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Answer Sheet 1-2 are one point each; 3-9 are two points each; 10-12 are three points each; 13 is extra credit 1) Categorical Categorical or continuous? 2) “1” on Night Owl Sleep Schedule = 3) % Lower Class = 6.8% 4) Strongest = Neuroticism 5) R2 = .056 6) t-value = -2.47 p-value = .01 7) t-value = -1.77 p-value = .08 8) t-value = -1.03 p-value = .31 Meaning? SES was unrelated to cell phone use. 9) t-value = 3.22 p-value = .001 Meaning? People who are lower-middle class reported smoking more often than people who are upper-middle class. 10) t-value = 4.80 p-value = < .001 Cohen’s d = 0.58 11) APA-style result: Age (r = -.13, p = .03), pro-environmental attitudes (r = .16, p = .01), and anger (r = .14, p = .02) all predicted frequency of stealing. However, vocabulary did not predict stealing frequency (r = -.07, p = .24). Thus, people who were younger, pro-environment, or angry tended to steal slightly more often than people who were not, but vocabulary was unrelated to stealing. To examine the overall ability of age, pro-environmental attitudes, and anger to predict stealing, a multiple regression was performed. These three variables significantly predicted stealing, R2 = .056, p = .001, which was a small overall effect. Thus, age, pro-environmental attitudes, and anger accounted for about 6% of the differences in stealing frequency. 12) APA-style result: It was hypothesized that people who wear glasses are smarter than people who do not wear glasses. However, a t-test revealed that people who do not wear glasses (M = 3.47, SD = 0.46) actually had higher high school GPAs than people who wear glasses (M = 3.14, SD = 0.66), d = 0.59, t(277) = 4.80, p < .001. Contrary to the hypothesis, people who did not wear glasses had modestly better grades. 13) Bonus (optional) Results vary. Output 3) 21. Socioe conom ic Status (SES) Cumulativ e Frequenc y Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid Low er Class 19 6.8 6.8 6.8 Low er-Middle Clas s 121 43.4 43.4 50.2 Upper-Middle Class 135 48.4 48.4 98.6 Upper Class 4 1.4 1.4 100.0 Total 279 100.0 100.0 4) Cor relations 83. 90. Political 97. 104. Self -Esteem 59. Worrying Idealism Attractiv eness Neuroticism 83. Self -Esteem Pearson Correlation 1 -.316** -.042 .413** -.472** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .486 .000 .000 N 279 279 279 279 279 59. Worrying Pearson Correlation -.316** 1 .109 -.212** .653** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .069 .000 .000 N 279 279 279 279 279 90. Political Idealism Pearson Correlation -.042 .109 1 -.075 .128* Sig. (2-tailed) .486 .069 .212 .033 N 279 279 279 279 279 97. Attractiv eness Pearson Correlation .413** -.212** -.075 1 -.221** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .212 .000 N 279 279 279 279 279 104. Neurotic is m Pearson Correlation -.472** .653** .128* -.221** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .033 .000 N 279 279 279 279 279 **. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). 5) Cor relations 79. Pro- 110. 62. Stealing 44. A ge Environment 96. A nger V oc abulary 62. Stealing Pearson Correlation 1 -.129* .161** .139* -.071 Sig. (2-tailed) .031 .007 .020 .239 N 279 279 279 279 279 44. A ge Pearson Correlation -.129* 1 -.044 -.054 .201** Sig. (2-tailed) .031 .465 .369 .001 N 279 279 279 279 279 79. Pro-Environment Pearson Correlation .161** -.044 1 .057 -.009 Sig. (2-tailed) .007 .465 .344 .877 N 279 279 279 279 279 96. A nger Pearson Correlation .139* -.054 .057 1 .010 Sig. (2-tailed) .020 .369 .344 .865 N 279 279 279 279 279 110. Vocabulary Pearson Correlation -.071 .201** -.009 .010 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .239 .001 .877 .865 N 279 279 279 279 279 *. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). **. Correlation is s ignif icant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Model Sum m ary Adjusted Std. Error of Model R R Square R Square the Estimate 1 .237 a .056 .046 1.097 a. Predictors: (Constant), 96. Anger, 44. Age, 79. Pro-Env ironment ANOVAb Sum of Model Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 19.764 3 6.588 5.479 .001 a Residual 330.673 275 1.202 Total 350.437 278 a. Predictors: (Constant), 96. Anger, 44. Age, 79. Pro-Environment b. Dependent Variable: 62. Stealing 6/7) Group Statis tics Std. Error 16. Relationship Status N Mean Std. Deviation Mean 37. Days per Week Single 113 3.27 2.281 .215 Eating Breakf ast In a Relations hip 166 3.99 2.466 .191 107. Consc ientiousness Single 113 6.04 1.861 .175 In a Relations hip 166 6.42 1.749 .136 Inde pe nde nt Sam ples Te st Levene's Test f or Equality of V ariances t-test f or Equality of Means 95% Conf idence Interval of the Mean Std. Error Dif f erence F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Dif f erence Dif f erence Low er Upper 37. Day s per Week Equal variances 1.919 .167 -2.466 277 .014 -.720 .292 -1.294 -.145 Eating Breakf as t as sumed Equal variances -2.503 252.586 .013 -.720 .287 -1.286 -.153 not assumed 107. Consc ientiousness Equal variances .325 .569 -1.765 277 .079 -.386 .219 -.817 .045 as sumed Equal variances -1.744 230.552 .083 -.386 .222 -.823 .050 not assumed 8/9) Group Statis tics 21. Socioeconomic Std. Error Status (SES) N Mean Std. Deviation Mean 57. Cell Phone Use Low er-Middle Clas s 121 6.84 2.025 .184 Upper-Middle Class 135 7.08 1.697 .146 49. Smoking Low er-Middle Clas s 121 3.00 2.890 .263 Upper-Middle Class 135 1.99 2.086 .180 Inde pe nde nt Sam ples Te st Levene's Test f or Equality of V ariances t-test f or Equality of Means 95% Conf idence Interval of the Mean Std. Error Dif f erence F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Dif f erence Dif f erence Low er Upper 57. Cell Phone Use Equal variances 1.591 .208 -1.025 254 .306 -.239 .233 -.697 .220 as sumed Equal variances -1.015 235.210 .311 -.239 .235 -.701 .224 not assumed 49. Smoking Equal variances 25.326 .000 3.221 254 .001 1.007 .313 .392 1.623 as sumed Equal variances 3.166 216.055 .002 1.007 .318 .380 1.635 not assumed 10) Group Statis tics Std. Error Wears Glass es N Mean Std. Deviation Mean 41. GPA (High School) .00 186 3.468 .4634 .0340 1.00 93 3.141 .6604 .0685 Inde pe nde nt Sam ples Te s t Levene's Test f or Equality of V ariances t-test f or Equality of Means 95% Conf idence Interval of the Mean Std. Error Dif f erence F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Dif f erence Dif f erence Low er Upper 41. GPA (High School) Equal variances 16.382 .000 4.802 277 .000 .3274 .0682 .1932 .4616 as sumed Equal variances 4.283 138.689 .000 .3274 .0764 .1763 .4786 not assumed Homework #6 Due Thursday, March 27th Begin Early: For this assignment, you will use SPSS, so plan to begin the assignment a couple days before the deadline in case you run into computer problems or get stuck. Print it out the night before. A) Include a cover sheet. B) Type your answers on the answer sheet that has been provided. C) Attach all SPSS Output after the answer sheet. D) Work independently and answer questions using your own words. E) Print an extra copy for yourself so you can check your answers later. Section 1: Review from Homework #3 Instructions: These review questions are used to increase the probability that you will remember how to use SPSS after the course has ended. Most students will need to refer back to the instructions in the previous computer assignment at some point: http://www.psychmike.com/psy211/homework3.doc 1. Is Favorite Music (#32) a categorical or continuous variable? 2. What does a score of “1” on Sleep Schedule (#17) mean? 3. What percentage of people said they were “Lower Class” on the Socioeconomic Status variable (#21)? 4. Indicate which of the following variables is most strongly correlated with self-esteem (#83): Worrying (#59), Political Idealism (#90), Attractiveness (#97), or Neuroticism (#104). 5. Determine which of the following variables have a statistically significant correlation with Stealing (#62): Age (#44), being Pro-Environment (#79), having Anger (#96), and Vocabulary (#110). Take any of these variables that significantly correlate with stealing and include them in a multiple regression. Report the R2 value. Section 2: An Easy Example of Between-groups t-Tests A. Overview The between-group t-test is used when we want to see how two groups of people differ on some continuous variable. The t-test is similar to a z-test, except the exact value needed for statistical significance varies, depending on sample size. Look at the p-value to determine