoming experts in their subject area), and display dispositions associated with 
successful teaching, such as communication skills and perseverance. The student teaching 
experience itself would be taken seriously, with student teachers supervised by highly effective 
classroom teachers who have been trained by the college or university. Likewise, supervisors 
from the student teacher’s preparation program will take the feedback of the classroom 


                                                                        Use for Discussion Purposes 

teacher seriously when deciding whether or not to grant initial certification.  To successfully 
complete a preparation program, pre‐service teachers would demonstrate strong subject‐area 
knowledge, proficiency improving student learning through research‐based practices, solid 
understanding of pedagogy, and the ability to work effectively with peers towards common 
goals. Successful completion of student teaching would indicate that the student teacher had 
accomplished something significant, meeting an important bar for entry into the profession, 
preferably earning the student teacher a job in the school or district where the student 
teaching took place.    

In our vision, traditional teacher preparation programs would be one path to the classroom 
among several.  Alternative pathways might include obtaining an advanced degree or working 
extensively in another field, then gaining certification and entering the classroom as the teacher 
of record upon demonstration of satisfactory performance. All teacher preparation programs 
would track and publish data on how successful their graduates are as teachers (through ratings 
of principals and other measures, including student learning) and how long their graduates stay 
in the profession. These data could be used by aspiring teachers to decide among pre‐service 
programs and by school districts to make informed hiring decisions. There would also be 
pathways for career changers who have extensive content knowledge and experience in 
another field, but who need an entryway into the classroom that matches their professional 

Though teachers might enter the profession through many different avenues, all preparation 
pathways would require minimal proficiency in the classroom before becoming a Provisional 
teacher of record. For example, candidates following a traditional college or university 
trajectory might participate for 1‐2 years as Resident teachers under the aegis of a Master 
teacher.  Other career changers with significant subject‐area expertise could demonstrate 
minimal proficiency in other ways and become Provisional teachers. In the Provisional status as 
teacher of record, teachers might continue developing knowledge and skills for several years, 
working with a Master teacher or mentor, before earning full Professional status and receiving 
substantially higher pay. Earning Professional teacher status would require a teacher to 
demonstrate effective teaching, including successive years of improving student outcomes.  

Career Pathways and Professional Advancement. A significant challenge retaining effective 
educators has been finding ways to offer teachers satisfying career paths that allow them to 
take on significant roles and responsibilities and earn higher salaries without leaving the 
classrooms they love. Teachers long for opportunities that recognize their talents and allow 
them to contribute to transforming their schools into more effective centers for learning.  
Moreover, teachers who may have interest in moving to an administrative role would benefit 
from avenues that allow them cultivate their skills over time while still serving as effective 


                                                                          Use for Discussion Purposes 

teachers. As Madeleine Fennell, Chair of the NEA Commission on Effective Teachers and 
Teaching, has said, it is “time to blast open the glass ceiling or glass door of advancement in the 
[teaching] profession.” A new vision of the profession would offer accomplished teachers 
multiple pathways to advance their careers without leaving the classroom.  Development and 
advancement could occur at every stage of a teacher’s career, based on demonstrations of 
effectiveness with students and colleagues.  

One vision of such career pathways might look like this. New graduates—or perhaps those still 
in preparation programs—might enter the profession as Residents, working under the 
supervision of Master teachers until certified. Once aspiring teachers demonstrate basic 
proficiency in the classroom and are certified, they become Provisional teachers.  In the 
Provisional status as teacher of record, teachers might continue developing knowledge and 
skills for several years, working with a Master teacher or mentor, before earning full 
Professional status and receiving substantially higher pay.  Earning Professional teacher status 
would require a teacher to demonstrate effective teaching, including successive years of improving 
student outcomes.  Provisional teachers unable to demonstrate effectiveness in a reasonable amount of 
time would not remain teachers. 

