TERMS OF REFERENCE by 3avw32z

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 3

									                                                                           Annex 1

         Concept Paper for Comissioning a Study on Impact of Labour Migration on the
                             Wellbbeing of Children Left Behind

Labor migration is the biggest social and economic phenomenon in Tajikistan, which plays
critical role in life support system for, practically, overwhelming majority of families in Tajikistan.
According to official data in 2008, 852,1 thousands of citizens of Tajikistan were registered as
migrants in the Russian Federation1. However, due to poor registration of labour migrants and
high percent of illegal status of labour labor migrants, many international experts believe the
number of labour migrant from Tajikistan is about 1.5 million2, which is about 20 percent of the
entire population or 36 percent of total working age population 3 . About 95 percent of Tajik
migrants are men. The typical migrant from Tajikistan is a male around 30 years old and 80
percent are married with children4.

Labour migration in Tajikistan has been identified as the main factor behind economic growth
and reduction in poverty. From 2006 to 2008, remittances to Tajikistan increased from $1 billion
to $2.6 billion5. By 2008 the volume of remittances sent home by labor migrants was equivalent
of 56 per cent of Tajikistan’s GDP, which was highest in the world. 6 Strong economic growth
has led to significant decline in poverty. During 2003-07, poverty fell by almost 20 percentage
points from 72.4 percent in 2003 to 53.5 percent in 2007 and extreme poverty more than
halved, from 41.5 to 17.1 percent in the same period7. Increase in remittances between 2003
and 2007 were accountable for at least 50 percent of the total observed poverty reduction8.

Labour migration and related remittances indeed came to play an important role in Tajikistan.
Having a migrant in a family increases household's income per capita significantly9, which
enables families to improve household’s nutritional requirement by having more food10; improve
health11 and education12 outcomes for family members, especially children via increased share
of household expenditures to these ends; increase possession of durable goods13; and reduce
the variability of income caused by shocks affecting agricultural production.

However, labour migration entails very high social costs. Women and children in particular bear
the cost of labour migration. In the absence of able bodied men usually women and children
take up male responsibilities by spending more time and working more to maintain productive
assets such as land, soil, domestic cattle, and other infrastructure systems as irrigation. This
very fact potentially reduces the ability of the households to send children, often girls, to school
as they have to work more at home, diminishing their future ability to escape poverty. Younger
children are deprived from appropriate care and vulnerable to abuse due to busyness of their

1 According to the data of Migration service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) in 2008, 852,1 thousands of citizens of Tajikistan were registered as migrants
in the Russian Federation. IMPACT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS ON LABOR MIGRANTS FROM TAJIKISTAN: OPINION OF MIGRANTS EXPRESS –
INTERVIEW WORKING VERSION OF DOCUMENTAuthor: Jamshed Kuddusov, IRC «SocService» May 2009
2 CENTRAL ASIA: MIGRANTS AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS, Asia Report N°183 – 5 January 2010. International Crisis Group (ICG).
3 Using 2009 data 1 million out of 7,4 million current total population and 4,2 million working age (15-59) population
4 “Abandoned Wives of Tajik Labor Migrants” IOM Study on the socioeconomic characteristics of abandoned wives of Tajik labor migrants and their survival

capabilities IOM Dushanbe, Tajikistan. August 2009)
5 CENTRAL ASIA: MIGRANTS AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

Asia Report N°183 – 5 January 2010, International Crisis Group (ICG)
6 IMPACT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS ON LABOR MIGRANTS FROM TAJIKISTAN: OPINION OF MIGRANTS EXPRESS – INTERVIEW WORKING

VERSION OF DOCUMENTAuthor: Jamshed Kuddusov, IRC «SocService» May 2009
7 Tajikistan Living Standard Survey, 2007
8 Tajikistan Poverty Assessment, July, 2009, Human Development Sector Unit, World Bank.
9 “The shares of yearly consumption that actually become affordable through remittances exceed 35 percent in all welfare quintiles. The poorest rural and urban

households finance, on average, almost 80 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of their yearly consumption through remittances”. Republic of Tajikistan
Poverty Assessment, July, 2009, Human Development Sector Unit, World Bank.
10 “the incidence of acute malnutrition among children has been high, and though levels of chronic malnutrition have decreased over the last decade, they remain

high, at 27 percent”. Republic of Tajikistan Poverty Assessment, July, 2009, Human Development Sector Unit, World Bank.
11 “share of health care in household expenditure has been stable at around 5 percent in 1999 and 4 percent in 2007” Republic of Tajikistan Poverty

Assessment, July, 2009, Human Development Sector Unit, World Bank.
12 Private expenditure on education as a share of overall household expenditure seems to have almost doubled from 2.4 percent in 1999 to 4.3 percent in 2007.

Republic of Tajikistan Poverty Assessment, July, 2009, Human Development Sector Unit, World Bank.
13 “The possession of “modern” durable goods13 between 2003 and 2007 increased in both urban and rural areas, with a higher rate of increase in rural areas”.

Republic of Tajikistan Poverty Assessment, July, 2009, Human Development Sector Unit, World Bank.

                                                                                 1
mothers with households’ chores and emotional and physical stress due to absence of male
partner support. Older children and adolescents too missing an import role play model and
upbringing by their fathers in traditional patriarchal society, which might have serious
implications on children and particularly adolescent’s behavior in school, community, and wider
society in the future. Thus, all the above implications will have negative impact on different
aspects of children development and wellbeing, as well as that of their families, communities
and the wider society.

