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					  Assured Produce Ltd

 Crop Specific Protocol


LETTUCE (PROTECTED)

      (CROP ID: 24)




       March 2005
                                                                                                     Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
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                       CONTENTS
                       Preface .................................................................................................................................. 4
                       Disclaimer and trade mark acknowledgement...................................................................... 4

 1        General introduction                                                                                                                                   6

 2        Planning and Records                                                                                                                                   7

 3        Site selection                                                                                                                                         8

 4        Site management                                                                                                                                        8
                       4.1      Soil mapping ............................................................................................................... 8
                       4.2      Soil management ......................................................................................................... 8
                       4.3      Soil fumigation............................................................................................................ 8

 5        Variety selection                                                                                                                                      9
                       5.1      Choice of variety or rootstock ..................................................................................... 9
                       5.2      Seed quality ................................................................................................................. 9
                       5.3      Seed treatments and dressings..................................................................................... 9
                       5.4      Plants and nursery stock .............................................................................................. 9

 6        Nutrition                                                                                                                                              9
                       6.1      Nutrient requirement ................................................................................................... 9
                       6.2      Advice on quantity, type and timing of fertiliser ...................................................... 10
                       6.3      Nitrate and phosphate losses to ground water ........................................................... 10
                       6.4      Application equipment .............................................................................................. 11
                       6.5      Records of application .............................................................................................. 11
                       6.6      Fertiliser storage........................................................................................................ 11
                       6.7      Organic manures ....................................................................................................... 11
                       6.8      Control of nitrate levels ............................................................................................ 11
                                6.8.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 11
                                6.8.2 Nitrate uptake .................................................................................................. 12
                                6.8.3 Cultural advice to growers ............................................................................... 12
                                6.8.4 Nitrate monitoring samples ............................................................................. 14
                                6.8.5 Records required .............................................................................................. 14

 7        Irrigation                                                                                                                                           15

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                         1
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
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 8        Crop Protection                                                                                                                                   15
                       8.1      The basic approach to crop protection ...................................................................... 15
                                8.1.1 Non-chemical methods.................................................................................... 15
                                8.1.2 ICM for protected crops .................................................................................. 15
                                8.1.2.1       Crop health ................................................................................................ 16
                       8.2      Plant protection product choice ................................................................................ 16
                       8.3      Advice on the use of pesticides ................................................................................ 18
                       8.4      Application of pesticides .......................................................................................... 18
                       8.5      Records of application .............................................................................................. 18
                       8.6      Protective clothing/equipment .................................................................................. 18
                       8.7      Pesticide storage ....................................................................................................... 18
                       8.8      Empty pesticide containers ....................................................................................... 18
                       8.9      Pesticide residues in fresh produce ........................................................................... 19
                       8.10 Pest, disease and weed control ................................................................................. 19
                                8.10.1       Pest control ................................................................................................. 19
                                8.10.1.1       Aphids...................................................................................................... 19
                                8.10.1.2       Caterpillars .............................................................................................. 20
                                8.10.1.3       Cutworms ................................................................................................ 20
                                8.10.1.4       Whitefly ................................................................................................... 21
                                8.10.1.5       Thrips ....................................................................................................... 21
                                8.10.1.6       Leaf miners .............................................................................................. 21
                                8.10.1.7       Slugs ........................................................................................................ 22
                                8.10.1.8       Shore fly .................................................................................................. 22
                                8.10.1.9       Other pests ............................................................................................... 22
                                8.10.2       Disease control ........................................................................................... 22
                                8.10.2.1       Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)........................................................... 22
                                8.10.2.2       Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) ................................................................. 23
                                8.10.2.3       Rhizoctonia bottom rot (Rhizoctonia solani) ........................................... 24
                                8.10.2.4       Sclerotinia disease (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) ........................................ 24
                                8.10.2.5       Butt rot ..................................................................................................... 25
                                8.10.2.6       Ringspot (Marssonina panattoniana)...................................................... 25
                                8.10.2.7       Big vein virus........................................................................................... 25
                                8.10.2.8       Other virus diseases ................................................................................. 26
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 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

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                                                                                                                            Control Document No: 00034/05
                                                                                                  Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
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                       8.11 Adaptation of husbandry practice to new pests and diseases .................................... 26

 9        Harvesting and storage                                                                                                                         27

 10       Pollution control and waste management                                                                                                         27

 11       Energy efficiency                                                                                                                              27

 12       Health & Safety                                                                                                                                27

 13       Conservation issues                                                                                                                            28
 Appendix 1            Industry code of good practice to minimise nitrate content of Lettuce grown under
                       protected cropping culture in UK ....................................................................................... 29
 Appendix 2            Insecticides currently approved for use on Protected Lettuce ............................................ 33
 Appendix 3            Fungicides currently approved for use on Protected Lettuce ............................................. 34
 Appendix 4            Herbicides currently approved for use on Protected Lettuce .............................................. 35
 Appendix 5            Specific off-label approvals for Protected Lettuce ............................................................. 36
 Appendix 6            BASAMID – Best use guidelines for use in protected lettuce ........................................... 38
 Appendix 7            Guidelines on minimising pesticide residues ..................................................................... 42
 Appendix 8            Control Points: Lettuce (Protected) .................................................................................... 43




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 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    3
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
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 Acknowledgements

 Assured Produce Ltd. gratefully acknowledges the contribution of all consultees in the preparation of
 this protocol, particularly members of the Round Lettuce Technology Group and David Stokes.

 Preface

 This crop specific protocol has been written to complement and avoid duplicating the generic principles
 of the scheme and appendices.

 It is advisable to read the Assured Produce Generic Crop Protocol Standards and the Assured Produce
 Generic Protocol Guidance Notes (referred to in this document as the Generic Standards and Generic
 Guidance Notes) first before reading this crop specific protocol.

 This protocol is designed to stimulate thought in the mind of the reader.

 This crop specific protocol contains crop specific parameters and guidance, where applicable, for the
 requirements stated in the Generic Standards.

 All statements in this protocol containing the words "strongly recommended" (in bold type) will be
 verified during the Assured Produce assessment and their compliance will form a part of the
 certification/approval decision. The score required for these "strongly recommended" control points
 can be found on the final page of this document and in the checklists produced by Assured Produce
 licensed certification bodies.

 Disclaimer and trade mark acknowledgement

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any
 responsibility for errors and omissions.

 Trade names are only used in this protocol where use of that specific product is essential. All such
 products are annotated ® and all trademark rights are hereby acknowledged.

 Notes:

 EU Review: Major withdrawal of pesticide
 All pesticide information quoted in this Crop Specific protocol was last updated in January 2005. Please
 also read the accompanying Assured Produce ‘Newsflash’ on the website.

 There was a major withdrawal of pesticide products in 2003 as a result of the EU Review of pesticides
 registered in or before 1993. Several active substances approved for minor uses were not supported by
 crop protection companies in rounds 2 and 3 of the Review. Certain uses of some of these substances
 can continue in the UK because they are covered by ‘Essential Use’ derogations – but products
 containing other unsupported substances have been withdrawn and are shown on the PSD website.

 Some active substances have also failed to achieve Annex 1 listing (e.g. simazine) and some additional
 Essential Uses have been granted until 31 December 2007. There may be other withdrawals or
 revocations.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

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                                                                                                                          Control Document No: 00034/05
                                                                                                  Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
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 Long Term Arrangements for Extension of Use (LTAEU)
 The PSD have decided it is no longer possible to maintain the Long Term Arrangements for Extension of
 Use (LTAEU) in their current format and will be replacing these Arrangements. However you can
 continue to use these pesticides until the end of 2005 and there may be replacement approvals before
 then.

 Growers should check with their advisers, manufacturers, the Assured Produce website ‘Newsflashes’
 and the PSD website (www.pesticides.gov.uk)



 Any new standards have been prefixed in the text with (NEW)




______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    5
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
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 1          General introduction

                       Following a systematic approach will help growers to identify and manage the risks
                       involved in crop production. This protocol is based on a typical crop production process.
                       Using a flowchart approach, food safety, Health & Safety, environmental and quality
                       hazards are identified. Appropriate controls may then be established to minimise risk.
                       Food safety and Health & Safety issues always take precedence over quality and
                       environmental controls.

                       The flow chart is structured as shown below. Note that the sectional layout of both this
                       protocol and the crop specific protocols follow the same structure.



                                                                 SITE SELECTION

                                                              SITE MANAGEMENT

                                                             VARIETY SELECTION

                                                                      NUTRITION

                                                                     IRRIGATION

                                                                 PEST CONTROL

                                                              DISEASE CONTROL

                                                                 WEED CONTROL

                                                            HARVEST & STORAGE


                       The contents of each crop specific protocol are reviewed annually by informed farmers
                       and growers, food technologists, scientists, the relevant fresh produce association,
                       processors and agronomic consultants. Updated editions are issued prior to the cropping
                       season.

                       The review process considers both new developments and all relevant technology which
                       has emerged throughout the course of the previous year and which have been found to be
                       both workable by the grower and beneficial to the environment. As one aim of the
                       Scheme is to transfer such information and technologies to growers, attention is drawn to
                       those features of specific relevance to ICM by using italic script. In order that growers
                       may be confident that they are working to a current document, each protocol is dated and
                       numbered.


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 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

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                                                                                                                          Control Document No: 00034/05
                                                                                                  Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
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 2          Planning and Records

                       Pest and disease identification

                       Staff working regularly in Lettuce crop production should be able to recognise the
                       following major pests and diseases, or their symptoms:

                        Downy mildew

                        Botrytis (grey mould)

                        Rhizoctonia bottom rot

                        Sclerotinia

                        Butt rot

                        Ringspot

                        Big vein and other relevant virus diseases

                        Aphids on leaves and roots

                        Caterpillars

                        Cutworms

                        Glasshouse whitefly

                        Leafminer damage

                        Thrips

                        Slugs

                       Staff should know to whom they should report when the above pests and diseases, or
                       other problems regularly found on a particular nursery, are first detected. Managers and
                       supervisors should appreciate the relative risk to their crops from these pests and diseases.

