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Rogers Lecture3 by k55qTC

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									          PMA 5205
Psyllids and Leafminer: Changing
 the management of arthropod
      pests of Florida citrus
Citrus Canker
      &
Citrus Greening
Pupal stage
6-22 days




              Citrus Leafminer
                  Lifecycle
                                             Egg
                                             2-10 days




                                 4 larval instars
                                 5-22 days
CLM can also cause damage
to green twigs and in rare
cases cause mining on fruit
surface
Seasonality of CLM in Florida

• overwinter as adults with no reproductive diapause
• very low populations exist throughout winter months
  on the low levels of new flush being produced
• with warmer weather, CLM produce more offspring
  more rapidly
• populations build up to noticeable levels when the
  summer flush occurs (usually May to June)
                                Mean percent damage




                  0
                                                                                 100




                      10
                           20
                                30
                                     40
                                          50
                                               60
                                                                  70
                                                                       80
                                                                            90


        3/31/06



        4/30/06



        5/30/06



        6/29/06




Date
        7/29/06



        8/28/06



        9/27/06
                                                                                       Bearing citrus 2006




       10/27/06
                                                    Leaf damage
                               Mean percent damage




                 0
                     10
                          20
                               30
                                    40
                                         50
                                              60
                                                   70
                                                              80
                                                                      90
                                                                           100




       3/31/06




       4/30/06




       5/30/06




Date
       6/29/06




       7/29/06




       8/28/06
                                                                                 Non-bearing citrus 2006




       9/27/06
                                                        Leaf damage
 Importance of CLM Damage

• Damage alone not significant on
    mature trees (New flush : Canopy)
• Damage on non-bearing trees can
    reduce tree growth
• increased time to bring trees into
     production
  Canker / CLM Relationship
Canker incidence can be up to 50% higher in
groves where CLM damage is abundant
(Sohi and Sandhu, 1968)
      Choice & Timing of Pesticide
             Applications

Non-bearing citrus
• soil-applied imidacloprid application is the best
  option for preventing CLM damage
• applications should be made 10-14 days prior to
  anticipated flush
• expect about 8 weeks of control
      Choice & Timing of Pesticide
             Applications

Non-bearing citrus
• soil-applied imidacloprid just prior to summer flush
  and again just prior to the fall flush will provide
  control of CLM during this peak time for CLM
  damage
• will also provide control of Asian citrus psyllid during
  these times as well.
      Choice & Timing of Pesticide
             Applications

Bearing citrus

• preventing damage on bearing trees for canker
  management much more difficult
• must rely on foliar applications if control warranted
• there are no soil-applied systemic insecticides
  available for CLM control on large, bearing trees
      Choice & Timing of Pesticide
             Applications

Bearing citrus
• as a general rule, there have never been any soil-
  applied systemic organophosphate or carbamate
  insecticides shown to provide effective control of
  CLM damage
• this includes aldicarb (Temik), dimethoate, oxamyl
  (Vydate), metasystox (MSR)
   Control of Damage by
     Citrus Leafminer




Soil imidacloprid application: Sept. 4; Foliar applications: Sept. 18
                      Control of Damage by                 pi
                                                          S nt or

                                                           gr -      l
                                                          A i mek + oi
                        Citrus Leafminer                   nt
                                                          U reat ed
                      60



                      50
Percent leaf damage




                      40



                      30



                      20



                      10



                       0
                              June 6      June 13   June 21


              Treatments applied May 19
     Insecticides for leafminer control on citrus.

Insecticide/Formulation          Rate       Appl. method
Admire Pro                7-14 fl oz/acre   Soil applied
(fenpropathrin)                             systemic
Agri-mek 0.15 EC +        10 oz/acre        Foliar
Petroleum oil             1+ gal / acre     application
Assail 70 WP              2 oz / acre       Foliar
(acetamiprid)                               application
Micromite 80 WGS +        6.25 oz/acre      Foliar
petroleum oil             1+ gal / acre     application
HMOs (horticultural       2% spray or       Foliar spray
mineral oils: FC435-66;   5 gal/acre
FC455-80)
Spintor (spinosad)        6 oz / acre       Foliar
                                            application
Timing of application
for leafminer control
[FOLIAR APPLICATIONS]



13 days from general
budbreak is earliest time
for application


Last potential date for
leafminer application is
31 days after budbreak
 Effects of Cultural Practices

Promoting winter flush may result in
higher CLM populations earlier in the
season
       • hedging and topping
       • excessive irrigation
       • fertilization regimes
Biological Control of Citrus Leafminer

 Ageniaspis citricola: Imported into Florida from Australia in 1994




                                      Parasitism rates up to 86%
                                      observed late in the season
   Use of Pheromones in Leafminer
            Management

 In 2006, the full pheromone of the citrus leafminer
 was identified by researchers in California.




