Chapter 21 Section 3 by Fp05N61


									Chapter 21
Section 3
  The French
    The National Convention
   The National Convention was temporarily established to replace the king.
    Delegates were elected to the convention by {universal manhood
    suffrage- every adult male could vote}
   The delegates of the National Convention were divided into three groups:
   The Girondins- were republicans who feared the domination of France by
   The Jacobins- were republicans who favored domination by Paris
   George-Jacques Danton & Maximilien Robespierre were two of the
    most powerful Jacobins
   Some of the Jacobins were extremists that wanted reforms that would
    benefit all classes of society. Jean-Paul Marat led the group of radicals
   The third group consisted of delegates who had no definite views
   {The National Convention also brought Louis XVI to trial, where he was
    found guilty of plotting against the security of the nation and sentenced
    to death}
   Louis XVI was beheaded by the guillotine on January 21, 1793
The execution of King Louis XVI
    Exporting the Revolution
   Just before the kings execution, the French had defeated the
    invading armies of the Austrians and Prussians
   The French then decided to invade the Austrian Netherlands
   Fearing the French would try to overthrow other royalty
    outside of France, Britain, the Netherlands, Spain and Sardinia
    joined forces with Austria and Prussia and together they
    invaded France
   In 1793 the National Convention set up the Committee of
    Public Safety to direct the army and the Revolutionary
    Tribunal, a court to try enemies of the Revolution
   The Committee of Public Safety adopted the {conscription- or
    draft-} which stated all unmarried, able-bodied men between
    18 and 25 were subject to military service
   As compensation it was made so that men from any class who
    proved their ability could become officers
Marie Antoinette being tried at the Revolutionary Tribunal
   Some rebelled against the revolutionary government
   In western France the “Royal and Catholic” army fought
    the revolutionary army. Their actions are called
    {counterrevolutionary- meaning their actions were
    against the revolution.
   Most counterrevolutionary groups supported the Old
   At the time the Jacobins controlled the National
   They began arresting Girondin delegates who opposed
    their policies.
   Meanwhile a young woman named Charlotte
    Corday, who was influenced by Girondin ideas,
    assassinated Marat. For which she was beheaded
While Marat was taking a
bath, he heard an argument
in the house. He called the
owner of the house into the
bathroom and asked what
was going on. The woman
replied that there was a
woman there that was
demanding to speak to him.
Marat told the landlord to
let the woman in. Charlotte
Corday sat beside Marat
and continued to give him
names of Girondin
opposition. At this time he
began to make a list of all
the names Corday had
mentioned. Marat stated
that “he would have them
guillotined in Paris” At that
Corday pulled a knife from
her corset and stabbed him
to death
    The Reign of Terror
   The National Convention suppressed all opposition and
    rebellion in what came to be known as the {Reign of
    Terror, which was headed up by Maximilien
   {During the Reign of Terror, from 1793 to 1794, the
    Jacobins began punishing anyone even suspected of
   Marie-Antoinette, Olympe de Gouges and many Girondins
    were sent to the guillotine during this time
   They also began executing peasants and bourgeoisie’s
    that were in favor of revolution as it would benefit them
    most of all.
   Clear reasoning other than suspicion of disloyalty was not
    given for the execution of these people
                                            Olympe de Gouges
                         Marie Antoinette

Maximilien Robespierre
   By the spring of 1794 the French had gained the
    advantage in the war
   With the republic seemingly out of danger, Georges-
    Jacques Danton proposed the Reign of Terror had met its
    goal and should be relaxed a little
   His partner {Robespierre had gone a little power crazy
    with all of the “off with their head” business and
    accused Danton of disloyalty to the revolution and had
    him and all of him followers executed}
   Robespierre continued his brutality for several more
    months until in July 1794 a few members of the National
    Convention had him arrested and later beheaded
   The Jacobins lost power and because of all the unrest by
    this time many were in favor of a return to monarchy
 Danton and his
    Work of the National Convention

   Despite the negative aspects, the National Convention did
    positive things to shape French society
   It opened new schools and supported the idea of universal
    elementary education
   It established price and wage control to prevent inflation
   It abolished slavery and encouraged religious freedom
   It made the change from the monarchy’s system of
    weights and measures to the metric system
   Finally, by 1795 the French had driven the invaders out of
    France completely
   All this was done in addition to the government making it
    abundantly clear it would not tolerate any opposition
    The Directory
   In 1795 the National Convention completed another
   The government established by the National Convention’s
    new constitution, the Directory, took office in November
   The 500 member lower house proposed laws
   The smaller but more powerful 250 member upper house
    accepted or rejected the propositions
   The upper house also had the power to select the Directors-
    5 individuals that made up an executive branch.
   The Directory only lasted 4 years because the five directors
    constantly were quarreling and the poor were still suffering
   Its failure paved the way for a military dictatorship in France
    Napoleon Bonaparte

   Between 1795 and 1799 a young general named
    Napoleon Bonaparte was getting a lot of attention
   In 1796, Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais, a
    leader in French society. Two days after the marriage he
    was put in command of the French army
   Napoleon was considered one of the greatest generals of
    all time
   His genius lay in his ability to move troops quickly to the
    most vital points on the battlefield
   Napoleon gained support of the soldiers and boosted their
    morale by improving conditions for the troops
   In 1797, Napoleon forced Austria to sign a treaty that gave
    France control on all of northern Italy.
   Napoleon then went on to attack the British in Egypt to cut
    off British trade with Italy
   At first things went well in Egypt, but the military campaign
    went to disaster when the British destroyed the French
    fleet near Alexandria
   Napoleon left his army to fend for itself, returned to France
    where he hid the truth and exaggerated his victories
   As control over French territories in Italy slipped,
    Napoleon’s supporters plotted to overthrow the
    government and put Napoleon on the throne
   In 1799 a Coup D’etat took place in which armed troops
    surrounded the legislature and forced them to leave.
    Those who stayed, turned the government over to
    Napoleon and his supporters
Coup D’etat
    Review Questions
   What does universal manhood suffrage mean?
   What group brought Louis XVI to trial, where he was
    found guilty of plotting against the security of the
    nation and sentenced to death?
   What does conscription mean?
   What does counterrevolutionary- mean
   Who did Most counterrevolutionary groups support?
   Who headed up the Reign of Terror?
   Who did Robespierre accuse of disloyalty to the
    revolution and had him and all of him followers

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