Once Provisional teachers advance to Professional status, they could remain in the classroom for 
the rest of their careers if desired, but they would have other options. Some may want to 
remain teachers but mentor Provisional or Resident teachers for part of the day as Master 
teachers.  Others may prefer to spend part of their day taking on leadership responsibilities, 
such as planning community outreach, developing curriculum, or planning professional 
development, as Teacher Leaders. Teachers would be offered a career lattice that recognizes 
varying professional strengths and interests and matches experience, desire and expertise with 
commensurate levels of responsibility and compensation. For a sample role structure, please 
see Appendix A. 

Teacher Evaluation and Development.  Almost no one perceives that current teacher 
evaluation systems are working well.  Even as the metrics in some states and districts have 
improved, most teachers still find themselves assessed in very distinct events once or twice a 
year.  For teaching to be truly transformed, teachers need integrated and useful evaluation 
systems with results closely aligned to professional learning and ongoing development. 
Teachers and principals would contribute to designing and implementing equitable and 
transparent evaluation systems with multiple measurements of effectiveness. The evaluation 
systems we envision would include a range of summative and formative components, such as 
an analysis of teacher responsibilities and accomplishments, measurements of student growth 
data, results from formal observations, self‐evaluations, and feedback from students and peers. 
These evaluations would be more meaningful and useful, informing decisions related to all 


                                                                        Use for Discussion Purposes 

aspects of advancement, including compensation, tenure and dismissal. Observations would be 
made by skilled evaluators who are knowledgeable about both content and pedagogy. 

Furthermore, the professional learning that springs from the results of evaluations would be 
used to transform teacher training.  Professional learning would be an important priority in 
school learning communities, with learning plans inextricably linked with current classroom 
practice and with teachers observing and helping to sharpen each other’s methods. Instead of 
teachers being sent out of the building for expensive professional development that helps only 
a few teachers, schools would become learning communities, which promote collaborative 
work and align teacher development with high, nationally recognized standards for professional 
learning. As a result, teachers’ continued development would include on‐going, job‐embedded 
training that is informed by data and that integrates innovative theories with efficacious current 
practice, emerging  educational research, and models of human learning to achieve outcomes 
for students. Teachers would share in decision‐making around their professional learning, so 
that teachers in one school might decide to work on how to best implement their state’s newly 
adopted Common Core State Standards, while others might focus on strategies to connect with 
the community and parents more effectively. Specifically, teachers could engage in professional 
development to build their skills using technology to engage students, personalize instruction, 
and enhance their communication with parents and the educational community.   

Compensation.  If we are to attract and retain our best teachers and principals, educators must 
both perform and be compensated as professionals.  Transforming education will require a 
professional compensation structure that supports highly effective teachers and principals and 
provides incentives for them to develop expertise and work with colleagues to progress in the 
profession. To be sure, compensation is only one incentive among many that keeps good 
educators on the job.  Without good leadership, supportive school climate, authentic 
professional learning, opportunities to succeed and advance, and time to work and plan 
collaboratively, paying teachers and principals better will not transform the profession.  
However, our vision acknowledges that we cannot draw potential high performers into the 
profession or motivate them to stay unless we compensate them like other professionals who 
are highly valued by society.   

In our vision, starting salaries for professional teachers who have completed their clinical 
residency and advanced beyond provisional status (generally 2‐4 years after their 
apprenticeships) could be as high as $60,000‐65,000, adjusted as appropriate to the different 
geographic locations’ cost of living. Additionally, salaries would increase faster and maximum 
salaries would be higher so that master teachers and other teacher leaders would have the 
ability to earn as much as $120,000‐150,000 after about 7‐10 years, commensurate with 
principals’ salaries. Whereas today’s compensation tends to be linked solely to years of service 


                                                                                                             Use for Discussion Purposes 

or professional credentials, under this new vision, salary would reflect the quality of a teacher’s 
work, his or her effectiveness helping students to grow academically, and the scope of the 
teacher’s responsibility. To attract the best teachers and principals to work with the students 
who need them most, competitive salaries might be paired with other incentives like bonuses, 
tuition subsidies, portable licenses, and loan forgiveness. These same inducements might be 
used to attract and retain teachers in high‐demand subjects like STEM, English language 
instruction, and special education. In all cases, equal attention would be given to providing all 
teachers with effective principals and strong school cultures so that teachers and students can 
succeed.  Also, it will be important to address the physical and technical needs of the schools in 
poverty, providing resources to help teachers to function well under more challenging 
conditions without spending their own money for basic supplies. 