Moreira, J.A., McElfresh, J.S. and J.G. Millar. 2006.
Identification, synthesis, and field testing of the sex
pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella .
J. CHEM. ECOL. 32 (1): 169-194.
CLM find each other for
mating with sex pheromones
 Wind



                                                     Pheromone plume




     Photo credit: J. Jones, University of Arizona


• Females release pheromone
  from specialized gland


                                                                       • Male has special
                                                                       receptors on antennae
                                                                       which smell the
                                                                       female’s pheromone
Potential uses of leafminer pheromone in
citrus production


 • Traps to monitor leafminer populations to
   time pesticide applications

 • Use pheromones for mating disruption

 • Projects currently underway
Citrus Leafminer Trapping study
   No lure           With lure
• Male moths follow pheromone
  trial to locate female


    “Every revolutionary idea evokes three stages of
    reaction:
 • Application of synthetic pheromone sources
          1. It’s completely impossible;
          2. males and but it’s not worth doing; and
   confusesIt’s possibleprevents mating, reducing
          3. I said and crop damage
   larval numbersit was a good idea all along!”

                                — Arthur C. Clarke
Asian Citrus Psyllid




  Diaphorina citri Kuwayama
 Asian Citrus Psyllid Distribution (FL)



• First detected in dooryard citrus
  trees in south Florida in 1998
• subsequent finds in nursery plants
  (orange jasmine [Murraya paniculata]) in
  discount stores throughout the state
• psyllid well established in primary citrus
  growing areas of FL and cannot be
  eradicated
After Asian citrus
psyllid colonized SE
Florida (red), it
moved on Murraya
paniculata to other
counties very rapidly.



Rapid movement
made eradication
unfeasible
Now found in SE
areas of Texas and
Mexico.
                         Portions of TX and
                         Mexico are infested
                         with ACP      Map: Katrina Vitkus
                Psyllid Discovery in Mexico



        (March 2006)




                                        (April 2002)




HLB thus far only detected in Florida
              Asian Citrus Psyllid

   5 nymphal stages

   10 generations / year

   Life cycle takes
    15-47 days

   egg   adult in 2
    weeks at 75-80°F
   Adult Asian citrus psyllids



 3-4 mm in length
 mottled wings
 wings held “roof-like”
  over body
      Asian Citrus Psyllid Adults

• Adult psyllids can feed on both new and
  mature leaf flushes; prefer young leaves
• When young leaves not available, adult
  psyllids are found on underside of mature
  leaves feeding on leaf midvein
• Mean longevity of females increases with
  decreasing temperature within 59-86°F
  (= 15-30°C)
                  Adults gather at newly
                  emerging growing tips
                  and on young flushes,
                  feed and mate




Females ready to lay
eggs have orange
coloration of their
abdomens
           Asian Citrus Psyllid Eggs

 Adults oviposit ONLY
  on young leaf flush

 Eggs are about 0.3
  mm long and almond
  shaped

 Eggs are pale when
  deposited, turn yellow
  then orange as they
  mature. Often difficult
  to see without hand
  lens
*
*
*
*
   Duration of egg stage (in days) and hatch survival

Temp (°F/°C)       Days to hatch            Survival
50°F / 10°C              0                     0
59°F / 15°C          9.74 ± 0.23             84.5%
68°F / 20°C          7.03 ± 0.11             89.4%
77°F / 25°C          4.15 ± 0.07             95.5%
82°F / 28°C          3.46 ± 0.09             96.2%
86°F / 30°C          3.29 ± 0.06             93.2%
91.4°F / 33°C             0                    0
Data from Liu & Tsai, 2000. Ann. Appl. Biol. 137:201-216.
 Psyllid developmental times (in days)
Temp (°F/°C)                      Egg to adult
50°F / 10°C                            0
59°F / 15°C                        49.3 ± 0.4
68°F / 20°C                        28.8 ± 0.5
77°F / 25°C                        17.0 ± 0.2
82°F / 28°C                        14.1 ± 0.2
86°F / 30°C                        16.3 ± 0.3
91.4°F / 33°C                          0
Data from Liu & Tsai, 2000. Ann. Appl. Biol. 137:201-216.
     Asian Citrus Psyllid Nymphs


