Military Psychology: Overview by OJQ8j901

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									Military Psychology:
     Leadership




         Dr. Steven J. Kass
Military Psychology
Leadership Defined

Leadership –
   –   Fiedler (1967)- Directing and coordinating the work of
       group members
   –   Bennis (1959) – The process by which an agent
       induces a subordinate to behave in a desired manner
   –   Air Force – The art of influencing and directing people
       to accomplish the mission
   –   Army – The process of influencing others to
       accomplish the mission by providing purpose,
       direction, and motivation
Effective Military Leadership –
   –   Includes a degree of high flexibility, initiative, ability to
       lead in complex and ambiguous circumstances and
       ability deal with local populations and cultures.
Leadership Theories:
McGregor’s Theory X / Theory Y

   Theory X – Leaders assume followers have
    an inherent tendency to avoid work, need to
    be directed, guided, or coerced
    –   Danger of self-fulfilling prophecy


   Theory Y – Leaders assume followers are
    capable of self-direction, accept and seek
    responsibility
Leadership Theories:
Trait Approach

What traits or characteristics do good leaders possess?
Bass (1990) 10 traits:
1.  Desire to achieve
2.  Desire to influence others for common good
3.  High energy level
4.  Persistence
5.  Task competence
6.  Interpersonal skills
7.  Self-confidence
8.  Willingness to act
9.  Tolerance for stress
10. Flexibility
Leadership Theories:
Trait Approach

Correlates of leadership
    –   Intelligence w/leader emergence (r = .50), not strongly associate
        with effectiveness
    –   Leadership effectiveness related to:
            Emotional stability, dominance, energy level (West Point)
            Conformity, self-discipline (US Naval Academy)
            Physical fitness, self-esteem, ability to tolerate stress (VMI)
            Integrity, loyalty, commitment, energy, decisiveness, selflessness (AF)
            Self-esteem, self-confidence, achievement-orientation, dependability,
             sociability, tolerance for ambiguity (others)
    –   Relationship between traits and leader emergence & effectiveness
        moderated by situational factors (e.g., education, experience,
        follower characteristics)
Leadership Theories:
Behavioral Approach

   Search for behaviors that differentiate effective from ineffective leaders
   Personality traits are stable, but behavior can be trained
   Derived from Post WWII Big 10 studies (U of Michigan, Ohio State U,
    U of Illinois)
   Two key dimensions
     –   Consideration (people orientation)
              Friendly, supportive, show appreciation, caring about personal welfare of
               followers
     –   Initiating Structure (task orientation)
              Focus on direction and control of task accomplishment
   Behaviors assessed via
     –   Surveys
     –   Interviews
     –   Observations
Leadership Theories:
Behavioral Approach

Behavioral Approach Conclusions
  –   Behavioral descriptions of leadership may include
      more than 2 or 3 dimensions
  –   Reliance on self-report surveys not sufficient to
      describe leadership behaviors
  –   Performance relationships are strongly influenced
      by follower experience and expectations, as well
      as situational factors
  –   Limited support for approach – “it depends”
Leadership Theories:
Contingency (Situational) Approach

Contingency Approach – Leaders can be trained to diagnose
   situational factors and select appropriate leadership style
  Situational Factors
    –    Characteristics of followers – intelligence, willingness, ability
    –    Characteristics of group – group size, cohesiveness
    –    Characteristics of situation – task complexity, org’l culture
    –    Characteristics of leadership position – level of authority
   4 theories
    1.   Normative Decision Model
    2.   Situational Leadership Theory
    3.   Contingency Model
    4.   Path-Goal Theory
Leadership Theories:
Contingency (Situational) Approach

Normative Decision Making Model (Vroom, Yetton, Jago) –
   focuses on the optimal level of participation that followers
   should have in decision-making process 2 factors
        1.   Importance of making quality decision
        2.   Importance of followers accepting decision
    –   3 types of leadership behavior
        1.   Autocratic – leader makes individual decision (little or no
             group input)
        2.   Consultative – leader asks for input, then makes decision
        3.   Group – leader shares info with group, group makes decision
             together
 Leadership Theories:
 Contingency (Situational) Approach

Normative Decision Making Model – eight questions to help
  determine decision-making style
 1 Quality Requirement (QR): How important is the technical quality of
       the decision?
 2. Commitment Requirement (CR): How important is subordinate
       commitment to the decision?
 3. Leader's Information (LI): Do you (the leader) have sufficient
       information to make a high quality decision on your own?
 4. Problem Structure (ST): Is the problem well structured (e.g., defined,
       clear, organized, lend itself to solution, time limited, etc.)?
 5. Commitment Probability (CP): If you were to make the decision by
       yourself, is it reasonably certain that your subordinates would be
       committed to the decision?
 6. Goal Congruence (GC): Do subordinates share the organizational
       goals to be attained in solving the problem?
 7. Subordinate conflict (CO): Is conflict among subordinates over
       preferred solutions likely?
 8. Subordinate information (SI): Do subordinates have sufficient
       information to make a high quality decision?
Leadership Theories:
Contingency (Situational) Approach

Situational Leadership Theory (Hersey & Blanchard) – The
   appropriate leadership behavior is contingent on diagnosis of
   maturity level or readiness of followers

    High
            1.   Directing /      2. Selling /
                  Telling         Coaching              Follower Readiness
                                                             1. Unable & Insecure/Unwilling
 Task                                                        2. Unable & Confident/Willing
Oriented                                                     3. Able & Insecure/Unwilling
                                                             4. Able & Confident/Willing
             4. Delegating        3. Supporting /
                                   Participating
    Low

