horners syndrome garmon by XM46j3gN

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									Horner’s Syndrome
Description: Horner’s syndrome is an
uncommon pathologic condition that can
consist of the following disorders:
      constricted pupil (miosis),
      droopy eyelid (ptosis)
      reduced facial sweating (anhydrosis)
         usually occurring on one side of the face
         (Cassin p. 130)
      Heterochromia (difference in eye color)        FIG 1. Photograph of a 13-year-old female patient with congenital
         (Health Encyclopedia).                       Horner’s syndrome. Prominent ptosis, miosis, and iris
It is also know as Bernard-Horner Syndrome            Hypopigmentation of the left eye can be seen (www.ajnr.org).
and Oculosympathetic Palsy (WebMD).
                                                      Treatments: Treatment is dependent upon the
Parts Affected & Effects on Visual System:            reason and/or cause of the syndrome. When the
Horner’s is caused by damage to the                   cause is associated with tumors “surgical removal
sympathetic nerves in the head but it may also        is appropriate” (Health Encyclopedia).
be hereditary (Ahmetoglu 2002).
. There are three types of Horner’s Syndrome.
                                                      Stability of Condition: In some cases the syndrome
          1. First Neuron Horner's Syndrome           is congenital and in other cases it is adventitious.
             (central lesions) can be caused by       Whether the condition becomes more severe over
             brief interruption of the blood supply   time is dependent upon its root cause.
             to the brain), or by brain tumors.
          2. Second Neuron Horner's Syndrome          Functional Implications: Due to the constriction of
             (preganglionic lesions) may be           the pupil a person dealing with Horner’s syndrome
             caused by lung cancer thoracic           will probably have difficulty seeing in low light
             tumors, phrenic nerve syndrome,          situations. This will be further exacerbated by the
             thyroid enlargement, and severe
             osteoarthritis of the neck with bone
                                                      droopy eyelid blocking the visual field as well.
             spurs, spinal cord injury or disease,
             neck trauma caused by injury,            References:
             surgery, or severe whiplash.
          3. Third Neuron Horner's Syndrome           1. Health Encyclopedia: Diseases and Conditions. Retrieved June 29,
             Group I (postganglionic lesions) may     2009 from website: http://www.healthscout.com/ency/68/488/main.html
                                                      2. Goldberg, Stephen M.D. (1993) Ophthalmology Made Ridiculously
             be caused by skull fracture, cluster     Simple. (10th Printing) Miami, Florida: MedMaster, Inc.
             headaches, migraines, or middle ear      3. Cassin, Barbara & Solomon, Sheila A.B. (1997). Dictionary of Eye
             infections. Third Neuron Horner's        Terminology. (Third Edition) Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing
             Syndrome Group II involves the           Company.
                                                      4. Lueck. Amanda H. (2004). Functional Vision: A Practitioner’s Guide to
             facial sweating mechanism. (Health       Evaluation and Intervention. New York: American Foundation for the
             Encyclopedia).                           Blind Press.
                                                      5. WebMD. Retrieved June 29, 2009 from web site:
                                                      http://www.webmd.com/brain/horners-syndrome
                                                      6. American Journal of Neuroradiology. Retrieved June 30, 2009 from
                                                      web site: http://www.ajnr.org/cgi/content-nw/full/23/6/929/F1
                                      Diagram         7. Ahmetoglu, Ali & Alioglu, Zekeriya & Dinc, Hasan & Erdo’I, Hidayet.
                                                      (2002) Agenesis of the Internal Carotid Artery Associated with Aortic
                                      source:         Arch Anomaly in a Patient with Congenital Horner’s Syndrome: Case
                                      (Goldberg,      Report AJNR AM J Neuroradiol 23:929-931 June/July 2002. Retrieved
                                      p. 70)          June 29, 2009 from web site: http://www.ajnr.org

								
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