 0.3 mm long in the
  first instar
 1.6 mm long as fifth
  instars.
 Nymphs are yellow
  in color with red eyes
  and visible wing
  pads in larger
  nymphs
   Asian Citrus Psyllid Nymphs
 early nymphal stages easily mistaken for
  aphids
 white waxy secretions provides an easy
  means of distinguishing from aphids at a
  distance.
     Nymphal developmental times (in days)
Temp (°F/°C)     Total nymphal stages        Survival (%)
50°F / 10°C        Failed to develop              0
                   beyond 3rd instar
59°F / 15°C             39.6 ± 0.3               61.9
68°F / 20°C             21.8 ± 0.4               69.8
77°F / 25°C             12.8 ± 0.2               75.4
82°F / 28°C             10.6 ± 0.2               83.9
86°F / 30°C             13.0 ± 0.3               73.7
91.4°F / 33°C      Failed to develop              0
                 beyond 4th or 5th instar
Data from Liu & Tsai, 2000. Ann. Appl. Biol. 137:201-216.
Low temperature developmental thresholds
     1st instar         53°F (11.7°C)

     2nd instar         51°F (10.7°C)

     3rd instar         50°F (10.1°C)

     4th instar         51°F (10.5°C)

     5th instar         52°F (10.9°C)
  Psyllid population growth


 Need young tender flush to
  reproduce

 Temperatures in the range of
  68-86°F are ideal for rapid
  buildup of psyllid populations
           Psyllid damage

In the absence of the greening pathogen,
psyllid control has targeted young trees to
protect new growth from damage that results
in reduced tree growth.
New leaf distortion (high psyllid
populations)
Witche’s broom effect
Dieback of new growth
Psyllid nymphs produce waxy secretions similar to aphid
or scale insect honeydew
Sooty mold - growing on sticky residues from
secretions from psyllid nymphs
  Asian Citrus Psyllid as a vector of
         greening disease

The damage caused to new growth on young
trees by psyllid feeding is of minor concern
now with the presence of greening in Florida.

Management of Asian citrus psyllid
populations is necessary to slow the spread
of greening disease in a grove once
present.
http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/chrp/greening/cgmaps.html
  Greening management programs in
           other countries

1. Use of disease free budwood
2. Isolation of screened nurseries
3. Heavy insecticide use on young and non-
   bearing trees
4. Apply insecticides to bearing trees when
   new flush present
5. Remove visibly infected trees
                 Greening management

 (In China)
  Farm 1: Infected trees were removed and every flush
  throughout the year was sprayed with insecticides for
  psyllid control.
  Result: 14% trees infected within 4-5 years
  Farm 2: from 1999-2005, no management practices
  were implemented for psyllid control; infected trees
  were not removed and no insecticides were applied
  for psyllid control.
  Result: 100% of trees infected in 6 years
(Results reported by J.M. Bove 2005; Citrus Canker and Huanglongbing Research Workshop)
          Cambuhy Farm - Brazil
         Action              Before        After Greening
                           Greening
Sprays with insecticides    6 x/year         18 x/year,
for young plants (0-3      18x/year –      15 x 15 days -
years)                        CVC          October to May
Systemic insecticides –     1 x/year          2 x/year
young plants (0-3 years)
Fog                           3x                      0
Insecticide by plane          0X                    3X
Sprays with insecticide      0/year             4 x/year
with mite control (adult       Slide courtesy of F. Tersi,
plants)                        Cambuhy Farm
Application of Organophosphate insecticide (Dimethoate) for Psyllid control
Developing a Psyllid IPM Program



 • Monitoring Psyllid Populations
 • Effective Use of Chemical Controls
 • Biological Control
 • Cultural Practices
  Developing a Psyllid IPM Program

Monitoring Psyllid Populations

   Knowing when psyllid populations are
   increasing is important to help time
   pesticide applications
Traps for monitoring Psyllid Populations
• Adult psyllids can be collected using yellow
  colored sticky cards
Traps for monitoring Psyllid Populations
Problems with using sticky traps

 • Psyllids are localized or patchy within a grove.
 • Psyllids typically do not move much when new flush is
   abundant
 • Trap numbers are typically low, its easier to find psyllids
   on flush than on the traps
 • Would require many sticky cards per acre to adequately
   estimate psyllid abundance
 • In South Africa, the use of sticky traps has not been
    adopted because too labor intensive
CREC Psyllid Research
Colony in Greenhouse
                     No
                    psyllids
                    (after 1 week)




                        1,000 +
                        psyllids
      Monitoring Psyllid Populations
Important to monitor when new flush
is available
   Critical time is January through June
   when temperatures are cooler and
   flush is abundant