           Low      Relationship Oriented        High
Leadership Theories:
Contingency (Situational) Approach

Contingency Model (Fiedler) – Leader’s style is fixed, so must
  select right leader for job based on situation favorability
   – Leadership style (relationship-oriented vs. task-oriented)
      based on Least Preferred Coworker Scale
            Low LPC – motivated by task completion
            High LPC – motivated by maintaining group relationships
    –   Situation favorability determined by:
            Leader-Member Relations
            Task Structure
            Position Power
Leadership Theories:
Contingency (Situational) Approach
                                 Pleasant:        ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Unpleasant
                                                   8 7 6 5         4 3 2 1
Least Preferred Coworker Scale   Friendly:        ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Unfriendly
                                                   8 7 6 5         4 3 2 1
                                 Rejecting:       ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Accepting
                                                   1 2 3 4         5 6 7 8
                                 Tense:           ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Relaxed
                                                   1 2 3 4         5 6 7 8
                                 Distant:         ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Close
                                                   1 2 3 4         5 6 7 8
                                 Supportive:      ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Hostile
                                                   8 7 6 5         4 3 2 1
                                 Cold:            ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Warm
                                                   1 2 3 4         5 6 7 8
                                 Boring:          ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Interesting
                                                   1 2 3 4         5 6 7 8
                                 Quarrelsome:     ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Harmonious
                                                   1 2 3 4         5 6 7 8
                                 Gloomy:          ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Cheerful
                                                   1 2 3 4         5 6 7 8
                                 Open:            ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Guarded
                                                   8 7 6 5         4 3 2 1
                                 Backbiting:      ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Loyal
                                                   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                 Untrustworthy:   ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Trustworthy
                                                   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                 Considerate:     ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Inconsiderate
                                                   8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
                                 Nasty:           ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Nice
                                                   1 2 3 4 5 6              7 8
                                 Agreeable:       ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Disagreeable
                                                   8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
                                 Insincere:       ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Sincere
                                                   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                 Kind:            ___:___:___:___:___:___:___:___:   Unkind
                                                   8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Leadership Theories:
Contingency (Situational) Approach

Contingency Model
If situation is:
■ Very favorable (good leader–member relations, structured task, strong
position power)
■ Very unfavorable (poor leader–member relations, unstructured task, weak
position power)
Then:
The best leader is task-oriented (low LPC score) with a directive, controlling
style

If situation is:
■ Moderately favorable (mixed variables)
Then:
The best leader is relationship-oriented (high LPC score) with a participative
approach
Leadership Theories:
Contingency (Situational) Approach

Path-Goal Theory (House) – Behavior of leader impacts follower
    satisfaction and motivation
   –   Style of leadership depends
         Task characteristics (complexity)
         Follower characteristics (ability, personality)
   –   Four styles of leadership
       1. Supportive - Leader shows concern for the followers’ psychological well-
          being
             Appropriate when the followers lack confidence
       2. Directive - Leader lets followers know what is expected of them and tells
          them how to perform their tasks.
             Appropriate when the follower has an ambiguous job.
       3. Participative - Leader consults with followers and asks for their
          suggestions
             Appropriate when the follower is using improper procedures
       4. Achievement-oriented - Leader sets challenging goals and expects
          followers to meet them
                Appropriate when the follower lacks challenging work
Leadership Theories:
Transformational Leadership Theory

Transformational Leadership Theory – Leader raises followers
   to higher levels of morality, motivation, and performance above
   that from simply having power of authority
    –   Transformational Leader:
            Creates and articulates vision
            Builds trust by exhibiting self-confidence, personal example
            Creates emotional involvement with followers
            Raise level of awareness in followers about importance of outcome
            Get followers to transcend own self interests


    –   Transactional Leader:
            Simply exchanges rewards for performance
Leadership Theories:
Transformational Leadership Theory


 Transformational Leaders lead through:
    - Charisma
   - Individualized Consideration
   - Intellectual Stimulation
   - Inspirational Motivation
Leadership
Developing Leadership Skills

   Management Success Traits (Yukl) – 6
    traits that can be learned through training
    1.   Energy level
    2.   Organizing and planning skills
    3.   Interpersonal skills
    4.   Cognitive skills
    5.   Work-related motivation
    6.   Personal control of feelings & resistance to
         stress
Leadership
Developing Leadership Skills

Behavioral skills that cut across situations
   –   Ability to communicate
           2-way comms, active listening, non-verbal cues
           Constructive feedback
           “Manage by walking around”
   –   Pay attention to HR management skills
           Socialization process, training, fair appraisals, coaching
   –   Motivate followers
           Positive rewards, goal setting, empowerment
   –   Networking & Political skills
           Know the right people/how to get things done
Leadership
Developing Leadership Skills

Military Training Programs
  –   Focus on contingency leadership principles
  –   “Followership” that precedes leadership activities
  –   Leadership experiences combined with feedback
  –   Formal classroom training designed to provide the
      theoretical training for leadership experiences
Leadership
Developing Leadership Skills

Total Quality Management/Leadership (Deming) – Management
  through
   –   Empowerment
   –   Info sharing
   –   Participative decision making
   –   Continuous commitment to quality/process improvement
   –   Continuous commitment to customer service
   –   Focus on teamwork/communication
Greatest Military Leaders

   List of top military leaders

								
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