                                               Appendix A: Sample Teacher Role Structure 

    There are a numerous structures that might offer teachers meaningful career lattices that 
could support excellent teaching and leadership. Ultimately, it will be up to schools and districts 
to work with teachers to develop these arrangements and determine the right mix of roles and 
responsibilities that will work for them and for their students.  Here we offer one example. 


       Resident                           Provisional                            Professional    Teacher 
       Teacher                                                                                                        District 
                                           Teacher                                 Teacher        Leader
      Pre‐service or new                New grad or experienced 
             grad                         career switcher who 
                                         achieves certification
                                                                     If fully                     School 
A. Entering the Field:  The Resident Teacher 

The Resident Teacher is a beginner who, still in (or perhaps fresh out of) a teacher preparation 
program, engages in a highly supported and paid (perhaps $20,000) teaching practicum or 
residency.  Paired with a Master teacher who has content‐area expertise and provides support, 
feedback and coaching, Residents are not yet teachers of record.  Rather, under the Master 
teacher’s supervision and tutelage, they continually reflect on and develop more fully their 
skills, including preparing effective lessons, analyzing data, communicating with parents, and 
managing classrooms.  


                                                                        Use for Discussion Purposes 

 Most teachers, though not all, will experience a residency program for one year and only move 
on to be certified as Provisional teachers after meeting a bar of minimal proficiency set for 
entering the profession.   Some teachers, unable to achieve this goal at the end of a second 
year, will not be granted entry. 

B. Developing Greater Effectiveness: The Provisional Teacher 

The Provisional teacher is a certified educator who is ready to take on the challenges and joys 
of running a class independently as teacher of record, but who is still developing into an 
effective instructor.  Provisional teachers demonstrate that they have learned essential 
teaching skills that allow them to effectively instruct and monitor the progress of students, but 
their development is still monitored, nurtured, and evaluated, and progress proceeds in a 
planned and intentional way. School leaders encourage their growth and development by 
pairing them not only with a quality Master teacher from the same content area, but also by 
engaging them with a variety of energetic and experienced colleagues.  These collegial 
interactions expand the Provisional teachers’ perspective and include them as important 
contributors to school life. Successful school leaders will continually watch for the Provisional 
teachers’ areas of passion and interest and encourage them.  

Teachers in the Provisional role are considered pre‐tenure instructors, but unlike pre‐tenure 
colleagues from the old system, who were instructed to “keep quiet until tenure,” Provisional 
teachers will be consciously and systematically encouraged to contribute to the larger school 
community. Provisional teachers may earn salaries akin to today’s beginning teachers—
between $35,000 and $50,000 per year for their service—and they will spend 2‐5 years honing 
their skills before being promoted to Professional teacher, a title earned by demonstrating 
sustained effectiveness—perhaps after receiving two years of  effective ratings in a row.  
Tenure may also be conferred at this point in a teacher’s career. Those Provisional teachers 
who do not meet this high bar will not continue in the profession.  

C. Earning the Full Respect and Responsibility of the Profession:  The Professional Teacher 

Professional teachers are tenured professionals who focus the majority of their energy on 
teaching and learning. Such teachers thrive in a classroom where creative, collaborative and 
engaged instruction is the norm.  Professional teachers are exemplary life‐long learners whose 
fascination with academic content is paired with their ability to use data to promote academic 
growth. They are reflective practitioners who are informed by the ongoing, professional 
feedback of peers and students. Unlike solo fliers, Professional teachers actively seek to involve 
school leaders, colleagues, parents, students, and community partners as important sources of 
information and expertise. The Professional teacher is also a tireless academic advocate and 


                                                                        Use for Discussion Purposes 

coach who manages the myriad resources in the school and community to support student 

Professional teachers receive an immediate and significant salary increase when they are 
promoted from Provisional status, having demonstrated their effectiveness with students. 
Salaries for Professional Teachers might range from $65,000 to $120,000, depending on 
teachers’ skills and continued effectiveness over time.  Professional teachers may remain in this 
role for their entire careers, assuming that they continue to demonstrate effectiveness through 
their evaluations, or they may choose to advance into leadership roles.   