Check expanding terminals for
aggregations of psyllids

Adult psyllids found on underside
of leaves near leaf midvein when
no new flush is available
   Monitoring Psyllid Populations

 Eggs tucked away in very young,
  newly forming leaves and leaf buds.
   Monitoring Psyllid Populations

 Inspect new leaf and shoot flushes of citrus and
  citrus relatives such as orange jasmine, Murraya
  paniculata. Look for white honeydew and leaf
  distortion on new leaf flush and shoots.
    Developing a Psyllid IPM Program

Effective Use of Chemical Controls
 • based on pest pressure
 • Protect the new flush, especially in spring and
   summer
 • use of systemic products on young trees, have to
   rely on foliar sprays for mature trees
 • use of the systemic product Temik on large trees
   may provide some suppression of psyllid
   populations
    Recommended Insecticides for
        Asian Citrus Psyllid

Pesticide                  Rate             Application
Admire 2F          1/16 – 1/8 oz per tree   Soil systemic

Provado 1.6 F          10 – 20 oz / A       Foliar systemic

Danitol 2.4 EC            1 pt / A          Foliar application

Lorsban 4EC               5 pt / A          Foliar Application

Temik 15 G               33 lbs / A         Soil Incorporated


2007 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide
Soil-applied Insecticides for Psyllid Control


Young trees (< 6-8 feet tall) - imidacloprid
  • Soil applied systemic insecticides are most
    effective
  • must be applied about 2 weeks prior to flush for
    best results
  • in sandy soils, can be washed away if heavy
    rains occur with 12 -24 hr post treatment
  • have fewer negative effects on natural enemy
    populations
 Soil-applied insecticides for Asian citrus psyllid
             control on young citrus.
Insecticide/Formulation                                           Rate
Imidacloprid
Admire 2F (21.4% AI)                                          16.0 to 32.0
                                                              fluid oz/acre
Admire PRO Systemic Protectant 4.6 lbs
(42.8% AI)                                                    7.0 to 14.0
                                                              fluid oz/acre

Maximum imidacloprid allowed per season = (0.50 lb AI/Acre)


 Apply as drench directly to base of tree.
 Microjet injection throws most material
 outside of root zone
Soil-applied Insecticides for Psyllid Control


Mature trees (> 6-8 feet tall) – aldicarb [Temik]
  • Temik shown to be effective on both young and
    mature citrus for suppression of psyllid
    populations
  • application 10 days prior to flush for small trees;
    application 30 days prior to flush for large trees
  • use 33 lbs / A rate
        Psyllid Control Trial on Mature
                 Trees (2005)

• 5 acre block Hamlin on Carrizo at CREC
• tree height 10 feet; tree skirt diameter 8-10 feet
• trees hedged October 1, 2005
• Temik 33 lbs / A applied October 12, 2005 (special research
  permit)
• plot size 6 x 2 = 12 trees / plot; replicated 5 times
• weekly evaluation of psyllid nymph, egg and adult populations
• trees continuously hand-pruned to promote flush and psyllid
  populations
                                                                 Control of Asian Citrus Psyllid Nymphs (2005)
                                                     600
Mean ( ±SE) N umber of Psyl l i d N ymphs per 10 t er mi nal s




                                                                              Te m i k 3 3 l b s / A

                                                     500                      Un tre a te d


                                                     400


                                                     300


                                                     200


                                                     100


                                                                 0
                                                                     10/ 21 10/ 27   11/ 1    11/ 8    11/ 15 11/ 22 11/ 30       12/ 6    12/ 13 12/ 21     1/ 05    1/ 11    1/ 18
                                                                     9DAT            20 DAT            34 DAT            49 DAT            62 DAT            85 DAT            98 DAT
                                                                            15DAT             27 DAT            41 DAT            55 DAT            70 DAT            91 DAT
                                                                 Control of Asian Citrus Psyllid Nymphs (2005)
                                                     700
Mean ( ±SE) N umber of Psyl l i d N ymphs per 10 t er mi nal s




                                                                              Te m i k 3 3 l b s / A
                                                     600                      Te m i k 2 5 l b s
                                                                              Un tre a te d

                                                     500


                                                     400


                                                     300


                                                     200


                                                     100


                                                                 0
                                                                     10/ 21 10/ 27   11/ 1    11/ 8    11/ 15 11/ 22 11/ 30       12/ 6    12/ 13 12/ 21     1/ 5     1/ 11    1/ 18
                                                                     9DAT            20 DAT            34 DAT            49 DAT            62 DAT            85 DAT            98 DAT
                                                                            15DAT             27 DAT            41 DAT            55 DAT            70 DAT            91 DAT
                                                                  2006 Hickory Branch Grove (Highlands Co.)
                                                                                       A sian citrus psyllid nymphs
                                                            250
Mean ( ± S ) number psyl l i d nymphs ( per 10 f l ushes)