                       In service training

                       Training in the identification of pests and diseases, the symptoms they cause, their control
                       and an appreciation of the objectives of this protocol should be given to each new member
                       of staff.

                       All staff working on the nursery, both regular and casual, should be instructed as
                       necessary to satisfy COSHH requirements and in their obligations under the General Food
                       Hygiene Regulations (Food Act).

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    7
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
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                       Monitoring

                       Regular monitoring of pests and diseases, and any biological control agents used, is of
                       vital importance. All nursery staff should be alert to symptoms of new pests or diseases or
                       signs of imbalance with biological control mechanisms.



 3          Site selection

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

 4          Site management

                       4.1        Soil mapping

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       4.2        Soil management

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       4.3        Soil fumigation

                       Soil disinfection

                       New glasshouse sites are likely to need sterilising before cropping to kill off weeds and
                       weed seeds. Frequency of sterilising thereafter will depend on circumstances and whether
                       other crops are grown in rotation. Crops such as Tomatoes and Cucumbers are likely to
                       suffer more loss from root pathogens than Lettuce.

                       The use of white polythene mulches, through which the crop is planted, has proved
                       successful in reducing the need for sterilisation by preventing weed growth. They also act
                       as a barrier so reducing the incidence of infection of the lower leaves from the soil and
                       they improve quality through light reflection.

                       Methyl bromide has been the main sterilant used under glass, but its use is now
                       prohibited. Inorganic bromide residues may still be found both from background and from
                       previous applications. Monitoring of residues needs to continue. It is strongly
                       recommended that growers test lettuce for methyl inorganic bromide residues where
                       there is a known history of residues. (Revised)

                       When sterilisation is necessary the following should be considered:

                                 Steam - effective but time consuming and needs careful handling from the Health
                                  and Safety aspect. New efficient mobile steam boilers are now available. There is
                                  a risk of Manganese toxicity after steaming, on low pH soils.

                                 Basamid – Best use guidelines for protected lettuce are given in Appendix 6
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 8                                                                                                                          2005 Assured Produce Ltd.
                                                                                                                          Control Document No: 00034/05
                                                                                                  Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
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 5          Variety selection

                       5.1        Choice of variety or rootstock

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       5.2        Seed quality

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       5.3        Seed treatments and dressings

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       5.4        Plants and nursery stock

                       Propagation

                       ICM principles must start with propagation for it is essential the plants leave the
                       propagation house free of pests and disease. This is particularly important with Lettuce
                       crops where restrictions on fungicide use apply after planting. Plants must always receive
                       an aphid spray before they leave the propagation area. Growers should liaise with their
                       propagators to ensure the correct pesticides are used and obtain written records of such
                       use. Likewise, growers who raise their own plants should have a written record of their
                       pesticide programme in propagation. It is strongly recommended that plant raisers are
                       registered with DEFRA Plant Health and Seeds Inspectorate under the EU Marketing
                       Scheme. Growers should be able to produce evidence that any propagated material has
                       been produced from a verifiable production system. (See Generic Guidance Notes 5.4.1)



 6          Nutrition

                       6.1        Nutrient requirement

                       For soil-grown crops, analysis to determine nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium,
                       pH and conductivity is essential for optimum production. For successional Lettuce crops,
                       a full analysis is recommended twice per year; in April/May for summer crops and
                       September/October for winter crops, however, where Lettuce follows a different crop, a
                       full analysis should be carried out before planting.

                       Separate samples should be taken from:

                       a)         an individual greenhouse.

                       b)         areas within a greenhouse which have had different preceding crops or treatment
                                  in the previous year.

                       c)         any area which showed poorer growth in the previous crop.
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 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    9
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
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                       Samples should be taken between crops and any adjustment in nutrients resulting from the
                       soil analysis should be applied to subsequent crops. A number of cores from the sample
                       area should be taken, in the recognised "W" pattern, and these should be mixed together
                       for analysis.

                       Soil sterilisation, by steam and to a lesser extent Basamid, will release some nitrogen into
                       the soil. If samples are to be taken after sterilizing, a period of at least one week should
                       elapse before the samples are taken.

                       Where Lettuce follows row crops, such as Tomatoes, there are likely to be variations in
                       nutrient levels between what were row and path areas. Time will have to be allowed for
                       cultivation and the application of any water required, to produce even conditions across
                       the house and to leach out any excess of accumulated soluble fertiliser salts.

                       It is not desirable to use heavy applications of farmyard manure for glasshouse crops
                       because of uncertain nutrient content and release, particularly of nitrate. If organic
                       manures are used to improve soil structure, they should be applied in spring, not autumn.
                       To ensure low microbiological content, farmyard manure should be well composted and
                       turned 6 – 8 months before use. Sewage sludge and abattoir residues must not be used.

                       Soil should be in good physical condition with an even moisture content, before planting.
                       Care should be taken to avoid the following (as they will contribute to the creation of pans
                       and the destruction of soil structure):

                              heavy watering in the final stages of crop growth

                              rotary cultivation of soil in wet conditions

                              unnecessary wheelings from tractors and forklifts, especially on moist, heavy soils.

                       Pans result in impeded drainage, poorer growth, accumulation of fertiliser salts and
                       increased risk of diseases and problems such as tipburn.

                       Pans should be broken up by subsoiling or by spading at least once per year. Particular
                       attention should be paid to areas that may have been compacted, such as loading areas and
                       doorways. In these areas subsoiling should be done after each Lettuce crop.

                       6.2        Advice on quantity, type and timing of fertiliser

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       6.3        Nitrate and phosphate losses to ground water

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.




______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 10                                                                                                                         2005 Assured Produce Ltd.
                                                                                                                          Control Document No: 00034/05
                                                                                                  Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
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                       6.4        Application equipment

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       6.5        Records of application

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       6.6        Fertiliser storage

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       6.7        Organic manures

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       6.8        Control of nitrate levels

                       6.8.1      Introduction

                       As part of its programme on agricultural contaminants in food, the European Commission
                       put forward proposals for a Commission Regulation specifying maximum limits for the
                       nitrate content of vegetables, including Lettuce.

                       Commission Regulation (EC) No. 194/97 of 31 January 1997 and amended in April 1999
                       sets maximum levels for nitrates as follows: 4500 ppm (fresh weight) for crops harvested
                       between October and March inclusive and 3500 ppm for crops harvested between April
                       and September inclusive. The UK has a derogation exempting production for the domestic
                       market provided the growers follow an industry code of good practice. The cultural advice
                       part of this code is given in Section 5.2.3. The other aspects of the code are given in
                       Appendix 1. This derogation should have ceased on 1 January 2005. However, at the time
                       of publishing this protocol (February 2005) the derogation is still under review and
                       negotiations are on-going. For the latest position on the nitrate issue contact the NFU,
                       your consultant or look on the Assured Produce website, www.assuredproduce.co.uk.



                       Growers need to be aware that nitrate levels in produce are covered by the Food Act.
                       Very high levels of nitrate may be deemed as a risk to health by Local Authorities.

                       The Regulation arose as a result of concerns in certain EU States over the possible health
                       effects of high dietary intakes of nitrates to which vegetables as a group of foods makes
                       the single greatest contribution. DEFRA Food Surveillance Paper No. 32 reports on the
                       findings in UK and paragraph 15.1 page 42 concludes “We are satisfied that there is no
                       cause for concern in respect of current dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in the general
                       population.”

                       The code of good agricultural practice has been developed to help avoid excessive levels
                       of nitrate in Lettuce whilst recognising the need to produce a commercially acceptable
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    11
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
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                       crop. The health benefits of eating a vegetable-rich diet are recognised. The approach
                       taken will also serve to limit the dispersal of nitrates into the environment generally, and
                       into water supplies specifically.

                       6.8.2      Nitrate uptake

                       Nitrogen is an essential constituent of proteins on which all life depends. Plants take up
                       most of their nitrogen in the nitrate form and convert it to proteins via amino acids.
                       Energy is required to convert nitrate into amino acids and this is supplied by sunlight
                       through the process of photosynthesis. Thus in winter, when natural levels of light are
                       lower, surplus nitrate accumulate in the plant. Older leaves contain more nitrate than
                       younger leaves because the site of nitrate conversion to amino acids is in the actively
                       growing, younger tissue.

                       Consequently the uptake of nitrate, and subsequent leaf content, is variable and there is
                       even considerable variation between neighbouring plants. This makes the prediction and
                       control of nitrate levels very difficult, but the following cultural advice has been prepared
                       using current research knowledge. As knowledge is gained the Code will be revised and
                       updated.

                       6.8.3      Cultural advice to growers

                       It is strongly recommended that growers know the key points which help to reduce high
                       nitrate levels in Protected Lettuce.

                       Light maximisation: Nitrate accumulates most under those conditions that result in slow
                       growth, such as low light intensities. Therefore the maximisation of light availability to
                       the crop is essential. Grow the crop in the best light-transmitting house available. Make
                       sure glass is clean. The frequency of cleaning required will depend on site conditions and
                       the need for cleaning should be assessed at least annually. Shading of the crop e.g. by
                       lining glasshouse walls on the south and west sides with insulating material such as
                       bubble polythene, should be avoided. Ideally, polythene tunnel covers should be replaced
                       at not longer than four-year intervals.

