Chapter 10: Becoming a World Power, 1890-1915 (350-376) by Fp05N61


									CH 10: Becoming a World Power, 1890-1915
   Anti-imperialists argue US was founded on freedom from
   Late 1800s much of Africa and Asia colonized
   Imperialism – economic
     factors/nationalism/militarism/humanitarian and religious
   1820s Monroe Doctrine: major foreign policy principle – neutral
     in European Wars and warned countries to stay away from
     western hemisphere
   Economic – overproduction of goods, need new markets
   Banana republics – United Fruit Company gives $ to gov. for land
     to grow and export millions of bananas – banana export played
     role in gov and economies of Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras
   Naval Act 1890 – construct more military boats – by 1900 one of
     most powerful navies in world GREAT WHITE FLEET
   Pioneer spirit – closing of frontier – need new area for pioneer
   Social Darwinism – superiority
   New York Journal staged rescue of Cuban girl held prisoner by
     Spanish – Yellow Journalism
   Cuban rebelled vs Spain in 1868 and again in 1895 - Spain forces
     thousands of civilians into guarded camps so cannot aid the rebels
     – 2 years 200,000 die from starvation and disease
   New York World (Pulitzer) vs. New York Journal (Hearst) – led
     to jingoism (burst of national pride and pressure for aggressive
     action from) a British song, We don’t want to fight yet, by Jingo!
     If we do, we’ve got the ships, we’ve got the men, we’ve got the
     money too”
   McKinley moves USS Maine into harbor Havana due to riots to
     protect US citizens and property
   Feb. 15, 1898 – Maine explodes – 250 US soldiers killed
   Philippines rebel vs. Spain
   McKinley attempts truce with Spain: compensation for
     Maine/end reconcentration camps/truce in Cuba/Cuban
     independence – accept all but independence
   April 11, 1898 – declare war, “Splendid Little War”
   TR headed “Rough Riders” – charge San Juan Hill
   Short war – 2,500 US died but only 400 in battle – food poisoning,
     yellow fever, malaria, inadequate medical care
   Black soldiers segregated – irony fighting to free Cubans
   Treaty of Paris Dec. 1898 – Cuban independence/$20 million gain
     Phillipines, Puerto Rico, and Guam
 Filipino rebels fought alongside US vs. Spain – 3 year war with US
  results – 4,000 US killed, 3,000 wounded – 16,000 Filipinos killed
  and 200,000 civilians – finally gained indep. In 1946 – argue need
  to “civilize and christianize” despite most Filipinos already being
 1887 US and Hawaii renewed trade treaty for sugar to be sold
  duty free in US and leased Pearl Harbor to US for military station
  – King Kalakaua died 1891 and sister Quenn Liliuokalani gained
  power – vs. US and removed from power in 1893 by US marines
  and pineapple planter Sanford Dole -1898 US annexes Hawaii –
  Congress formally apologizes to Hawaiian natives for role in
  overthrow in 1993 – petitions to repay proposed but not granted
 Secretary of War to McKinley John Hays Open Door Policy trade
  with China – 1899 tries to persuade Europe powers to keep good
  terms China so access to millions of consumers – Chinese resist
  outside influence – “Boxers” start rebellion 1900 – 300 foreigners
  and Christian Chinese killed – Europe defeats Boxers and
  continues open door
 Panama Canal – shorter route Atlantic and Pacific – Isthmus of
  Panama ideal – Congress bought rights to build for $40 million
  from France whose project had failed – land concession from
  Colombia who then controlled Panama – Spooner Act 1902
  Congress authorized purchase - but Colombia waiting for 1904
  when agreement with France expired to raise price for US – US
  supports Panama rebels vs. Colombia in 1903 – recognizes indep.
  Panama and becomes protector – treaty gives US permanent 10
  mile land grant for $10 million to Panamanians
 Canal begins 1904 – 1914, $23 million – Roosevelt criticized for
  method of obtaining land
 African proverb “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go
  far.” = big stick is US navy – aggressive US policy
 Roosevelt Corollary 1905 – TR message to Congress – to Monroe
  Doctrine = extension of idea – US will not use Monroe Doctrine as
  cloak for aggression – will take action to protect rights – only
  want stability and peace , esp. American continent – common US
  intervention in Latin America –
 Russo-Japanese War in 1904 – Japan wins with stronger military
  – Roosevelt mediates peace agreement in Portsmouth, New
  Hampshire – Japan gets small land grants and control of Korea
  not $ - Russia vacates Manchuria, part of China = wins Nobel
  Peace Prize
 Taft= dollar diplomacy – prez. 1909-1913: not as aggressive and
  Roosevelt – goals to maintain open door Asia and stability Latin
  America “dollar diplomacy” meant to mock but he embraced
    term = maintain orderly societies thru increased US investments
    in foreign economies – created enemies by rebel forces who want
    less US influence as economic power grew
   Prez. Wilson – 1911 Mexican Revolution for democracy but new
    prez overthrown 1913 – Europ recognizes General Huerta as
    leader who killed prez. Francisco Madero but Wilson refuses –
    support Venustiano Carranza vs. Huerta by blocking munitions –
    US navy to Veracruz – Carranza gains power when Huertas
   Peasant rebel leader Francisco “Pancho” Villa – upset by US
    support Carranza – terrorizes US in Mexico and border towns –
    marches into New Mexico and burns town of Columbus, kills 15
    in 1916 – 5,000 US soldiers die in pursuit of Pancho Villa – fail to
    find and withdrew troops 1917 – bad relations 2 countries for
    many years
   Wilson “moral diplomacy” = need to aid poor people and
    Christianize – mission to spread democracy and capitalism
   1898 Anti-Imperialist League created – Mark Twain, Jane
    Addams – vs. “liberty for all”
   “the constitution must follow the flag” = people in territories
    controlled by US get equal rights in Const as citizens – labor laws
   racism if believe Anglo-Saxon better – also racist southerners vs.
    absorbing other races into US
   economic – not ready to absorb military costs – and compete for
    jobs with lower wages from laborers from annexed territories and
    import cheap goods without customs duties take away domestic
   “frontier mentality” claims very American to conquer territories
   Great White Fleet – TR sent white US navy ships on tour of world
    to impress other countries in 1907

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