                                                                                  Te m i k (Fe b . 1 6 )
                                                            200                   Te m i k (Ap ri l 1 2 )
                                                                                  Un tre a te d

                                                            150




                                                            100
          E




                                                            50




                                                             0
                                                                   2/ 23   3/ 2     3/ 9   3/ 16   3/ 24    3/ 30   4/ 7   6/ 29   7/ 14   9/ 8   9/ 15
                      E
            Mean ( ± S ) number of psyl l i d adul t s ( per st i cky t r ap)




        0
                   2
                                 4
                                               6
                                                               8
                                                                                      10

 3/ 2
 3/ 9
3/ 16
3/ 24
3/ 30
 4/ 7
4/ 13
4/ 28
                                                            u n tre a te d




 5/ 5
5/ 11
5/ 19
                                                            Te m i k (Ap ri l 1 2 )
                                                            Te m i k (Fe b . 1 6 )




5/ 26
 6/ 2
 6/ 9
6/ 16
6/ 23
6/ 29
7/ 14
7/ 21
7/ 28
                                                                                           A sian citrus psyllid adults




 8/ 4
                                                                                                                          Hickory Branch Grove (Higlands Co.)




8/ 11
8/ 18
8/ 25
 9/ 1
 9/ 8
Temik Application for Psyllid Control

• Make application 30 days prior to
  anticipation of flush

• Use 33 lbs / A rate

• Use of lower rate will decrease
  effectiveness, time to control and duration
  of control
Foliar-applied Insecticides for Psyllid Control


 Use on both young and mature trees:
 • applied as soon as new flush is beginning
   to expand
 • typically broad-spectrum products
 • most have negative effects on natural
   enemies
Foliar insecticides for Asian citrus psyllid control
                     on citrus.
Insecticide/Formulation          Rate          Comments
Danitol 2.4 EC            16 oz/acre         Pyrethroid
(fenpropathrin)                              (contact)
Provado 1.6 F             10 to 20 fl oz/acre nicotinoid
Lorsban 4EC               4-5 pints/acre     OP (contact)
(chlorpyrifos)
HMOs (horticultural       2-5 gal/acre       Very short
mineral oils: FC435-66;                      residual; no
FC455-80)                                    adult control
  Me a n n u mb e r p syl l i d n ymp h s p e r 1 0 fl u sh e s           Neonicotinoid trial 2006-2
                                                                  1200

                                                                                         Ad m i re Pro 1 4 o z /A
                                                                                         Pro v a d o 1 2 o z /A
                                                                  960
                                                                                         As s a i l 1 0 o z / A
                                                                                         Un tre a te d
                                                                  720




                                                                  480




                                                                  240




                                                                    0
                                                                         4/ 21   4/ 25              5/ 2           5/ 9     5/ 16
                                                                         3 DAT   7 DAT            1 5 DAT         22 DAT   29 DAT
* Admire Pro soil application made 13 days prior to other treatments to allow uptake
                                                                      Psyllid Foliar Trial 2006-4
                                                                200
Me a n n u mb e r p syl l i d n ymp h s p e r 1 0 fl u sh e s

                                                                         M i c ro m i te 6 .2 5 o z / A
                                                                         Ag ri -M e k + o i l 1 0 o z / 2 % v /v
                                                                160      Da n i to l 1 p t/A
                                                                         L o rs b a n 5 p t / A
                                                                         Vy d a te 0 .5 g a l / A d re n c h /fo l i a r
                                                                120      En v i d o r 2 0 o z / A
                                                                         Un tre a te d


                                                                80




                                                                40




                                                                 0
                                                                      5/ 17                5/ 23                5/ 30        6/ 5
                                                                      7 DAT               1 3 DAT              20 DAT      26 DAT
Me a n n u mb e r o f p syll id n ymp h s p e r 1 0 flu sh e s          Psyllid Foliar Trial 2006-2
                                                                 1500
                                                                                           dmi   r
                                                                                          A r e P o 14 oz / A

                                                                                           r
                                                                                          P ovado 12 oz / A

                                                                                             d           b
                                                                                          I mi an 70 W 2 l s / A
                                                                 1200
                                                                                           i
                                                                                           m                    r
                                                                                          D et hoat e 2 qt / A D ench