                       Nutrition

                       a)         Analyse the growing media for nitrate-nitrogen content before the winter crops are
                                  planted (September/October) and repeat analysis before summer crops
                                  (April/May). If the soil is sterilised, analysis should ideally be carried out after
                                  sterilisation.

                       b)         Apply only sufficient nitrogen to achieve a level of up to 100 mg/l nitrate-N at
                                  planting. This should be adequate to take most crops through to harvest.

                       c)         Calculate precisely the amount of nitrogen fertiliser required, using the following
                                  figures:

                                  1 g/m2 ammonium nitrate fertiliser (34.5%N) raises the nitrogen level by 1.3 mg/L
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 12                                                                                                                         2005 Assured Produce Ltd.
                                                                                                                          Control Document No: 00034/05
                                                                                                  Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
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                                  or 34 gm/m2 (1oz/yd2) raises the nitrogen level by 44 mg/L

                                  so if the soil analysis shows a level of 55 mg/litre, to raise it to 100 mg/L:

                                                    100 mg/L                             (the target level)

                                  minus             _55 mg/L                             (the level of the soil analysis)

                                                      45 mg/L                            (the amount of nitrogen required)

                                  divide by          1.3 gm/L                            (the amount of nitrogen in 1 g/m2)

                                  =                    34 g/m2 (1 oz/yd2)                (the amount of nitrogen fertiliser required)

                                  These figures are based on incorporating the fertiliser into a soil depth of 20 cm.
                                  If other forms of nitrogen or compound fertilisers are used, the percentage nitrogen
                                  content has to be taken into account. Very high soil nitrogen levels pre-planting
                                  should be avoided. Flooding may be required where the starting nitrate-N level is
                                  more than 120 mg/L.

                       d)         The release of nitrogen from slow-release or organic fertilisers depends on soil
                                  conditions, particularly of temperature, and may be unpredictable. High leaf nitrate
                                  levels can result from a period of warm, dull weather. If organic manures are used
                                  for soil conditioning they should be applied in spring (April/May) and certainly
                                  not in autumn (October/November) or during winter.

                       e)         Liquid feeding with nitrogen in winter should not be necessary in most soils
                                  provided adequate base dressings were applied. In summer on sandy soil, however,
                                  where there is a greater risk of nitrates leaching, it may be preferable to apply a
                                  reduced base dressing and supplement with liquid feeding later. Liquid feeds must
                                  not be applied within 14 days of harvest. To avoid crop damage care should be
                                  taken to wash liquid feed off the foliage.

                       f)         The outer leaves of Lettuce naturally contain higher nitrate levels. Consequently
                                  growers should aim to achieve high head weights to allow some trimming. This is
                                  mainly a concern with the winter maturing crops (late November to early
                                  February). During this period the following aspects will help:

                                       give adequate spacing (21.7 plants / m2 should be the maximum density),
                                        20 plants / m2 or less is better.

                                       where available use heat (minimum frost protection) and/or CO2
                                        enrichment.

                       g)         If, after analysis, it is desirable to raise conductivity levels to avoid soft growth
                                  and problems of "glassiness", this must be achieved by the use of potassium
                                  sulphate, not potassium nitrate.

                       h)         In hydroponic growing systems, maintain a nitrate level of between100 - 170 mg/l
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    13
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
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                       i)         Lettuce variety: Although there is variation in nitrate residues between varieties,
                                  no variety offers at present a consistent means of achieving the proposed levels.
                                  Some varieties with claims for low nitrate content exhibit other agronomic
                                  shortcomings. Nevertheless growers should keep trials in this area under review.

                       j)         Post-harvest handling: The interval between harvest and sale should be as short
                                  as possible to avoid water loss which would be expected to “concentrate” the
                                  nitrate content of the fresh product.

                       6.8.4      Nitrate monitoring samples

                       Sampling and analytical procedures are essential elements of due diligence. It is strongly
                       recommended that the grower or marketing organisation undertake analysis of samples
                       conducted by a competent laboratory that is accredited by UKAS and participates in
                       FAPAS. The results should be kept for 2 years. For example, laboratories should be able
                       to demonstrate that they participate in and achieve a satisfactory performance (i.e. z-
                       scores between +2 and –2) in FAPAS nitrate rounds. The FSA recommend that a method
                       based on BS EN12014-2/1997, involving hot water extraction should be used.

                       Samples taken immediately prior to harvest for the purposes of monitoring the
                       effectiveness of this code should be taken four times per annum, on a seasonal basis and a
                       further sample (or samples) should be taken if there is a prolonged spell of unseasonally
                       dull weather, since these conditions are likely to result in higher nitrate levels than would
                       usually be expected. This sampling requirement is in addition to any samples demanded
                       by customers or enforcement authorities for their own purposes.

                       A portable meter (Nitrachek®) for analysis of the growing crop is available and would be
                       suitable for rapid testing on the nursery. It was tested on nurseries during 2004. HDC
                       funding (HDC project PC88a and PC218) has shown that it is a rapid and cost effective
                       procedure for monitoring the nitrate concentrations of lettuce crops. Although the rapid
                       Nitrachek® meter test will not completely remove all need for fully certified analyses, its
                       adoption should assist growers and suppliers in demonstrating due diligence regarding EU
                       nitrate limits. Regular records of nitrate analysis may also enable growers to link nitrate
                       levels with management practices such as fertiliser application and adjust these
                       accordingly. Further information is available from the HDC. Tel. No. 01732 848383

                       6.8.5      Records required

                       The following records must be kept for all crops, and retained for 2 years.

                       a)         Soil analysis results of the twice-yearly sampling, together with date and location.

                       b)         Date of nitrogen fertiliser applications per crop, to include base and liquid feed.
                                  The type and total nitrogen content of fertiliser should be recorded together with
                                  application rate.

                       c)         Date of any application of organic manure or soil conditioner.

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                       d)         Date of planting and variety together with date of harvest.

                       e)         Previous crops grown.

                       In addition, the following records must be kept for crops being sampled for nitrate
                       content, and the analysis results retained for 2 years.

                       a)         Date and time of taking plant samples.

                       b)         Results of sample analysis and name of laboratory/analyst performing the analysis.

                       All these results should be kept by the grower and a copy supplied to, and kept for
                       reference by, the grower marketing organisation if one is being used. They will be made
                       available to any authorised person, e.g. enforcement officers, on request.

 7          Irrigation

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

 8          Crop Protection

                       8.1        The basic approach to crop protection

                       8.1.1      Non-chemical methods

                       See Generic Guidance Notes

                       8.1.2      ICM for protected crops

                       The key principles may be summarised:

                       a)         Biological, environmental and cultural methods of pest and disease control must
                                  be used as the first line of defence, for example vent screening in propagation.

                       b)         Chemical pesticides are only to be used when biological or cultural controls are
                                  not available, or shown not to be working.

                       c)         Crops must be monitored at least weekly and records made of pest, disease and
                                  biological control agent levels. but see d).

                       d)         As Protected Lettuce is one of the few crops grown where the whole plant is
                                  harvested and marketed (less any dirty or yellow basal leaves), biological control
                                  of pests is not a practical alternative as all the leaves must be free of pests, disease
                                  and other marks.

                       e)         Ensure a suitable environment is maintained at all times. Where available the
                                  proper use of climate control computers should be used.

                       f)         Records must be kept of all pesticide applications.
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                       8.1.2.1 Crop health

                       Hygiene measures

                       After harvesting clear all remaining crop debris and any weeds and remove off site. Cover
                       any skips awaiting collection to avoid spread of pest and disease organisms to other crops.

                       Weeds can act as hosts to pests and diseases, particularly virus diseases. The perimeters of
                       all glasshouses, the growing crop, and empty glasshouses should be kept weed-free at all
                       times. Non-hormone herbicides of short persistence should be used around the glasshouse
                       and care taken to avoid spray drift in windy weather, especially when glasshouse
                       ventilators are open.

                       Where Lettuce crops are grown in rotation with other crops such as Tomatoes, specific
                       hygiene requirements for these crops should be followed by consulting the appropriate
                       crop protocol.

                       8.2        Plant production product choice

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       NEW
                       Approved uses not included on the product label

                       In some circumstances product labels do not include all of the approved uses and growers
                       and advisers wishing to check the approval notice of a particular product should note that
                       this information is available from www.pesticides.gov.uk/psd_databases.asp

                       A search on the database for a product name should yield a results page. A click on the
                       product name should link to a summary of the approval information. At the bottom of the
                       summary are links to available notices which will give the statutory conditions of use.

                       In the case of products with older approval an electronic approval may not be available.
                       In these cases growers should contact the PSD Information Services Branch for details of
                       the approved conditions of use. Contact details are:
                       p.s.d.information@psd.defra.gsi.gov.uk        tel. 01904 455 775.




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                       Pesticide use

                       Several UK winter Lettuce growers have recently been prosecuted for fungicide misuse!
                       Misuse has included:

                           Use of non-permitted chemicals – chlorothalonil and vinclozolin.

                           Excessive residues of dithiocarbamates - mancozeb, thiram and other active
                            ingredients - tolclofos-methyl at marketing, due to incorrect application

                       Pesticide misuse does great harm to the horticultural industry. Fungicide product labels
                       contain comprehensive information about safe application. Ignorance is no defence
                       against illegal use.

                       Some common pitfalls which could lead to residue problems

                           Cutting the crop too soon before the full pre harvest interval has passed. This can be
                            avoided by recording on large plant labels placed at the ends of the rows; the earliest
                            harvest date and/or spray record sheets should have a column indicating the earliest
                            harvest date. These records should be updated after each spraying operation.

                           Leaving soil on the lower leaves and not trimming off the oldest yellowing leaves.

                           Misinterpretation of the dithiocarbamate rule, or failure to remember whether or not a
                            fungicide contains a dithiocarbamate. This group of fungicides includes Fubol Gold,
                            mancozeb and thiram.

                       It is strongly recommended that growers are aware which fungicides contain
                       dithiocarbamates and the limitations on their use.

                             a) Use of dithiocarbamate fungicides is restricted after planting out.
                                A total of only 2 applications of fungicides from this group may be made to the
                                crop. These must be in the first 2 weeks after planting out. The only exception is
                                thiram used in the winter (November – March maturing crops) where 3
                                applications are permitted in the first 3 weeks after planting. If thiram and
                                mancozeb are tank-mixed, a single spray counts as two applications.

                                  The LTG new guideline is to limit the use of Thiram to the same as the other
                                  dithiocarbamates, i.e. 2 sprays only in the first 2 weeks after planting out.