if a result is statistically significant. If p < .05, the difference between groups is reliable. If not, there is no reliable difference, and we tend to ignore the result. B. Running a t-Test Go to the Analyze menu, point to Compare Means, and choose “Independent-Samples T Test” In the window that pops up, we always put the independent variable (grouping or categorical variable) in the “Grouping Variable” section of the box. In the “Test Variable(s)” box, put any continuous dependent variables you want to examine (you can choose more than one if you like). The analysis will tell us if the groups differ in terms of their scores on the “Test Variables”. Try putting Smoker (#3) in the “Grouping Variable” area, and put College GPA (#42) and Activism (#81) in the “Test Variables” section, so we can see if smokers differ on these variables. At this point you will notice that the OK button is still gray, so we need to do one more step. Single-click where it says “smoker(? ?)” in the Grouping Variables area, and click on the Define Groups button. SPSS needs you to tell it which numbers were used to describe the groups. In the data file, we arbitrarily coded nonsmokers = 0 and smoker = 1, so type a 0 where is says “Group 1” and a 1 where it says “Group 2”. If you ever forget how a variable was coded, just look at the Data Guide file for help: http://www.psychmike.com/psy211/data_guide.doc Click the Continue button, and then the OK button to run the analysis. Your Output should look something like this: Group Statis tics Std. Error 3. Smoker N Mean Std. Deviation Mean 42. GPA (college) No 114 3.343 .6120 .0573 Yes 133 3.120 .5302 .0460 81. Activis m No 125 5.91 1.540 .138 Yes 154 6.11 1.462 .118 Inde pe nde nt Sam ples Te st Levene's Test f or Equality of V ariances t-test f or Equality of Means 95% Conf idence Interval of the Mean Std. Error Dif f erence F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Dif f erence Dif f erence Low er Upper 42. GPA (college) Equal variances .389 .533 3.074 245 .002 .2234 .0727 .0803 .3666 as sumed Equal variances 3.041 225.336 .003 .2234 .0735 .0786 .3682 not assumed 81. A ctivis m Equal variances .610 .436 -1.100 277 .272 -.198 .180 -.553 .157 as sumed Equal variances -1.095 259.341 .275 -.198 .181 -.555 .159 not assumed Using the top box, we see that smokers had a lower GPA (M = 3.12, SD = 0.53) than non- smokers (M = 3.32, SD = 0.61). The second box tells us the t-value (3.074), the degrees of freedom (a reference number, 245) and the p-value (.002). The t-value and degrees of freedom are basically just used by the computer in order to calculate the p-value. We are mainly interested in the p-value. The p-value basically tells the probability of getting this mean difference by “chance” or sampling error. In other words, there is only about a .002 or .2% probability we’d see a result this extreme by chance. If p < .05 (less than 5%), the result is significant (trustworthy, reliable, not likely due to chance). Otherwise, the result is unreliable. The groups do not differ significantly on activism. C. Run a t-Test on Your Own Run a t-test to see if Relationship Status (#16) is related to Days per Week Eating Breakfast (#37) or Conscientiousness (#107). [Conscientiousness = work ethic, if you didn’t know] 6. Indicate the t-value and p-value for the relationship between relationship status and days eating breakfast. 7. Indicate the t-value and p-value for the relationship between relationship status and conscientiousness. Section 3: A Modestly Difficult Example of Between-groups t-Tests A. Overview One weakness of the t-test is that it only allows us to see how two groups differ on some variable (How do psych majors differ from PT majors on exercise habits?). A lot of times, we have categorical variables with more than two categories (Psych majors vs. PT vs. history vs. English, etc.). Later, we will learn how to handle such cases with an analysis called ANOVA. However, there are some ways to handle these cases using the between-group t-test. In our data file, some variables are dichotomous (two categories): #2-18, #111-124 Some have multiple categories: #19-33 The rest are continuous variables (numeric rating scales): #34-110 B. Running a t-Test for a multiple category variable