    D. Developing Teachers and Students:  The Master Teacher 

A Master teacher is a classroom‐based, exemplary educator who models effective teaching 
practices for Resident and Provisional teachers and who serves as a teaching resource for the 
entire professional team. As highly effective educators and life‐long learners who use research‐
based techniques, the Master teacher is a “teacher of adults,” one who possesses the skills and 
disposition to support and inspire colleagues, as well as the ability to offer constructive 
feedback and evaluation of Provisional teachers and Residents. Master teachers are key 
members of a school’s leadership team; they focus on cultivating and supporting a culture of 
reflection and continuous improvement.  

Master teachers could remain in the classroom on a part‐time basis (e.g., 3‐4 teaching 
hours/day) to allow them the remaining time to support colleagues appropriately. Master 
teachers are likely to have spent five or more years in the classroom and to have been rated as 
highly effective for at least three. Master teachers may remain in the role as long as they are 
highly effective for at least three out of every five years of continued practice. Master teachers, 
in short, are exemplary teachers of students and of their colleagues who, if desired, might make 
excellent principals in the future. Salaries for Master teachers may range between $80,000 and 

E. Sharing School Leadership:  The Teacher Leader 

Like Master teachers, Teacher Leaders function in hybrid roles that sometimes have them 
teaching classes to students and at other times have them working with the principal or 
leadership team on any number of school‐based initiatives.  For example, a Teacher Leader 
might share distributed leadership with the principal, direct a site‐based research project, 
develop communities of practice, or design a peer evaluation and review system. 

Whatever the unique job description, Teacher Leaders are crucial members of a school or 
district leadership team, and are personally and professionally responsible for a school’s 
success.  Teacher Leaders model the most important professional practices and habits of mind, 


                                                                                    Use for Discussion Purposes 

including the school’s core values. To this end, they lead school teams to examine the impact of 
teaching practice on student growth, and they are experts at working with adults to build a 
culture of learning and continuous improvement. Teacher Leaders are not selected because 
they are popular with other teachers or administrators. To be eligible to become a Teacher 
Leader, teachers may, for example, have spent at least five years in the classroom and have 
demonstrated that they are effective classroom teachers for at least three consecutive years. 
Teacher Leaders may remain in the classroom on a part‐time basis and may earn between 
$80,000 and $150,000.  As with Master teachers, with further training Teacher Leaders could 
become effective principals. 

  McKinsey Top Talent 
   U.S. Department of Education (2010), “National Education Technology Plan 2010.” Available at:‐2010 
     NEA Commission Report 
    South Korea example; McKinsey Top 1/3 


The principal perspective: at a glance                                                        

         The principal perspective: at a glance

         Lean on Me. Principal Skinner from The Simpsons. Blackboard Jungle. Articles and books have been written and
         movies have been made about principals, with the image of a principal as everything from an ineffective, out-of-touch
         authoritarian to a hard-charging leader capable of single-handedly turning around a low-performing school. What impact
         do principals actually have on a school? Can they turn schools around? If so, what do they do to achieve such success?

         The research has been growing. First, principals have an effect estimated to be second only to teachers (Seashore-
         Louis, et al. 2010), with their biggest impact found in elementary schools and in high-poverty, high-minority schools. In
         general, schools that have highly effective principals:

                Perform 5 to 10 percentage points higher than if they were led by an average principal (Branch, Hanushek and
                Rivkin 2012, Waters, Marzano and McNulty 2003)
                Have fewer student and teacher absences (Waters, Marzano and McNulty 2003)
                Have effective teachers stay longer (Beteille, Kalogrides and Loeb 2011, Branch, Hanushek and Rivkin 2012,
                Portin, et al. 2003)
                Typically replace ineffective teachers with more effective teachers (Beteille, Kalogrides and Loeb 2011, Branch,
                Hanushek and Rivkin 2012, Portin, et al. 2003)
                Have principals who are more likely to stay for at least three years (Branch, Hanushek and Rivkin 2012)
                Have principals who have at least three years of experience at that school (Branch, Hanushek and Rivkin 2012)

         Some other highlights from research:

         The job of principal has changed dramatically. Principals are now more than ever focused on student achievement
         while still retaining their traditional administrative and building manager duties. Because of this, principals typically work
         10 hour days and many believe the job is just not “doable” (Usdan, McCloud and Podmostko 2000) as it is currently

         Principal turnover adversely impacts schools. Although gains in student achievement temporarily slow whenever
         there is a new principal, the impact is felt more at the most challenging schools. In these schools, the new principal is
         more likely to have less experience and be less effective than a new principal at a less challenging school, often
         resulting in a longer, more pronounced slowdown of achievement gains.

         The reason for the staffing difference is that many principals gain their initial experience at challenging schools, then
         transfer to easier-to-manage schools as those positions open up. A study of one large urban district found that
         principals’ second or third schools typically enrolled 89 percent fewer poor and minority students than their first position
         (Beteille, Kalogrides and Loeb 2011, Miller 2009). Unfortunately, since most principals transfer instead of leave the
         profession, higher-achieving, easier-to-manage schools could inadvertently act as safe havens for ineffective principals.

         So what makes an effective principal? The research has shown that principals who are highly effective are more likely

                Have at least more than three years of experience overall
                Have at least three of experience at that school
                Have shared leadership responsibilities, rather than just delegated paperwork
                Have a clear sense of instructional goals
                Give ongoing, informal feedback and support toward those goals
                Conduct unannounced, informal teacher evaluations or classroom visits and give feedback afterward
                Have school board leaders who exhibit a clear vision of what constitutes a good school and create a framework
                that gives principals both autonomy and support to reach those goals

         Turnaround strategies and principals. If a principal truly is one of the key ingredients to turning around a school, how
         do we evaluate federal and state turnaround strategies that involve removing or replacing the school’s principal? While
         there is no specific research on this topic, the research on principal effectiveness seems to suggest that we evaluate
         strategies based on two factors: the effectiveness of the principal and the time allowed for a turnaround to occur.

         First, a principal has enough of an impact on a school that replacing an ineffective principal with an effective one could
         have a significant impact. The key would be hiring a principal with enough experience and a proven record of

         Second, the time given for a turnaround to take place would also be key. Research shows that even a highly effective
         principal needs at least one to two years to become as effective in a new school, and that it takesabout 5 years to fully
         impact a school’s performance, particularly in terms of putting in place a staff whose vision is aligned with the principal’s
         and to have fully implemented policies and practices to improve student achievement.

         What school boards can do

         The growing evidence of principals’ impact means that school boards have another tool to use when working to improve
         student achievement. Here are some questions school boards can ask:

                How are principals evaluated for effectiveness?
                Are evaluations linked to student achievement?
                Are evaluations linked to the district’s goals and strategic plan?
                What is the turnover rate for principals?
                Is the rate higher for schools serving more disadvantaged students?
                Do all students have equal access to effective or experienced principals?
                What incentives does your district give principals to lead challenging schools?
                What kind of professional development does your district provide principals?
                Has the school board read and discussed the ISLLC standards?
                How does the district handle ineffective principals?
                What is the principal turnover rate in your district? How does it vary by school? What could your district do to
                decrease the turnover rate to the key period of 3-5 years?

1 of 2                                                                                                                                                      4/10/2012 11:02 AM
The principal perspective: at a glance                                                  

               How does your district identify potential future principals?
               How effective are principal preparation programs?
               Are these preparation programs aligned to the needs of the district?

         Published April 2012. Copyright Center for Public Education.
         This summary is of a study written and researched by Jim Hull, Center for Public Education's Senior Policy Analyst.

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