                             b) Remember that ALL these products have a 21-day harvest interval.

                             c) There are no restrictions on dithiocarbamate use during propagation.

                           Failure to pay enough attention to spacing – spacer trays; the move by some Lettuce
                            growers to use spacer trays could potentially affect residues in the harvested produce,
                            depending on how “planting out” is interpreted. For example, there is a restriction on
                            dithiocarbamate use which restricts application to within 14 days post-planting. If
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                             spacer trays are used then planting out could be delayed by 2-3 weeks. If a
                             dithiocarbamate is then applied twice during the 14-day period the interception of the
                             product by the larger plants will be much greater and the last application will be much
                             closer to harvest. This is likely to lead to residues in the harvested produce above the
                             MRL.

                             Therefore growers adopting the use of spacer trays or other similar cultural
                             techniques for e.g. large peat blocks for Lettuce production are strongly
                             recommended to do spray calculations from the time of spacing, and not from the
                             final planting out date in the glasshouse.

                            Using old pesticides which are no longer approved on Lettuce.                                              Annual store
                             inventories should identify such products.

                            Applying some fungicides after planting: late application does not necessarily improve
                             disease control

                            Failure to clean out the sprayer; products containing tolclofos-methyl are particularly
                             prone to coming out of suspension – keep agitated and wash thoroughly after use.

                            Allowing sprays or dusts to drift onto adjacent Lettuce crops.

                            It is strongly recommended that growers should record planting and harvest dates to
                             substantiate adherence to statutory requirements.

                       8.3        Advice on the use of pesticides

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       8.4        Application of pesticides

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       8.5        Records of application

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       8.6        Protective clothing/equipment

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       8.7        Pesticide storage

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       8.8        Empty pesticide containers

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

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                       8.9        Pesticide residues in fresh produce

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       (NEW)

                       See Generic Protocol Guidance Notes 8.9 for further background and generic
                       advice.

                       Assured Produce is aware that a key area in the production of fresh produce which
                       requires continued attention by growers and their advisers is that of keeping pesticide
                       residues to a minimum. This issue is not just one of meeting the MRL trading standard but
                       ensuring that any individual or multi residues are kept as low as possible below this level.

                       The key targets are –

                            optimising late applications of fungicides and insecticides to the edible part of the
                             crop.

                            optimising the use of post harvest treatments.

                            ensuring minimum harvest intervals are followed.

                            ensuring that application equipment is applying products correctly.

                       See Section 8.2 and Appendix 7 for the pesticide targets and guidelines on this crop.

                       8.10       Pest, disease and weed control

                       8.10.1 Pest control

                       8.10.1.1 Aphids

                       A number of aphid species attack Protected Lettuce. The most common and harmful
                       species are the currant-lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri a light green aphid with a
                       pattern of black markings on the body) and the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae an
                       aphid of variable body colour from pink or yellow to olive green). Heavily infested leaves
                       become blistered and stunted.

                       The peach-potato aphid may also transmit the lettuce and cucumber mosaic viruses and
                       beet western yellows virus.

                       Other species of aphids may occasionally infest Lettuce. These include the glasshouse
                       potato aphid (Aulacorthum solani), the shallot aphid (Myzus ascalonicus), the potato
                       aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) and the lettuce root aphid (Pemphigus bursarius).

                       Cultural control: Infestation of seedlings can usually be avoided by raising them in
                       weed-free isolation from other crops.

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                       Weeds are a source of aphids and viruses and must be controlled during cropping.
                       Thorough removal after harvest of all crop debris that might carry aphid infestation is
                       important.

                       Propagation houses should be very clean. Consider vent screening.

                       Chemical control: There are a number of materials available for aphid control and these
                       are listed in Appendix 2. The cypermethrin products are Cyperkill 5®, and Toppel 10®. It
                       is vitally important to monitor crops regularly to achieve early control. Infestations later in
                       the crop, especially after hearting, are extremely difficult to eradicate. Current HDC
                       research is looking at infestation periods, vent screening, trapping methods and timing of
                       sprays.

                       8.10.1.2 Caterpillars

                       Various green or green and brown caterpillars may cause leaf damage and contamination
                       with their frass. Most common are caterpillars of the silver Y moth (Autographa gamma),
                       the angle-shades moth (Phlogophora meticulosa), and the tomato moth (Lacanobia
                       oleracea). Occasionally caterpillars of the flax tortrix moth (Cnephasia interjectana) are
                       found feeding within webbed leaves.

                       Cultural control: Timely removal of weeds and crop remains is recommended.
                       Monitoring adult moth numbers with light traps is also useful in anticipating infestations.

                       Chemical control: Materials are listed in Appendix 2 The cypermethrin products are
                       Cyperkill 5® and Toppel 10®. Early detection and treatment are important as smaller
                       caterpillars are more susceptible to insecticides and, later in the crop, they are likely to be
                       protected within the heart of the Lettuce. Current HDC research is looking at infestation
                       periods, vent screening, trapping methods and timing of sprays.

                       8.10.1.3 Cutworms

                       Cutworms are the caterpillars of certain noctuid moths such as the turnip moth (Agrostis
                       segetum). They are plump and generally brownish or greyish. Adult moths emerge from
                       May onwards and lay their eggs on various cultivated plants and weeds. The small
                       caterpillars initially live on the leaves but then move into the soil when they may cause
                       the complete collapse of plants by severing them at ground level.

                       Attacks are more likely to occur in new glasshouses erected on previously uncultivated
                       land and in glasshouses that have been left empty during the summer months. Cutworms
                       may also enter peat blocks during propagation, if they are stood out on the soil.

                       Cultural control: Early removal of weeds on new glasshouse sites, and maintaining
                       weed-free crops thereafter, are important control measures.

                       Chemical control: (See Appendix 2). Spray timing is important for effective control and
                       to keep pesticide use to a minimum. Monitoring adult moth numbers with pheromone or
                       light traps is again useful in anticipating the need for control.
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                       Slug pellets also provide some protection.

                       8.10.1.4 Whitefly

                       Lettuce may act as an alternative overwintering host for the glasshouse whitefly
                       (Trialeurodes vaporarium) which infested previous crops of Tomatoes or Cucumbers, or
                       plants raised near to another source of infestation such as weeds. In addition to the direct
                       damage they may cause, whitefly may also transmit beet pseudo-yellow virus.

                       Cultural control: Hygiene between crops and elimination of weeds inside and outside
                       glasshouses is important to avoid carry over of infestations.

                       Chemical control: Few effective insecticides are available to control established
                       infestations on Lettuce crops (see Appendix 2). The elimination of whitefly before
                       planting is the most effective approach. Spraying or fumigating previous infected crops
                       before pulling out is recommended. Washing down structures and soil sterilisation at this
                       time will also kill immature stages on leaf material and weeds.

                       8.10.1.5 Thrips

                       Both the onion thrip (Thrips tabaci) and the western flower thrip (Frankliniella
                       occidentalis) may occasionally infest Lettuce crops, especially if other infested crops are
                       nearby although Lettuce is not a preferred host. Western flower thrips can also act as
                       vectors for virus diseases such as tomato spotted wilt virus, so detection and control is
                       very important.

                       Cultural control: Removal of all previous crop debris, thorough hygiene measures
                       between crops and control of thrips on adjacent crops are all important.

                       Chemical control: See Appendix 2.

                       8.10.1.6 Leaf miners

                       Infestations by native leaf miners, such as the chrysanthemum leaf miner (Phytomyza
                       syngenesia), the tomato leaf miner (Lyriomyza bryoniae) and the chrysanthemum blotch
                       miner (Trypeta zoe) are not common on Lettuce but may transfer to the crop when other
                       infested glasshouse crops are being cleared.

                       Non-native leaf miners, particularly the pea leaf miner (Lyriomyza huidobrensis), are
                       potentially serious pests of Lettuce. This is a notifiable pest in the UK, requiring statutory
                       action by DEFRA's Plant Heath and Seeds Inspectorate (PHSI).

                       Cultural control: Remove all previous crop debris and weeds. Soil sterilisation will kill
                       pupae. Ensure bought-in plants are from a reputable propagator and pest-free. Try to
                       achieve a good clean up of leafminer on preceding crops in the rotation and maintain
                       control on adjacent crops.


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                       Chemical control: See Appendix 2. Control of L. huidobrensis by chemical means is
                       difficult and PHSI will recommend control measures.

                       8.10.1.7 Slugs

                       Slugs can cause serious crop damage in Protected Lettuce although it is often localised to
                       the perimeter of structures and doorways. Mild, wet weather, encourages slug activity.

                       Cultural control: Weeds and trash around structures will harbour slugs and these areas
                       should be kept clear and weed-free.

                       Chemical control: Slug pellets containing metaldehyde or methiocarb are effective.
                       Methiocarb is slightly more effective but less specific to slugs than metaldehyde. With
                       good monitoring only the perimeter of structures should need treatment. Particular care
                       should be taken during application to avoid any risk of pellets lodging in the leaves of the
                       plants. Pellets must not be broadcast over the crop.

                       8.10.1.8 Shore fly

                       Shore flies are small robust black flies that are commonly found in greenhouses. The
                       larvae feed primarily on green algae on the growing medium. Adult flies alight on Lettuce
                       plants and can become trapped under plastic wrappings resulting in rejection of produce.

                       Cultural control: Shore fly development can be prevented if the algal food source is
                       eliminated. Research funded by the HDC has shown that Mogeton® applied to the paths
                       and the periphery of the crop has removed the algae and reduced Shore fly numbers by
                       50%. Growers should do all they can to keep the soil surface dry and minimise overhead
                       liquid feeding.

                       Chemical control: Foliar sprays and space treatment with insecticides only have a
                       temporary impact on shore fly populations because they do not reach the larval
                       development sites. Soil treatments have shown to be more effective but approval of such
                       treatments is not possible.

