Deeply Practical Project Management

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                                                        Deeply Practical Project Management:                                                                               Scope

                                                                                                                                                                 Risk
                                                          Tools, Tips, Tricks, & Techniques
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                                                                                               Author:

                                                                         William Stewart, Ph.D., P.M.P.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                “All success is rooted in either luck or failure.
                                                           If you begin with luck, you learn nothing but arrogance.
                                                          However, if you begin with failure and learn to evaluate it,
                                                           you also learn to succeed. Failure begets knowledge.
                                                          Out of knowledge you gain wisdom, and it is with wisdom
                                                                    that you can become truly successful.”

                                                                     – Standish Group, Chaos Report, 1995,
                                                                     First major review of project performance.




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                                                                                                        Author Bio




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                                                                                                   1948, Berlin Blockade:
                                                                                                            “How                  calm?”
                                                                                  Asst. Secretary of State: “How do you remain so calm?”
                                                                                                                    “I've    worse.”
                                                                                     General George C. Marshall: “I've seen worse.”

                                          Bill Stewart is a PMI certified Project Management Professional (PMP), specializing in provision of high quality, deeply practical
                                          Project Management training to organizations large and small. He has delivered more than 140 training courses to more than
                                          1,500 people. This manual contains almost all the tools, tips, tricks, and techniques he knows.
                                          Bill has deep experience in project management, subcontractor management, systems integration, systems architecture, systems
                                          engineering, and training. He founded the company Cirrus Computing, and served as a bridging Chief Technical Officer and
                                          technical due diligence lead for a third party as part of merger and acquisition negotiations.
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                                                                                                                                                                                            Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          Previously, he spent 12 years with the Canadian branch of a global System Integration company, where he served variously as the
                                          company Software Manager, company System Engineering Manager, Project Manager of a $14M Canada-wide medical systems
                                          integration program, Project Manager of a $20M information fusion program, System Engineering Manager for pursuit of a $3B
                                          helicopter integration program, and Engineering Lead on win of $75M in new business.
                                          Before that, he worked for the Canadian Public Service to establish and manage the first Canadian Forces base computing centre,
                                          supporting 4,500 personnel, where he developed and deployed solutions to optimize base-wide course scheduling and resource
                                          management, safely manage firing range allocation, and provide custom personnel and payroll solutions.
                                          His technical foundation is in software development, including experience building applications, algorithms, graphical user
                                          interfaces, databases, and web sites, and he has coded in a dozen different programming languages. He has extensive knowledge
                                          of secure systems, held one of Canada's top security clearances, and was Engineering Manager for development of the most
                                          advanced tactical information fusion system in the NATO alliance.
                                          He received a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of New Brunswick in 1992 for a thesis on creation of multi-
                                          dimensional geodesic domes in optimum space and time, which – to his knowledge – has never been used for anything
                                          practical ;-) He taught eleven computer science courses for the University of New Brunswick, and developed two programming
                                          courses for Seneca College. His professional training includes Requirements Engineering, System Engineering, System
                                          Architecture, Project Management, and Executive Leadership at the global corporate HQ.
                                                                                                              ,
                                          Bill authored the first web published book LivingInternet.com, with contributions from many of the developers of the Internet,
                                                                                                            ,
                                          maintains the reference Wiki FreeOpenSourceSoftware.org, and is author of the best practices document FunStandard.org. He      .
                                          published a paper on public financing of political parties in Policy Options in 1990, credited by MP Mark Assad in Hansard during
                                          the House of Commons debate on the Canadian party financing bill passed in 2003. He is married to a family physician and has
                                          two children. His interests include public policy, Internet history, and biking.
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                                                                                       Use and Contact




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                                          An earlier version of this manual was certified by the
                                          Project Management Institute for a third-party training organization.

                                          This document is provided for personal, single-user use. Please respect the
                                          effort put into the document by not copying it or using it for commercial use.
                                          You can download your own permanent copy from Docstoc.com for only $9.99.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          A version of this document is also available by training companies,
                                          organizations, and individual trainers for commercial use – please contact
                                          info@DeeplyPracticalProjectManagement.com for more information.

                                          Please contact info@DeeplyPracticalProjectManagement.com if you wish the
                                          Author to deliver this course to your group anywhere in the world at excellent
                                          pricing.

                                          Projects can be fun and satisfying – if you employ a few best practices to
                                          prevent the complexity from getting away from you. The information in this
                                          document should significantly help.

                                          Enjoy!