The easiest way to deal with these multiple category variables is to only run an analysis looking at two of the categories. Favorite Entertainment (#26) is coded as 1 = TV, 2 = Internet, 3 = Books, and 4 = Exercise. Suppose we want to see if these categories predict differences in ACT score (#43). The t-test only allows us to compare two groups at once, so let’s compare the TV watchers to the Book readers. Run a t-test using Favorite Entertainment (#26) as the categorical or grouping variable and ACT score (#43) as the continuous or test variable. You run it just like normal, but when you hit the Define Groups button, type in 1 and 3 for the groups to examine (telling SPSS to compare TV watcher to the Book readers). The Output should look something like this: Group Statis tics 26. Favorite Std. Error Entertainment N Mean Std. Deviation Mean 43. ACT Sc ore TV 67 23.93 4.590 .561 Books 57 25.74 3.838 .508 Inde pe nde nt Sam ples Te s t Levene's Test f or Equality of V ariances t-test f or Equality of Means 95% Conf idence Interval of the Mean Std. Error Dif f erence F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Dif f erence Dif f erence Low er Upper 43. A CT Sc ore Equal variances 3.994 .048 -2.359 122 .020 -1.811 .768 -3.332 -.291 as sumed Equal variances -2.393 121.969 .018 -1.811 .757 -3.310 -.313 not assumed People who enjoy reading books (M = 25.74, SD = 3.84) scored higher than people who enjoy watching television (M = 23.93, SD = 4.59) on the ACT, and this result was statistically significant, t(122) = -2.36, p = .02. C. Run a t-Test on Your Own To determine whether Socioeconomic Status (#21) is related to Cell Phone Use (#57) or frequency of Smoking (#49), compare the “Lower-Middle Class” to the “Upper-Middle Class” on cell phone use and smoking. 8. Indicate the t-value and p-value for the relationship between SES and cell phone use. What does this mean? 9. Indicate the t-value and p-value for the relationship between SES and smoking. What does this mean? Section 4. The Most Complex Example of Between-groups t-Tests A. Overview One way to handle these multiple category variables is to ignore some of the categories, as we did in Section 3. An alternative way is to re-group the variables from a high number of categories down to just two categories. For example, earlier we compared TV watchers to Book readers (ignoring the people who prefer Internet or Exercise). We could re-categorize our entertainment variable so that instead of four groups, we lump the responses into just two groups. For example, we could compare TV watchers to all non-TV watchers (Book readers, Internet users, and Exercisers). Alternatively, we could compare people who like Exercise to people who are physically lazy (TV watchers, Book readers, and Internet users). There are many combinations: Category 1: TV watchers Category 2: Book readers ignoring Internet users and Exercisers or Category 1: TV watchers Category 2: Non-TV watchers (Book readers, Internet users, Exercisers) or Category 1: Exercisers Category 2: Physically Lazy (Book readers, Internet users, TV watchers) or Category 1: TV watchers, Internet users Category 2: Book readers ignoring Exercisers How we decide to group the variables likely depends on the research question we’re interested in. If we wanted to compare the groups on health, we might use the third option above. If we wanted to compare them on visual acuity or vocabulary, we might use the fourth grouping. Regardless, it can be very useful to learn how to re-classify variables B. Re-coding Variables Go to the Transform menu, point to Recode and choose “Into Different Variables…” The window that pops up has a number of commands. You can use this feature to take a continuous variable and make it categorical, to re-number variables, or to re-code them in any number of ways. We will keep it simple, but it is a powerful tool. Let us recode the Entertainment variable (#26) we’ve been discussing such that Exercisers will be in one group and everybody else will get classified in a second group (lazy folks). Move the entertainment variable to the box that says “Numeric variable Output variable” in the middle area of the screen. Off to the right, in the “Output Variable” section type in a name for the new variable (something simple) in the Name area and a more detailed label in the Label area. I chose “lazy” for the name and “Enjoy Laziness” for the label. Once you’ve typed in a name and label for the new variable you’re making, hit the Change button right below it. After that, click on the button called, Old and New Values. Here we will tell SPSS how to recode the Entertainment variable into our new laziness variable. Re-coding is simple. You type in the old value in the Old Value section on the left, the New Value on the right, and click the Add button. Our goal is to re-code Exercise from a 4 0, re-code TV from 1 1, re-code Internet from 2 1, and re-code Book from 3 1. Type a 4 in the Old Value section, a 0 in the New Value section, and click the Add button. Type a 1 in the Old Value section, a 1 in the New Value section, and click the Add button. Type a 2 in the Old Value section, a 1 in the New Value section, and click the Add button. Type a 3 in the Old Value section, a 1 in the New Value section, and click the Add button. Then, click the Continue button. Then, in the original pop-up window click the OK button. This tells SPSS to make Exercise a 0 and all of the physically lazy activities a 1. To check that you did this correctly, you can go to Data View (the spreadsheet area with all the data) and scroll all the way to the last variable, way off to the right. The last variable should say “lazy” and all scores should be 0’s or 1’s. C. Running a t-Test Now, you can run an analysis using the new dichotomous “lazy” variable, using the procedures already learned. Compare laziness to Physical Health (#86). You should get the following Output, which indicate that the lazy people (coded as 1) are significantly less healthy than the non-lazy or exercise group (coded as 0). Group Statis tics Std. Error Enjoy Laz iness N Mean Std. Deviation Mean 86. Phys ic al Health .00 24 8.08 1.018 .208 1.00 255 6.09 2.029 .127 Inde pe nde nt Sam ples Te st Levene's Test f or Equality of V ariances t-test f or Equality of Means 95% Conf idence Interval of the Mean Std. Error Dif f erence F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Dif f erence Dif f erence Low er Upper 86. Phys ic al Health Equal variances 14.055 .000 4.759 277 .000 1.997 .420 1.171 2.823 as sumed Equal variances 8.199 42.882 .000 1.997 .244 1.506 2.488 not assumed D. Re-coding and Running Your Own t-Test Mike has to go to court and has a hypothesis that people who wear glasses seem smarter than people who do not wear glasses, so he wears his glasses to court that day. Is there any scientific basis to this perception? Re-code the Lenses variable (#29). Make a new variable, where one group consists only of people who wear glasses, and the other group consists of people who wear contact lenses or neither types of corrective lenses. Then compare the glasses-wearers to those who don’t wear glasses in terms of High School GPA (#41). 10. Report the t-value, p-value, and Cohen’s d for this result. Cohen’s d requires a hand calculation. Section 5: APA-Format A. Overview Most researchers in the social sciences stick to a general format when writing up their results. Below are some instructions and examples about reporting results in APA-style. Read this over, and then answer questions 11 and 12. Here are some examples of how to write results in APA-style. This is just a guide. If you are a good writer, it is okay to deviate from this somewhat. Remember, p-values can be recorded exactly (e.g. p = .013, p = .46, etc.) or by merely stating significance (p < .05), or by merely stating non-significance (ns). It is okay to separate statistical results from the rest of the sentence by enclosing statistics in parentheses or by using commas. For correlations, provide the r value and p value. For regression, provide the initial correlational results, then conduct the regression, and provide the R2 and p-value. For t-tests, provide the Cohen’s d (calculated by hand, do not need to show hand-calculations this time), t-value, and p-value. Correlation (Statistically Significant): The correlation between IQ and hours of television watched was significant, r = -.35, p = .02. That is, people who were smarter watched moderately less television. The correlation between IQ and hours