                       8.10.1.9 Other pests

                       A number of other pests may occasionally attack Protected Lettuce, especially on new
                       sites. These include capsid bugs, leafhoppers, leatherjackets, sciarid flies, springtails,
                       wireworms, millipedes, symphylids and migratory and root-knot nematodes. Birds and
                       rodents may also cause occasional problems.

                       8.10.2 Disease control

                       8.10.2.1 Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)

                       This can be an extremely damaging disease of Protected Lettuce, especially in late
                       summer and autumn, when environmental conditions are favourable to the spread of

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                       infection. Spread may be very rapid. The symptoms are characteristic angular yellow
                       patches on the upper leaf surface and fluffy white sporulating mycelium on the underside.

                       Cultural control: Controlling humidity and avoiding long periods of leaf wetness can
                       restrict disease development. Seedlings should be propagated in isolation from other
                       Lettuce crops. Infected crop debris should be removed from the glasshouse and not
                       rotovated back into the soil. Soil sterilisation will minimise risk of infection from soil-
                       borne resting spores.

                       The correct choice of cultivar with regard to disease resistance is crucial for a successful
                       downy mildew control programme. In areas where resistance to the fungicide metalaxyl
                       has been confirmed, select BL1-25 cultivars.



                       Chemical control: Dithiocarbamate fungicides are effective protectants, particularly
                       when applied in propagation when there are no restrictions on their use. There are strict
                       post-planting restrictions because of the risk of high residues in the harvested crop.
                       They are:

                       For Fubol Gold and Mancozeb 2 applications within 2 weeks of planting or 3 for Thiram
                       within 3 weeks on winter crops.

                       Strains of mildew resistant to the fungicide metalaxyl are now widespread. Where these
                       exist, the correct combination of resistance factors (BL1-25) and fungicide programme is
                       important. Selection of fungicides from different groups, or in mixtures, will help prevent
                       resistance building up. See Appendix 3.

                       Fungicide protection in propagation is essential to ensure disease free plants are planted
                       out.

                       8.10.2.2 Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea)

                       Botrytis readily colonises damaged or senescent tissue and can affect the crop at any stage.
                       Leaves and stems of seedlings may be attacked causing damping-off. More mature plants
                       are often affected at the stem base causing a reddish-brown stem rot.

                       This rot results in yellowing or greying of the leaves, wilting and eventual collapse of the
                       plant which may become completely severed from the root system. Affected tissue
                       invariably develops the characteristic greyish brown mould.

                       Cultural control: Any cultural practice likely to result in damage to plants will
                       encourage the development of botrytis. For example, deep planting, rough handling,
                       mildew infected plants, large drawn soft plants, insufficient water to aid fast
                       establishment, running crops “dry” to avoid mildew in the autumn.

                       Chemical control: Few effective chemicals are now available for Botrytis control on
                       Lettuce and low-level resistance to the main one, Rovral is widespread. Thiram is a good
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                       protectant but should be used early in the crop because of dithiocarbamate restrictions.
                       Rovral should be used later. For other fungicides see Appendix 3.

                       8.10.2.3 Rhizoctonia bottom rot (Rhizoctonia solani)

                       Rhizoctonia is a common soil-borne fungus that can cause a damping-off of seedlings and
                       a severe bottom rot of more mature Lettuce. The first symptom of disease after planting is
                       often the appearance of dark water-soaked lesions on leaves in contact with the soil.
                       Affected leaves collapse and rot away and the fungus then spreads up the stem, from leaf
                       to leaf, causing characteristic rusty brown flecks and spots.

                       The disease can occur throughout the year under a wide range of climatic conditions. It
                       tends to be worse, however, on sandy soils, particularly in poorly drained or overwatered
                       areas.

                       Cultural control: Good soil sterilisation is usually an effective method of control but
                       Rhizoctonia can quickly re-colonise sterilised soil if introduced again on implements,
                       boxes etc.

                       Care should be taken to thoroughly remove plant debris from previous crops, which
                       should not be rotovated in.

                       Peat blocks may become contaminated with Rhizoctonia if they are stood on unsterilised
                       soil or in dirty trays. Crops should not be overwatered.

                       Rhizoctonia has a wide host range and other crops in the rotation such as celery may be
                       attacked.

                       Chemical control: The main fungicide is Azoxystrobin (Amistar®) applied post planting.
                       Tolclofos-methyl (Basilex®) sprayed onto soil before planting can still be used if gantry
                       sprayers are available. Iprodione (Rovral WP®), used for Botrytis control, also has some
                       activity against Rhizoctonia.

                       8.10.2.4 Sclerotinia disease (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)

                       Sclerotinia is an aggressive disease that can infect the crop at any stage but symptoms
                       usually become noticeable near to maturity. A soft, water-soaked rot develops at soil level
                       and there is a dramatic wilting and collapse of the foliage. A dense white fluffy fungal
                       growth develops on the affected tissue. Characteristic black resting spores (sclerotia), up
                       to 10 mm long may be found in the white mycelium.

                       Sclerotia, which can survive in the soil for many years or in plant debris near glasshouses,
                       germinate in the spring and early summer to cause the main source of infection. Apart
                       from Lettuce the disease has a wide host range, including tomato, cucumber, celery,
                       chrysanthemum and nearby oilseed rape crops. The disease is favoured by high
                       temperatures and hence is most common in summer crops.


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                       Cultural control: Soil sterilisation is the most effective way of killing sclerotia. Infected
                       Lettuce plants with a scrape of soil should be removed at the time of cutting, placed into a
                       polythene bag and destroyed. Do not rotovate infected debris into the soil.

                       Chemical control: The main fungicide is Boscalid and Pyraclostrobin (Signum®). Its use
                       is limited to 1 April-31October.

                       8.10.2.5 Butt rot

                       This disease is caused predominantly by common soil-borne Pseudomonas bacteria.
                       Symptoms are usually seen as plants near maturity when they may wilt suddenly and do
                       not recover. If cut in half vertically, the tissues in the centre of the stem will be seen to
                       have been replaced by an olive-green to brown jelly-like rot.

                       Cultural control: The disease is favoured by wet conditions and high humidity, which
                       should be avoided as far as possible. It is most common in autumn and winter crops. Soil
                       sterilisation should be effective in reducing infection levels.

                       Cultivars which are prone to glassiness also tend to be prone to butt rot infection.

                       Chemical control: No effective chemicals are available.

                       8.10.2.6 Ringspot (Marssonina panattoniana)

                       Ringspot is more commonly associated with outdoor Lettuce but is seen in protected
                       crops, especially those grown with little or no heat during the autumn and winter. Small
                       brown spots with a yellow halo are first seen and the centre of these spots then falls out to
                       give a shot-hole effect. The disease may also invade the midrib and heart leaves producing
                       sunken brown lesions similar to slug damage.

                       Cultural control: A positive growing regime and avoidance of high humidities and leaf
                       wetness will give reduced infection. Soil sterilisation and crop debris and weed removal
                       will also help control.

                       Chemical control: Prochloraz (Mirage 40EC and Scotts Octave®) have off-label approval
                       for use against this disease on Protected Lettuce. Do not apply prochloraz in the
                       propagation stage and make sure plants are well established before application.

                       8.10.2.7 Big vein virus

                       Big vein is a more common virus disease of outdoor crops and is spread by the soil-borne
                       fungus Olpidium brassicae. Although it is only occasionally seen in protected soil-grown
                       crops, it is potentially very serious in 'NFT' crops since Olpidium has motile spores that
                       can quickly spread through the system.

                       Symptoms take some time to develop and may only be seen in autumn and winter
                       protected crops.

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                       Cultural control: Scrupulous hygiene is required, especially in propagation, to control
                       the fungus vector and avoid spread of big vein. Disinfection of machinery and especially
                       trays is required. Of the disinfectants available, Jet 5® is particularly effective at killing
                       resting spores of Olpidium.

                       Chemical control: No chemicals are directly effective against the virus but carbendazim
                       (Cleancrop Curve® and Delsene 5O Flo® )

                       incorporated into peat blocks or sprayed onto the soil surface before planting gives good
                       control of Olpidium. The use of Aliette® for downy mildew control does have some effect
                       against big vein.

                       8.10.2.8 Other virus diseases

                       A number of other virus diseases may occasionally occur in Protected Lettuce though,
                       again, are usually more serious in outdoor crops.

                       Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV): Causes mosaic symptoms and stunting with occasional
                       marginal necrosis and leaf crinkling. It is spread by aphids, particularly the peach-potato
                       aphid, but may also be seed-borne.

                       Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV): Causes similar symptoms although there may also be
                       some necrotic spotting. CMV is transmitted by a number of aphids, including the peach-
                       potato aphid and may infect a wide range of other plants including Tomato, Cucumber
                       and several weed species. Occasionally plants may become infected with both CMV and
                       LMV and show more severe symptoms than either disease separately.

                       Beet western yellows virus: Is also more common in field crops and causes interveinal
                       chlorosis similar to magnesium deficiency symptoms. It is also spread by the peach-potato
                       aphid and can affect other crops and weeds such as groundsel and shepherd's purse.

                       Cultural control: Control all weeds in and around glasshouses. Use LMV tested seed.
                       Seedlings should be propagated in isolation from growing crops.

                       Chemical control: Monitor aphid numbers carefully and maintain effective control with
                       approved insecticides.

                       8.11       Adaptation of husbandry practice to new pests and diseases

                       The occurrence of a new disease or pest problem is largely unpredictable. They may arise,
                       for example, when a previously non-indigenous disease or pest becomes established in the
                       UK (e.g. western flower thrip), with a change in variety, or cropping practice (e.g. switch
                       from soil to substrate cropping) or when a pathogen or pest previously controlled by a
                       particular pesticide develops resistance. It is essential that a new pest or for example a
                       new race of mildew be identified as soon as possible. In all these situations it may be
                       necessary to impose additional pesticide treatments.