Another emerging issue related to labour migration that negatively affect children’s wellbeing is
increasing cases of abandonment by labor migrants of their families with children. According to
well-known international think tank, “the longer [labour] migrant … stay in Russia, the more
likely they are to start a second family; when this happens the money gradually decreases.
Divorces by phone and text messages – saying talloq (divorce) three times is believed to annul
a marriage – have become so widespread that Tajik human rights groups are pressing
authorities to outlaw the practice”14. In a recent survey conducted among 6000 returnee
migrants, 40.5 percent reported that they divorced their families15. According to the recent study
on “abandoned wives” there could be approximately one third of migrants’ wives or whose
husbands never return because of permanently settling in the host country16.

Considering the current global financial crisis, the number of single mothers with children left
behind could further increase. The loss of main bread winner, the head of the household or the
loss of job in migration deprive mothers and children of the most important lifeline the
remittances. Children from such families may become victims of abuse, exploitation of child
labour, vulnerable to delinquency, institutionalization, prostitution, human trafficking, and
suicide17 as a result of financial pressures, psycho-emotional and physical stress. The field
survey conducted in a recent study by IOM ( August 2009) indicated that the vast majority of
abandoned wives with children live in extreme poverty with no hope of being lifted out of poverty
or distress without proper help.

Other consequences of the migration, especially poor rural women are increase of STDs,
including HIV/AIDS and violence. It is reported that the prevalence of STI and HIV/AIDS among
labor migrant is alarmingly growing, as well as sexual transmission of the disease from migrant
husbands to their wives. There are also increased cases of vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS
from mother to child. According to the Surveillance report of the Ministry of Health, in 2009,
HIV/AIDS prevalence among labour migrant was estimated at 2.2 percent18 and there were 27
cases of confirmed vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS. “Wives are often abused by returning
husbands who resent finding their own status in the family diminished by their long absences.
But very few women dare to seek help”19. Thus, the above situation further aggravates the well-
being of women and children by being vulnerable to abuse by returnee husbands and risk of
HIV/AIDS.

In conclusion, labour migration indeed has been biggest social and economic phenomenon in
Tajikistan that transforms the living conditions and structures of individuals, family units,
communities, and society as whole. Labour Migration impact on children’s well-being is
multifaceted and complex, helping in some respects and hurting in others. While the positive
effects of labour migration improves the general welfare of the population in its own right, the

14 CENTRAL ASIA: MIGRANTS AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS, Asia Report N°183 – 5 January 2010. International Crisis Group (ICG).
15 IMPACT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS ON LABOR MIGRANTS FROM TAJIKISTAN: OPINION OF MIGRANTS EXPRESS – INTERVIEW WORKING
VERSION OF DOCUMENT. Author: Jamshed Kuddusov, IRC «SocService» May 2009
16 Abandoned labor migrant wife is the wife of a labor migrant whose husband went abroad, whereby the wife does not receive any or small remittances from

the husband and does not know where the husband is and does not have contact with him.
Household is composed by one or more people who can be related “Abandoned Wives of Tajik Labor Migrants” IOM Study on the socioeconomic
characteristics of abandoned wives of Tajik labor migrants and their survival capabilities IOM Dushanbe, Tajikistan. August 2009
17 Personal Communication with Shugnon governor, who reported about increased cases of suicide, including among adolescents from migrant families in

Shugnon and Roshtqala districts. November, 2009.
18 HIV/AIDS surveillance report, Ministry of Health, 2009.
19 19 CENTRAL ASIA: MIGRANTS AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS, Asia Report N°183 – 5 January 2010. International Crisis Group (ICG).




                                                                            2
negative experience of labour migration and particularly the experience of abandonment of
families with children will not only have immediate impact on children’s well-being, but carry
long-term consequences for their transition to adulthood and their future socioeconomic
attainment as well as that of the society.

Although the migration process has been extensively studied, much less attention has been
given to the impact of migration on children’s wellbeing left behind. To this end, UNICEF will
commission a study on impact of labour migration on the wellbeing of children in Tajikistan to
examine the effect, short and long-term consequences of labour migration on different aspects
of children’s wellbeing and based on findings generating policy responses and measures to
mitigate the negative impact of the labour migration on children and families that are left behind.


Literature

   1.    “Abandoned Wives of Tajik Labour Migrants” IOM Study on the socioeconomic
        characteristics of abandoned wives of Tajik labour migrants and their survival
        capabilities IOM Dushanbe, Tajikistan. August 2009
   2.   CENTRAL ASIA: MIGRANTS AND THE ECONOMIC CRISIS, Asia Report N°183 – 5
        January 2010. International Crisis Group (ICG).
   3.   “Economic Dynamics of Labour Migrants’ Remittances in Tajikistan”. KHAKIMOV
        P. and MAHMADBEKOV M. (2009, forthcoming), Report Based on the Study of
        Remittances and Living Standard Measurement Survey (TLSMS conducted in August
        2008), IOM, April, 2009.
   4.   “Families of Migrants in Tajikistan: problems and ways of their solution.” Olimova,
        Saodat; Kuddusov, Jamshed. ILO, Analytical Survey Report 2007.
   5.   IMPACT OF WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS ON LABOR MIGRANTS FROM
        TAJIKISTAN: OPINION OF MIGRANTS EXPRESS – INTERVIEW WORKING
        VERSION OF DOCUMENT. Author: Jamshed Kuddusov, IRC «SocService», May 2009
   6.   Republic of Tajikistan Poverty Assessment, July, 2009, Human Development Sector
        Unit, World Bank.
   7.   Tajikistan Living Standard Survey, 2007
   8.    “Labour Migration from Tajikistan”. Olimova, Saodat, Igor Bosc. IOM in cooperation
        with the Scientific Research Center Sharq, July 2003.




                                                 3

								
To top