                                                                                            R                   a
                                                                                                                i
                                                                                          MS 3 pt s/ 100 gal f ol r

                                                                                            R
                                                                                          MS 8 pt s/ A dr ench
                                                                 900
                                                                                           nt
                                                                                          U r eat ed




                                                                 600




                                                                 300




                                                                   0
                                                                         4/ 21    4/ 25                   5/ 2          5/ 9
                                                      15 DAT            3 DAT
                                                                           2 2 DAT
                                                                                 7 DA T
 * soil application made 13 days prior to other treatments to allow uptake
                                       80
                                     Petroleum oil sprays
                                80
Mean number of psyllid adults



                                       60
                                                                     ol l          -
                                                                    S - O i 97 ( FC 435)
                                60

                                                                     ol l          -
                                                                    S - O i 97 ( FC 455)
                                       40
                                40
                                                                     unS
                                                                    S pr ay 11E



                                       20                            t - l
                                                                    Mi e- E O i
                                20


                                                                    unt r eat ed

                                 0      0
                                                A
                                             4 DT     A
                                                    8D T       A
                                                           12 D T

                                            4 DAT
                         80
                  Petroleum oil sprays

            80           60             Psyllid eggs
                                                              Sol- Oil 97 (FC-435)
            60



                                                              Sol- Oil 97 (FC-455)
% Control




            40

                         40
            20
                                                              SunSpray 11E
             0
                 4 DAT   8 DAT             1 2 DAT


                         20                                   Mit e-E-O il
            80                    Psyllid nymphs
            60                                                unt reat ed

            40           0
                                 4DAT     8DAT       12 DAT
            20



             0
                 4 DAT   8 DAT             1 2 DAT
       Use of petroleum oil sprays for
               psyllid control
• little or no control of adults
• residues possibly repel adult psyllids for a short
  period of time (several days)
• good control of nymphs that are present
• must have thorough coverage
• must reapply between 7-10 days after first
  treatment and continue to reapply until all new
  flush is fully expanded
• limitations of time and equipment
 See also: Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 118: 49-53
 (2005)

        CHEMICAL CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT
                   APPROACHES
           OF THE ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLID,
                 DIAPHORINA CITRI
                    KUWAYAMA
     (HOMOPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) IN FLORIDA CITRUS



http://fulltext.fcla.edu/DLData/SN/SN00971219/0118/049_53.pdf
 Problems with Broad-
 Spectrum insecticide use
 seen in Brazil…

…repeated use of certain pesticides
will lead to similar problems in
Florida
“Ortézia scale”

Orthezia praelonga

 Significant pest now
 in Brazil
“Ortézia scale” – Sooty mold
“Ortézia scale”
“Ortézia scale”
Black Parlatoria Scale – Parlatoria ziziphus
Citrus snow scale – Unaspis citri
Green scale
Coccus viridus
 Developing a Psyllid IPM Program

Biological Control

There are numerous natural enemies of psyllids
present that suppress psyllid populations,
especially in the summer and fall

Use of broad spectrum foliar insecticides will
present a problem in maintaining populations
of the natural enemies of psyllids and other
potential pest species
  Natural Enemies of Juvenile D. citri in Florida
Ladybeetles (Coccinellidae)      Spiders
Curinus coeruleus                Hibana velox (Anyphaenidae)
Cycloneda sanguinea              Chiracanthium inclusum (Clubionidae)
Exochomus childreni              Hentzia palmarum (Salticidae)
Harmonia axyridis                Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae)
Olla v-nigrum
                                 Hemiptera (Anthocoridae)
Green Lacewings (Chrysopidae)    Orius sp.
Chrysoperla rufilabris
Ceraeochrysa spp. (2 - 3)
                                 Ants (Formicidae)
                                 Dorymyrmex bureni
Brown Lacewings (Hemerobiidae)   Pseudodmyrmex gracilis
Micromus posticus
                                 Parasitoids
Hoverflies (Syrphidae)           Tamarixia radiata
Allograpta obliqua
Biological Control:
Olla v-nigrum




         J. P. Michaud
   Biological Control:
   Harmonia axyridis
Multicolored Asian ladybeetle
“Classical” Biological Control
Tamarixia radiata
 External Parasite
Originally from India
 Variable incidence in Florida.
Tamarixia Radiata: Adult and Egg




http://www.fftc.agnet.org/library/article/tn2001005.html#6
T. radiata: Larva and Prepupa




http://www.fftc.agnet.org/library/article/tn2001005.html#6
       Incidence of Parasitism by
         Tamarixia in SW Florida
100%
                                                               Silver Strand
80%                                                            SWFREC
                                                               Duda
60%                                                            Ranch 1