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                       A proposed schedule for the controlling of "new" pest or disease problems, in order of
                       priority, is described below.

                       i)         The key objective is that the new unwanted organism is controlled by means of a
                                  change in glasshouse environment, crop culture, biological or other non-chemical
                                  method. In some situations however, it is possible that additional use of pesticides
                                  may be necessary, at least in the short term or until a suitable alternative variety
                                  with genetic resistance is available. Such new varieties should be incorporated into
                                  the cropping programme, as they become available, provided that they meet the
                                  market specification.

                       ii)        The "new" pest or disease will be controlled by selecting products already known
                                  to be compatible with biological control measures.

                       iii)       If none of these pesticides provide effective control, growers should seek advice
                                  from suitably qualified advisers on DEFRA's PHSI on a suitable product currently
                                  approved for use on the appropriate protected crop.

                       iv)        If none of the products currently permitted provide effective control, approval for
                                  alternative products will need to be sought. Assistance from PHSI, NFU and HDC
                                  is recommended.



 9          Harvesting and storage

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.

                       It is strongly recommended that glasshouses have appropriate "No smoking/No food"
                       signs and staff are provided with a clearly defined area in which to eat/drink.



 10         Pollution control and waste management

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.



 11         Energy efficiency

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.



 12         Health & Safety

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

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 13         Conservation issues

                       See Generic Standards and/or Generic Guidance Notes.




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 Appendix 1               Industry code of good practice to minimise nitrate content of Lettuce grown under
                               protected cropping culture in UK

 1. Legislative background

 1.1        As part of its programme on agricultural contaminants in food, the European Commission is
            putting forward a series of proposals which set maximum limits for contaminants in foods. The
            first proposal agreed; European Commission Regulation (EC) No. 194/97 specifies the maximum
            concentration of nitrate in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Spinach (Spinacia oleracea). The
            Regulation came into force in EU on 15 February 1997. A Statutory Instrument (< biblio >) under
            the Food Safety Act 1990 has placed the Regulation into UK legislation. A News Release was
            published by MAFF to announce The Contaminants in Food Regulations 1997. Local Authorities
            (LACOTS) will carry out the enforcement.

 1.2        The Regulation arose as a result of concerns in certain EU States over the possible health effects
            of high dietary intakes of nitrates to which vegetables as a group of foods makes the single
            greatest contribution. MAFF Food Surveillance Paper No. 32 reports on the findings in UK and
            paragraph 15.1 page 42 concludes "We are satisfied that there is no cause for concern in respect
            of current dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in the general population."

 1.3        The EU Scientific Committee reviewed in 1990 and again in 1995 the toxicology of nitrate for
            Food (SCF) as part of its consideration on the use of nitrate as a food additive in the manufacture
            of certain food products such as ham, bacon and some cheeses. The report of the latest SCF
            Opinion on Nitrate (CS/CNTM/No3/20 - FINAL) makes a number of recommendations including
            the following:

            The ADI for nitrate of 3.7 mg/kg body weight/day should be retained and it should apply to all
            sources of dietary exposure:

             efforts to reduce exposure to nitrates via food and water should continue;

             there was currently insufficient data on the consumption of those vegetables which are the
              primary source of nitrate in individual Member States to judge whether setting maximum
              limits on nitrate levels in certain vegetables would have a significant impact on overall
              intakes;

             that good agricultural practices should be adopted to ensure that nitrate levels are as low as
              possible;

             concerns over nitrate should not discourage increased consumption of vegetables, a class of
              foodstuffs which is recognised as providing a major role in health protection, including
              possibly a reduction in the risk of cancer.

 1.4        Regulation 194/97 lays down maximum limits for nitrates in Lettuce and spinach within the EU.
            These limits apply to these products when put on the market in any Member State. However,
            Article 2 of the Regulation provides for an optional derogation for Lettuce and Spinach grown in
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            and intended for consumption in individual Member States. This will allow for a transitional
            period, such produce to be exempt from the limits provided that growers follow Codes of Good
            Agricultural Practice to achieve progress towards the levels laid down at Community level and
            requires Member States to inform the Commission each year of the steps taken. The UK is taking
            advantage of such derogation under this Article.

 1.5        This Code of Good Practice lays out the actions to be taken and monitored by the UK Industry.
            As knowledge is gained the Code will be revised and updated.

 2. Nitrate in plants

 2.1        Nitrogen is an essential constituent of proteins on which all life depends. Plants take up most of
            their nitrogen in the nitrate form and convert it to proteins via amino acids. Energy is required to
            convert nitrate to amino acids and this is supplied by sunlight through the process of
            photosynthesis. Thus in winter, when light levels are lower, higher levels of nitrate accumulate in
            the plant. Older leaves contain more nitrate than younger leaves because the site of nitrate
            conversion to amino acids is in the actively growing, younger tissue. Nitrate is also used by plants
            to regulate the turgidity of cell sap and therefore will be at lower concentrations when rapid
            growth is occurring.

 3. Background to action by UK industry

 3.1        A significant programme of monitoring by growers and MAFF in 1994/95 confirmed that the
            major problem in achieving consistent limits of nitrate content of individual Lettuce was the high
            level of variability shown in test results.

 3.2        There was variability between seasons as expected; however, there was also variability between
            crops and indeed between Lettuce within the crop (including Lettuce growing adjacent to each
            other). A research project by the FSA is planned to look at this aspect over the coming year.

 3.3        The variability in results being achieved by different testing laboratories should now have been
            resolved as all tests must be conducted using the FSA recommended method of analysis based on
            BS EN 12014-2/1997.

 3.4        This Code of Good Practice has been written to include the most likely actions, using present
            scientific knowledge that should minimise nitrate content.

 3.5        All sectors of the Industry namely DEFRA, Horticultural Research International, Horticultural
            Development Council, NFU, growers, British Retail Consortium, catering interests will be
            contributing to further research and monitoring programmes to both improve on the predictability
            of advice to growers as well as monitor levels of nitrate in Lettuce reaching the consumer. The
            remainder of this document lays out more detail of this work.

 3.6        A liaison group including DEFRA Food Contaminants Division, DEFRA Horticultural Division,
            National Farmers Union, British Retail Consortium and Horticultural Research International, will
            meet to update knowledge and action on a regular basis.


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 3.7        The NFU working with DEFRA and LACOTS will ensure all UK Protected Lettuce growers are
            aware of this Code of Good Practice. They will be aided in this by the Technical Departments of
            the Multiple Retailers who will require their suppliers under Food Safety Act contractual
            agreements to follow the Code together with its monitoring requirements. Open days and other
            HDC publications will cover updates on research findings.

 4. Research

 4.1        Cropping Culture

            An HDC/HRI Link project ‘Development of a decision support system for nitrogen fertiliser
            application in soil grown glasshouse crops’ was conducted at the then HRI Stockbridge House
            1998 – 2000.

            The results of this work confirmed that the practical guidelines given in the Code of Good
            Agricultural Practice for Nitrates were soundly based and were enabling the industry to achieve
            the specified nitrate levels:
                     4500 ppm (fresh weight) – October to March
                     3500 ppm (fresh weight) – April to September

            The work did show up again the two on-going problems of:
                   the variability of the nitrate content of individual lettuce. The FSA is planning work
                      on this aspect in 2004.
                   the variability in the results achieved by different testing laboratories. This has
                      subsequently been addressed – see section 4.2.


 4.2        Analytical methodology: A FSA funded study on extraction procedures for nitrate in lettuce
            (2001) has made the recommendation that a method based on BS EN 12014 –2; 1997, involving
            hot water extraction should be used. Also the use of chromatography rather than colorimetry is
            recommended.

 4.3        Medical research: Research is ongoing into the potentially beneficial medical effects of nitrates
            in the diet. The interim results of some of this work were reported in Nature Medicine, Volume 1,
            Number 6, in June 1995 as the article "Chemical generation of nitric oxide in the mouth from the
            enterosalivary circulation of dietary nitrate". New reports on the benefits of nitrates are due to be
            published in 2004.

 5. Monitoring of nitrate levels

 5.1        A considerable programme of monitoring of nitrate levels in Lettuce will be carried out. Samples
            for testing will be taken at harvest, during the distribution chain and at retail outlets.

 5.2        The UK Monitoring Programme for Nitrate in Lettuce and Spinach began in May 1996 in
            accordance with Article 3 of Commission Regulation (EC) No. 194/97 and continued in 1997/98.
            The samples are representative of production and geographic distribution of growers in the UK.
            Samples were taken by Trading Standards Officers and analysed by the appropriate Public
            Analysts. All the analysts participating in the Monitoring Programme meet the criteria laid down
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            by European Commission paper (doc. VI/4800/96) 'Guidelines for Laboratories Carrying Out the
            Determination of Nitrate in Lettuce and Spinach: EC Monitoring Programme' and have
            demonstrated satisfactory performances for nitrate analyses in the Food Analysis Performance
            Assessment Scheme (FAPAS). The results of this Monitoring Programme were reported to the
            European Commission in May 1997. Monitoring is continuing and the derogation should have
            ceased on 1 January 2005 but is still under review.

 5.3        Multiple retailers will be monitoring samples of Lettuce taken from their distribution depots. The
            major retail groups account for some 70-80% of all Lettuce sold.

 5.4        Grower monitoring: All major marketing and co-operative groups together with growers will
            carry out monitoring (see Section 6.8.4. page 13). These groups together with certain large
            growers work within the Industry as an Association of producers (English Glasshouse Lettuce
            Group) and a Lettuce Technology group. The Lettuce Technology Group is based at Stockbridge
            Technology Centre.

 5.5        The DEFRA Food Contaminants Division will collect and co-ordinate all the monitoring results
            so that a large and representative sample of nitrate levels in UK Lettuce will be compiled.

 6. Cultural advice to growers

 See under Section 6.8.3. page 12.

 7. Status of this code

 This Code of Good Practice has been prepared by the National Farmers Union in consultation with
 DEFRA and others. Data acquired by the various sectors of the Industry under this code will be
 coordinated by DEFRA for forwarding to the Commission as required by the Regulation.