of television watched was significant, r = -.35, p < .05. That is, people who were smarter watched moderately less television. For correlations of magnitude < .10, we say something to the effect of “no sizeable relationship.” For correlations of magnitude .10 to .29, say the relationship is “small” or use a related synonym. For correlations of magnitude .30 to .49, say the relationship is “medium” or “modest” or some other synonym. For correlations of .50 or greater, say “large” or some other synonym. Correlation (Non-Significant): IQ and number of hours of television watched were not significantly related, r = .08, p = .67. Thus, one’s level of intelligence was not related to time spent watching television. IQ and number of hours of television watched were not sizably related, r = .08, ns. Thus, one’s level of intelligence was not related to time spent watching TV. Multiple Regression (after discussion of correlational results): Family stress (r = .48, p < .05), work stress (r = .56, p < .05), and school stress (r = .21, p < .05) all significantly predicted overall life stress. However, social support did not predict level of life stress, r = .03, ns. Thus, although social support was not related to life stress, one’s level of school stress was slightly related, family stress was modestly related, and work stress was strongly related to level of life stress. To examine the overall contribution of the three significant predictors (school stress, family stress, and life stress) in accounting for life stress, multiple regression was used. The results of the multiple regression analysis indicate that these three predictors accounted for a large proportion of the variance in life stress, R2 = .40, p < .05. Thus, school stress, family stress, and work stress together account for 40% of the differences in overall life stress. t-tests (Statistically Significant) Males (M = 2.0, SD = 0.6) differed from females (M = 5.0, SD = 0.4) in terms of number of pairs of shoes owned. This difference was large and statistically significant, d = 6.0, t(128) = 3.89, p < .05. In conclusion, males tend to own fewer pairs of shoes than females. Cohen’s d is a measure of how big the relationship is (effect size), see 10/31 PPT notes for details. d = (M1 – M2) / s where M1 is the mean of the first group (2.0), and M2 is the mean of the second group (5.0), and s is the average standard deviation across groups [(.6+.4)/2 = .5]. d = (2-5)/.5 = -3/.5 = -6. You can make d positive if you like , just make sure you interpret it correctly (males are lower than females). When d has a magnitude less than .2, we say something like “there was no relationship;” .2-.49 means “a small relationship;” .5-.79 means “a modest relationship;” .8 or higher means “a large relationship.” There is no maximum value for d. The values in the parentheses after the t is the degrees of freedom for the whole sample, which is provided by SPSS, but also equals the total sample size minus 2, that is N-2. dftotal = df1 + df2 = (n1 – 1) + (n2 – 1) = N -2 t-tests (non-Significant) Males (M = 2.9, SD = 0.6) did not differ from females (M = 3.1, SD = 0.4) in terms of number of pairs of shoes owned. This difference was small and not statistically significant, d = 0.4, t(128) = 1.12, ns. In conclusion, males tend to own about as many pairs of shoes as females. B. Reporting Your Results You will need to be able to report results in APA-format for the term paper, so check with me if you are unsure how to do it. 11. Report the results of problem 5 in APA format, as best you can. 12. Report the results of problem 10 in APA format, as best you can. C. Bonus 13. (Optional, extra points). Out of your own curiosity, conduct an interesting analysis using the re-coding function, and report the result in APA-format. Answer Sheet 1-2 are one point each; 3-9 are two points each; 10-12 are three points each; 13 is extra credit 1) Categorical or continuous? 2) “1” on Sleep Schedule = 3) % Lower Class = 4) Strongest = 5) R2 = 6) t-value = p-value = 7) t-value = p-value = 8) t-value = p-value = Meaning? 9) t-value = p-value = Meaning? 10) t-value = p-value = Cohen’s d = 11) APA-style result: 12) APA-style result: 13) Bonus (optional)

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