40%

20%

  0%
    un      un         eb          eb         ar       ay      un      ug
   J      J          F           F           M        M      J       A
 3     16        4          28          29         25     30      11
                            Cohort Studies
• Count eggs/1st
                         to Evaluate Mortality
                         P. Stansly, R. Pluke and A. Urbaneja
    instars on young
    flush
•   Cage half of flush
•   Daily counts until
    emergence
                      Cohort Study, Immokalee
               100%
                                             Caged                Not Caged
               80%
Survival (%)




               60%

               40%

               20%

                0%




                                                                     p


                                                                              p
                   ug


                   ug


                            ug


                            ug


                                             ug


                                             ug


                                                          ug

                                                                   Se


                                                                            Se
                 -A


                 -A


                          -A


                          -A


                                           -A


                                           -A


                                                        -A

                                                                2-


                                                                         4-
               19


               21


                        23


                        25


                                         27


                                         29


                                                      31
                         Mortality (%)        Caged            Not Caged
                         Young Instars     42.7 ± 9.9 b        83.8 ± 7.7 a
                          Late Instars     22.1 ± 12.2 b       50.0 ± 28.9 a
    Developing a Psyllid IPM Program

Cultural Practices

  Removal of surrounding host plants of
  Asian Citrus Psyllid

  Website listing all known host plants
  for psyllid and greening pathogen
  http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/greening/hostlist.pdf
Orange Jasmine,
 Mock Orange
(Murraya paniculata)
  • a preferred host for ACP

  • recent work suggests
    Murraya is a host for HLB
Is orange jasmine (Murraya
paniculata) a host for the
greening pathogen ?

      Most likely!
Orange Jasmine
(Murraya paniculata)
Recent Findings :
• Transmission of HLB from
  citrus to Murraya using
  Dodder
• Tranmission of HLB from
  citrus to Murraya via psyllids
• Work ongoing to demonstrate
  that psyllids can move HLB
  from Murraya to citrus
Chinese box orange,
Box thorn (Severinia buxifolia)
  • host for ACP
  • can transmit greening disease
    to psyllids
Limeberry (Triphasia trifolia)
 • occasional host for ACP
 • can transmit greening disease
   to psyllids
      Some Important Questions!

• How long does it take for a feeding psyllid to
  transmit greening to a healthy plant?
• Will an infected psyllid feeding on a healthy
  plant treated with systemic or foliar insecticides
  die before transmitting the disease?
• Is there a true (economic) benefit to monthly
  insecticide applications like used in other
  countries compared to limiting sprays to the
  primary spring and summer flushes?
• How far can a psyllid fly?
        Transmission by Diaphorina citri
• Acquisition time: 15-30 min (apparently in
  the phloem);

• Inoculation time: <1 h

• Latent period: 8-12 days; 21 days; 24 h (??)

• Acquisition by nymphs (4º. e 5º. instars) and
  adults

• Inoculation only by adults (mobility)
       Transmission by Diaphorina citri
• Bacteria in body of the insect and salivary
  glandule

• Persistency in the vector: 3 months (!!)

• No transmission by eggs

• Transmission efficiency: 1 a 100% (??)

• Yellow attract adults (diseased plant)
 Current Recommendations
Non-bearing trees / Resets
  • Soil-applied systemic insecticide applications
    during spring or summer flush (dependent on
    psyllid pop’s) repeated in fall
  • Between soil applications, use foliar applications
    to manage psyllid populations when increasing
    on new flush
  • Important not to overlook additional care of
    resets in mature blocks of trees
Developing a Management Program

Once greening is present in a grove, do you
reset trees in place of removed HLB infected
trees?
   • Young trees flushing at different times
     than surrounding mature trees will attract
     psyllids
   • Young trees will require extra care,
     especially in this situation
Current Recommendations
Bearing Trees
   • aldicarb (Temik) is the only soil-applied
     systemic that has any effect on psyllids on
     bearing trees (30 days prior to 1st flush)
   • foliar applications targeting the spring and
     summer flush likely to provide most reduction
     in psyllid numbers
   • supplemental foliar sprays used during
     summer when needed (or practical)
Bearing Trees (Summer / Fall)
Additional Sprays

   • if flush expected to be synchronized, use
     foliar sprays specifically to target psyllids
   • if flushing is continuous (unsynchronized),
     multi-targeting of pests is probably more
     economically feasible
 Developing a Management Strategy