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 Appendix 2                Insecticides currently approved for use on Protected Lettuce

   Active Ingredient                             Target Organism                               Harvest                   Hazard            MRL
                                                                                               Interval (1)              Rating            (mg/kg)
   abamectin                                     liriomyza leafminers                          14 days                   Harmful           0.1
   Bacillus thuringiensis var.                   caterpillars                                  zero                      none              none set
   Kurstaki(2)                                                                                                           stated

   cypermethrin                                  aphids, caterpillars,                         zero (*2 days)            Harmful           2.0
                                                 leafminer adults
   cypermethrin (2)                              leafminers                                    zero                      Harmful           2.0
   deltamethrin(2)                               flea beetles, leafhoppers                     7 days                    Harmful           1.0
   metaldehyde                                   slugs                                         none stated               none              none set
                                                                                                                         stated
   methiocarb                                    slugs                                         7 days                    Harmful           none set
   nicotine                                      aphids, whitefly                              1 day (shreds)            Toxic             none set
                                                                                               2 days (spray)
   pirimicarb                                    aphids                                        14 days                   Harmful           none set
                     (2)
   pymetrozine                                   aphids                                        14 days. Not to           none              1.0
                                                                                               be applied 1              stated
                                                                                               Nov-1 March
   thiacloprid(2)                                aphids                                        14 days. Apply            Harmful           2.0
                                                                                               only between 1
                                                                                               April- 31 Oct.

 Notes:
 (1)
            or latest time of application
 (2)
            SOLA - see Appendix 5 for the specific product and expiry dates.



 *          LTG new guideline

 Not all products containing these active ingredients may be currently approved for use on Protected
 Lettuces.

 As label recommendations are revised regularly, read a current label before use.




______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    33
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 Appendix 3               Fungicides currently approved for use on Protected Lettuce

   Active Ingredient                Target Organism                                   Harvest                          Hazard           MRL
                                                                                      Interval (1)                     Rating           (mg/kg)
   azoxystrobin (2)                 Rhizoctonia                                       14 days (May-Oct)                none             3.0
                                                                                      28 days (Nov- April)             stated
   boscalid and                     Sclerotinia                                       14 days. Apply only              Harmful          Boscalid:
   pyraclostrobin(2)                                                                  between 1 April –31                               10.0
                                                                                      Oct.                                              Pyraclostrobin
                                                                                                                                        : 2.0
   carbendazim (2)                  Big Vein                                          before sowing or                 none             5.0
                                                                                      planting                         stated
   dicloran                         Botrytis                                          14 days                          Irritant         10.0
                   (2)
   fenhexamid                       Botrytis (* no sprays 42 days                     3 days                           none             50.0
                                    after planting out, November –                                                     stated
                                    February)
   fosetyl -                        downy mildew, (block                              14 days                          none             none set
   aluminium (2)                    incorporation Sept - April only as                                                 stated
                                    there is a risk of chlorosis and
                                    delayed maturity under
                                    conditions of high temperature).
   iprodione                        Botrytis, Rhizoctonia                             7 days                           Irritant         10.0
                                    (* no sprays 42 days after                        (Mar - Sept)
                                    planting out, October –                           28 days
                                    February)                                         (Oct - Feb)
   Mancozeb                         downy mildew                                      21 days                          Irritant         5.0


   metalaxyl-M +                    downy mildew (only 2                              21 days                          Irritant         metalaxylM
   mancozeb (2)                     applications post planting all year                                                                 2.0
                                    round)                                                                                              mancozeb
                                                                                                                                        5.0
   prochloraz (2)                   ringspot                                          21 days                          Irritant         5.0
   propamocarb                      downy mildew (* no sprays 42                      14 days                          none             10.0 (Codex)
   hydrochloride (2)                days after planting out,                                                           stated
                                    November – Feb)
   pyrimethanil (2)                 Botrytis                                          14 days                          none             none set
                                                                                                                       stated
   thiram                           Botrytis (* only 2 applications                   21 days                          Harmful          5.0
                                    within 2 weeks of planting all
                                    year round)
   tolclofos-methyl                 Rhizoctonia (pre-planting only)                   before planting                  none             2.0 (Codex)
   no hand-held use                                                                                                    stated

 Notes: see next page
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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 Notes to Appendix 3:
 (1)
            or latest time of application
 (2)
            SOLA - see Appendix 5 for the specific product and expiry dates
 *          LTG new guideline

 Not all products containing these active ingredients may be currently approved for use on Protected
 Lettuces.

 As label recommendations are revised regularly, read a current label before use.

 Appendix4                Herbicides currently approved for use on Protected Lettuce

   Active Ingredient                      Target Organism                                    Harvest Interval (1)            Hazard          MRL
                                                                                                                             Rating          (mg/kg)
   chlorpropham + cetrimide               annual meadow grass and                            pre-planting only               Harmful         none set
                                          dicotyledons
   paraquat (2)                           annual meadow grass and                            pre-planting only               Toxic           0.05
                                          dicotyledons
   propyzamide (2)                        perennial grass weeds, annual                      6 weeks *Apply no               none            1.0
                                          meadow grass and dicotyledons                      later than 14 days              stated
                                                                                             after planting normal
                                                                                             plants. Do not use on
                                                                                             spaced plants after
                                                                                             planting

 Notes:
 (1)
            or latest time of application
 (2)
            SOLA - see Appendix 5 for the specific product and expiry dates.

 *          LTG new guideline

 Not all products containing these active ingredients may be currently approved for use on Protected
 Lettuces. As label recommendations are revised regularly, read a current label before use.




______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    35
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 Appendix 5               Specific off-label approvals for Protected Lettuce

   Number                Product Name                                      Ingredients                                          Expiry
   Insecticides:
   2577/02               Dipel DF®                                         Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki                 31/12/08
   2260/99               Cyperkill 5®                                      cypermethrin                                         31/12/08
                                 ®
   0532/04               Decis                                             deltamethrin                                         31/12/08
   (2908/02)
   1140/03               Decis Protech®                                    deltamethrin                                         31/12/08
                                  ®
   1188/04               Bandu                                             deltamethrin                                         31/12/08
   0740/04               Pearl Micro®                                      deltamethrin                                         31/12/08
                                             ®
   0843/03               Chess WG                                          pymetrozine                                          31/10/11
                                         ®
   0072/05               Calypso                                           thiacloprid                                          19/12/05
   Fungicides:
   0659/03               Amistar®                                          azoxystrobin                                         1/7/08
   1210/04               Cleancrop Curve®                                  carbendazim                                          31/12/08
                                                         ®
   1011/04               Delsene 50 Flo                                    carbendazim                                          31/12/08
                                     ®
   0026/05               Teldor                                            fenhexamid                                           31/05/11
                                                     ®
   0868/03               Aliette 80WG                                      fosetyl-aluminium                                    31/12/08
   (2067/02)
   0366/03               Standon Fosetyl AL80WG®                           fosetyl-aluminium                                    31/12/08
                                             ®
   2141/03               Fubol Gold                                        metalaxyl-M and mancozeb                             31/12/08
                                             ®
   2142/03               Fubol Gold                                        metalaxyl-M and mancozeb                             31/12/08
                                                     ®
   2623/03               Mirage 40 EC                                      prochloraz                                           31/12/08
                                                     ®
   0650/01               Scotts Octave                                     prochloraz                                           31/12/08
                                                 ®
   0626/04               Scotts Filex                                      propamocarb                                          31/12/08
                                                                           hydrochloride
   0625/04               Proplant®                                         propamocarb hydrochloride                            31/12/08
                                 ®
   0518/04               Scala                                             pyrimethanil                                         31/12/08
   (1590/00)
   1985/04               Signum®                                           Boscalid and pyraclostrobin                          25/11/05
   Herbicides:
   0225/02               Gramoxone 100®                                    paraquat                                             31/12/08
                                             ®
   1416/02               Kerb 50W                                          propyzamide                                          31/12/08


 Notes – see next page


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 Notes to Appendix 5:

 Specific off-label approvals (SOLAs) provide for the use of the product named in respect of crops,
 situations or pests other than those named on the product label. Such use is undertaken at the user's
 choosing and the risk is entirely theirs and /or their advisers.

 Specific off-label uses may only take place if all the conditions given in the "Notice of Approval"
 document, the product label and/or leaflet and any additional guidance on off-label approvals document
 have first been read and understood. The conditions of approval given in the "Notice of Approval" are
 statutory and supersede any on the label that would otherwise apply.

 All SOLAs are conditional on the extant approval of the specific product.




______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    37
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 Appendix 6            BASAMID – Best use guidelines for use in protected lettuce

 Introduction
 Soil sterilisation using BASAMID in intensive protected lettuce, baby leaf and herbs is justified based on
 the intensity of the cropping, and the potential presence of disease and weeds in the crop cycle. Testing
 for the presence of root pathogens such as Rhizoctonia, Pythium, Sclerotinia and Viruses such as big
 vein is becoming a practicality. A record of the reason for treatment should be recorded.

 Soil preparation
 Good soil preparation is vital to achieve satisfactory soil disinfection. The aim is to achieve a fine tilth
 free from clods down to approximately 25 cm or 10 inches. It is essential to cultivate between the posts
 and around the posts as well as down the bay, to ensure the fumigant can penetrate the soil easily. The
 soil should be irrigated at least 10 days prior to sterilisation to wet the soil profile to the treatment depth.
 This is especially important if the greenhouse or polythene house has been free from cropping for an
 extended period.

 If large weeds or deep rooted perennial weeds are present in the greenhouse, prior to preparation they
 should be dug out prior to application of BASAMID.

 All soil improvements such as sub-soiling and levelling should be carried out before treatment. If
 organic matter is to be added this should be done before sterilisation. Use only peat, well rotted manure
 or compost which must be thoroughly broken up before or during incorporation. (Please read the section
 on Nitrates for details on the limitations of use.) If large amounts of organic matter are added or present
 in the soil then the higher rates of BASAMID should be applied for the best results.


 Soil preparation is best achieved by sub-soiling and rotavating or using a spading machine. Basamid can
 be incorporated with a spading machine or if shallow incorporation is required use a L-tined rotavator.


 Soil temperature and moisture levels
 The soil temperature should be measured using a conventional soil thermometer. The temperature should
 be between 7oC and 24oC and likely to not fall below the lower temperature during 14 days following
 treatment. The soil temperature should be taken to a depth of approximately 10cm at both the external
 edge of the structure and in the centre. The optimum temperature range for treatment is between 10oC
 and 20oC.

 The moisture level should be brought up to field capacity and kept around 60-70% of field capacity prior
 to and during the time of treatment. After cultivation the soil should be considered as suitable for
 treatment if the soil ‘balls’ and then crumbles when dropped. If it is not up to this level then the
 effectiveness of control will be greatly reduced.

 Special attention must be made to the soil surface whilst treating. If a large area is being sterilised
 irrigation should be applied to replace evaporative loss in the areas awaiting treatment. This means
 checking the moisture level during the day of treatment and lightly irrigating if necessary up to one hour
 ahead of application of Basamid. Evaporative loss can occur rapidly under high temperatures.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

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 Rates of use and soil type – Protected crops
 Sands, very light soils and soils less than 5% organic matter apply BASAMID at 500 kg/Hectare.
 All soil types including those with more than 5% organic matter and where intensively cropped apply
 BASAMID at 760 kg/HA.

 Treatment
 Basamid should be applied at the recommended label rate. The product should be applied evenly to the
 soil surface and incorporated as soon as possible following spreading. Ideally spreading and
 incorporation should be in one pass. If not possible the granules should be incorporated as quickly as
 possible before generating gas, within a maximum of 1 hour.

 Incorporation is best achieved using a spading machine or L tined rotavator.
 The treated soil should be sealed using fumigation grade polythene sheeting (a minimum of 30 micron
 polythene) as soon as practical after incorporation. Ideally treat and cover bay by bay. The edges should
 be tucked in or sealed and the treated area should be irrigated after sealing to improve contact between
 the polythene sheet and the soil. Before sealing the polythene make sure all granules are brushed off the
 walls and supports onto the soil surface.
 The edge near the greenhouse wall should be taped to the wall or tucked under treated soil being careful
 not to leave soil exposed on the surface.

 The minimum time for sheeting down is 7 days after which the polythene sheet can be removed. Longer
 periods must be left during low temperature conditions in order to maximise the effects of the
 sterilisation.

 After the sheet has been removed ventilate the structure and shallow cultivate the soil to release any
 remaining gas.

 The graph below gives guidelines of treatment and aeration time for different soil temperatures.

                                  50
                                  45
                                  40
                                  35
                     Time /days




                                  30
                                  25
                                  20
                                  15
                                  10
                                   5
                                   0
                                        5            10            15             20            25
                                                                            o
                                                           Temperature C


                   Treatment time                   Aeration Time                   Germination Test



 Testing ready for planting
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    39
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




 The treated soil must be tested to ensure all the sterilant gas has disappeared from the soil.
 Collect samples from the wettest areas of the structure, place some of the collected soil in a glass jar and
 add cress seed. Place the sealed glass jar in a warm dark place and check at regular intervals for
 germination. The soil is ready for planting once cress germinates on the treated soil sample.

 Proximity of other crops
 Read the label carefully and follow all instructions regarding the proximity of other crops.

 ‘Do not treat glass houses or tunnels which contain any living plants whether dormant or growing.
 Also avoid houses where there is a risk of fumes penetrating via ducts or interconnecting
 walkways into areas containing living plants.’


 Crops coming into contact with gas will be unmarketable because of damage. In glass houses containing
 crops vents must not be closed and vent as normal. Minimal ventilation must be maintained at all time.


 Waste disposal
 After use the plastic should be removed from the structure and stored away from growing crops or
 foodstuffs. Plastic should be removed from the nursery or farm by a waste disposal contractor. It can also
 be washed and reused or recycled.
 Plastic BASAMID containers should also be disposed of by a waste disposal contractor.

 Equipment
 Equipment used prior to sterilisation must be thoroughly cleaned before being re-used in the treated area.

 Application equipment should be calibrated and checked for evenness and accuracy. Constant checks
 should be to show the correct application rate is being applied. Records should be kept to show the
 accuracy of the application.

 Certification and training
 The minimum required certificate level to apply BASAMID is a PA 1 and a PA 4. In the case of
 contractor applied product the contractor must provide the grower with evidence of a British Pest
 Control Association (BCPA) fumigation diploma.
 The operator applying BASAMID must be equipped with protective clothing as detailed on the label.
 He must also be in possession of the label and the MSDS sheet.

 The (COSHH) Control of Substances Hazardous to Health regulations may apply to use of this product
 at work.

 Operators applying BASAMID should be issued with personal protective equipment. ‘In tests with a
 range of pesticide products, protective gloves made of nitrile rubber at least 0.5mm thick and
 300mm long have been found to be most suitable. Gloves made of viton, butyl rubber, neoprene
 and PVC can also offer good protection. Gloves must protect the whole hand and wrist and gloves
 should be thoroughly washed after each operation. Respirators should conform to BS EN 149.
 Rubber boots extend to just below the knee.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 40                                                                                                                         2005 Assured Produce Ltd.
                                                                                                                          Control Document No: 00034/05
                                                                                                  Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




 The wearing of other personal protective equipment may be required to supplement the list of
 items listed above. These are described in the DEFRA/HSE ‘Pesticides: Codes of Practice and for
 the Safe Use of Pesticides on Farms and Holdings’ Decontaminate all personal protective
 equipment after use. When this is not possible dispose of as contaminated waste.’

 The treated site should be clearly labelled

 For further advice, consult Certis, a trained BASIS qualified advisor or an approved BASAMID
 fumigation contractor.

 Literature including a specific application guide is available from the distributor:

 Certis, 1B, Mills Way, Boscombe Down Business Park, Amesbury,
 Wiltshire SP4 7RX tel: 01980 676500 www.certiseurope.co




______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    41
 Crop Specific Protocol - Lettuce (Protected)
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




 Appendix 7               Guidelines on minimising pesticide residues

 These guidelines have been produced after consultation between crop stakeholders and the Assured
 Produce crop author. They will be developed over the coming seasons as knowledge on minimising
 residues develops. Growers should consult with their crop protection adviser to ensure other best
 practices are not compromised before considering these guidelines. The table below lists the active
 ingredients that may give rise to crop residues and details potential alternative strategies.

 Active                    Target: pest,            Current position                                         Suggested guidelines
 ingredient                disease, weed
 Cypermethrin              Aphids,                  0 day harvest interval                                   2 day harvest interval
                           caterpillars
 Fenhexamid                Botrytis                 3 day harvest interval                                   No sprays 42 days after
                                                                                                             planting out November -
                                                                                                             February
 Iprodione                 Botrytis                 Oct-Feb 28 days harvest interval                         No sprays 42 days after
                                                                                                             planting out
                                                                                                             October - February
 Propamacarb               Downy                    14 days harvest interval                                 No sprays 42 days after
 hydrochloride             mildew                                                                            planting out Nov-Feb
 Propyzamide               Weeds                    42 days harvest interval                                 Apply no later than 14 days
                                                                                                             after planting – normal plants.
                                                                                                             Do not use on spaced plants
                                                                                                             after planting
 Thiram                    Botrytis                 2 sprays in first 2 weeks after                          2 sprays in first 2 weeks after
                                                    planting out, except November –                          planting out all the year round.
                                                    March when 3 sprays in first 3
                                                    weeks after planting out.

 Notes:

 In view of the continuing concern over residues in protected lettuce, the Lettuce Technology Group
 (LTG) has recently made some changes to the PHI of the pesticides where residues are continuing to be
 reported. These guidelines, as ‘industry’s best practice’, have been issued to help reduce the incidence of
 residues and are summarised in the table above. (See also Section 8.2 Plant protection product choice
 and Section 8.9 Pesticide residues in fresh produce)




______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 42                                                                                                                         2005 Assured Produce Ltd.
                                                                                                                          Control Document No: 00034/05
                                                                                                  Crop Specific Protocol – Lettuce (Protected)
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




 Appendix 8 Control Points: Lettuce (Protected)


 CS.24 LETTUCE (PROTECTED)
                                                                                                                            Score
 CS.24.1            Deleted 2005
 CS.24.2            Do you have your lettuce tested for methyl inorganic bromide                                          3
                    residues where there is a known history of residues- Protocol
                    reference: Section 4.3 (Revised)

 CS.24.3            Do you know the key points which help to reduce high nitrate                                          3
                    levels in protected lettuce - Protocol reference: Section 6.8.3

 CS.24.4            Are you aware of which fungicides contain dithiocarbamates                                            1
                    and the limitations on their use - Protocol reference: Section
                    8.2

 CS.24.5            If you space plants during the winter, do you amend the                                               3
                    dithiocarbamate restrictions to account for the larger plant at
                    planting - Protocol reference: Section 8.2

 CS.24.6            Do your glasshouses have appropriate "No Smoking / No                                                 3
                    Food" signs and are your staff provided with a clearly defined
                    area to eat / drink - Protocol reference: Section 9

 CS.24.7            Do you or your marketing organisation carry out regular                                               1
                    nitrate sampling with a UKAS accredited laboratory
                    participating in FAPAS or equivalent and keep the results for
                    2 years - Protocol reference: Section 6.8.4

 CS.24.8            Do you record planting dates - Protocol reference: Section 8.2                                        1

 CS.24.9            Is your plant raiser registered with DEFRA Plant Health and                                           1
                    Seeds Inspectorate - Protocol reference: Section 5.4




______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Although every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, Assured Produce Ltd. does not accept any responsibility for errors and omissions.

 2005 Assured Produce Ltd
 Control Document No: 00034/05                                                                                                    43

				
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