Multi-targeting of pests
  • use of one pesticide application to control several
    pests simultaneously
  • planning ahead to reduce insecticide inputs
List of insecticides and miticides recommended for use in the Florida Citrus
Pest Management Guide and their effects on different pests and beneficial
insects.
                                                                                                 Target pest
                                                                                                                                                                         Negative effects on
                                                                                                                                                                         beneficial insects
 Pesticide active ingredient
                                   Psyllid       Leafminer       Rust Mites       Spider Mites   Root Weevil Adults        Aphids       Scale insects        Mealybugs



 Abamectin + oil               ++            + + +, R        + + +, R         +                  + (oil)              + (oil)       + (oil)             + (oil)          medium
 Imidacloprid                  + + +, R      + + +, R        -                -                  +                    + + +, R      ++                  +                low
  (soil appl., nonbearing)



 Imidacloprid                  + + +, R      +               -                -                  -                    + + +, R      ++                  +                medium
 (foliar application)

 Acetamiprid                   -             + + +, R        -                -                  ?                    +++           +                   ++               medium
 Carbaryl                      ?             -               +                ?                  + + +, R             +             + + +, R            +                high
 Chlorpyrifos                  + + +, R      +               +                -                  +                    + + +, R      + + +, R            + + +, R         high
 Fenpropathrin                 + + +, R      ?               +                +                  + + +, R             -             -                   +                high
 Dimethoate                    ++            -               -                -                  ?                    + + +, R      + + +, R            +                high
 Spinosad                      -             + + +, R        -                -                  -                    -             -                   -                low
 Spirodiclofen                 -             -               + + +, R         + + +, R           ?                    -             -                   -                low
 Diflubenzuron                 ++            + + +, R        + + +, R         -                  + + +, R             -             -                   -                low
 Pyridaben                     -             ?               ++               + + +, R           -                    -             -                   -                high
 Aldicarb                      + + +, R      -               + + +, R         +++                -                    + + +, R      -                   -                low
 Sulfur                        ?             -               + + +, R         +++                -                    -             ?                   ?                high (short-
                                                                                                                                                                         term)

 Fenbutatin oxide              -             -               + + +, R         + + +, R           -                    -             -                   -                low
 Petroleum oil                 +             + +, R          + +, R           ++                 + (eggs)             +             + +, R              +                low
 (R) = product recommended for control of pest in Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide
 (+ + +) = good control of pest
 (+ +) = short-term control of pest
 (+ ) = low levels of pest suppression
 (-) = no observed control of pest
 (?) = no data available
             Multi-targeting of pests
Examples:
Spring: (young trees) psyllids; Admire appl. will control psyllids,
                      aphids and leafminers

Spring: (large trees) psyllids, pink citrus rust mites; Temik will
                      also control aphids and suppress
                      nematodes
Summer: rust mites; Agri-mek will control leafminer with
       some psyllid suppression
Summer: disease/mite control; petroleum oil applications will
provide short term suppression of psyllid nymph populations
when new flush present but not a “stand alone” method psyllid
control
Developing a Management Program

Is there a threshold for the number of
psyllids present that justify treatment?
     • takes only 1 psyllid carrying pathogen to
           infect a tree
     • allowing any infected psyllids to go
            uncontrolled in one part of a grove will
            likely result in spread of the psyllid and
            pathogen to trees in other parts of the
            grove.
 Developing a Management Program

Psyllid controls should be timed primarily to the
spring and summer (May/June) flush
  • psyllids overwinter as adults***
  • populations begin building on spring flush
  • populations reach highest levels on
    summer flush
  • easier to time applications to synchronized
    early season flushes
       Possible Management Plan

Non-Bearing citrus
Plan on two imidacloprid soil applications; one in the spring
or early summer and one in the fall.

With proper equipment could use Temik in spring and
imidacloprid applications for the early summer (May) and fall
(August) flushes.


Additional flushes : foliar applications of Danitol, Micromite,
Lorsban, (Dimethoate; not labeled for psyllid though?)
       Possible Management Plan

 Bearing citrus
Spring flush (March): aldicarb (Temik) + Danitol appl.


Summer flush (May/June) : imidacloprid foliar application
                         (Provado)


Additional Multi-targeting sprays: Agri-mek + oil, Micromite,
Lorsban, (Dimethoate; not labeled for psyllid though?),
petroleum oil

Fall flush (August/Sept) : imidacloprid foliar application
                          (Provado)
The “realistic” goal for psyllid
management is not total
eradication of greening
disease… but rather keeping
psyllid populations at low levels
where the disease is present to
reduce the rate of disease
spread

								
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