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                                                                                            Testimonials




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                                          Some testimonials from students who have taken courses from the Author – see more at
                                          DeeplyPracticalProjectManagement.com.
                                          ●
                                              "Vast amount of actual experience to draw from, and he used it extremely well to bring the
                                              course material to life and to keep it interesting."
                                              – Jason Anderson, Canadian Air Transport Security Authority, Dec 2010.
                                          ●
                                              "Fantastic! Amazing!! Best course I have ever taken because of Bill!!!"
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                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              – M. McHale, Health Canada, Dec 2010.
                                          ●
                                              "Instructor spoke with clarity, plain language, great examples, using a pace which is easy
                                              to follow, good listener and took the time to review / refresh important details. One of the
                                              best instructors I have had to date anywhere."
                                              – C. Cudahy, Transport Canada, Oct 2010.
                                          ●
                                              "Exceeded expectations. Best instructor I have ever had ... hands down!"
                                              – B. Armstrong, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Dec 2010.
                                          ●
                                              "A very pleasant person. Knowledgeable and wants to impart knowledge. Ran course
                                              excellently. A first rate instructor."
                                              – M. Day, Canadian Department of National Defence, Jan 2011.
                                          ●
                                              "Very good real world examples and suggestions that we can apply right away when going
                                              back to work."
                                              – D. Glasberg, Public Health Agency of Canada, Sep 2010.

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                                                                         Administration & Introductions




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                                          ●
                                              Welcome                                                          ●
                                                                                                                      Tell us your:

                                          ●
                                              Facility                                                                ➢       Name
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                                          ●
                                              Timing – Start, End, Lunch,                                             ➢       Organization
                                              Breaks
                                                                                                                      ➢       Current job
                                          ●
                                              Cell Phones – Vibrate or
                                              Mute                                                                    ➢       Typical kinds of projects
                                                                                                                              you work on – process,
                                          ●
                                              Questions?                                                                      construction, information
                                                                                                                              technology, financial...
                                          ●
                                              Let's Start!
                                                                                                                      ➢       Main course objective


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                                                                                        Course Objectives




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                                          ●
                                              Cover the project management best practices described by the
                                              Project Management Institute (PMI)® Project Management Body of
                                              Knowledge (PMBOK)®
                                              ➢       Initiation
                                              ➢       Planning
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Execution
                                              ➢       Monitoring and Control
                                              ➢       Closing

                                          ●
                                              Look at projects from the
                                              Project Manager's POV.

                                          ●
                                              Cover the essential, practical thread applicable to any type of
                                              project, industry or government, large or small.



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                                                                 Chapter 0 – Project Management Overview




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                                                   0.1 – Processes                                                     0.6 – Techniques & Tools
                                          17. Why Processes Are Useful                                           29. Project Management Tools
                                                                                                                 30. Project Management Techniques
                                                0.2 – Success & Failure
                                          18. Exercise 0.1 – Project Success &                                                0.7 – Players
                                              Failure                                                            31. Project Players
                                          19. Causes of Project Failure                                          32. Role of Project Manager
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                                          20. Causes of Project Success                                          33. Exercise 0.3 – Players for Your
                                                                                                                     Project
                                                       0.3 – Foundation
                                          21.    Project Management Institute                                               0.8 – Scalability
                                          22.    Project Definition                                              34. Application To Small Projects
                                          23.    Program Definition                                                       0.9 – Project Manager Skills
                                          24.    PMBOK® Guide Project Phases                                     35.     Project Manager Attributes
                                          25.    PMBOK® Guide Knowledge Areas                                    36.     Communications
                                                                                                                 37.     Team Formation
                                                   0.4 – Strategic Plan
                                                                                                                 38.     Team Foundations
                                          26. Link to Strategic Plan
                                                                                                                 39.     Team Dynamics
                                          27. Exercise 0.2 – Your Strategic Plan
                                                                                                                 40.     Negotiation & Leadership
                                                 0.5 – Triple Constraint
                                          28. The Triple Constraint
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                                                                       Phase 1 – Project Initiation




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                                                                                  1.1 – Introduction
                                                                     44. Project Manager Role
                                                                     45. Where Projects Come From

                                                                                    1.2 – Charter
                                                                     46. Project Charter Purpose
                                                                     47. Charter Contents
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                                                                                       1.3 – Scope
                                                                     48.   Project Objective
                                                                     49.   Objective – Process
                                                                     50.   Canadian Forces Health Information
                                                                           System – Objective
                                                                     51.   Assumptions and Constraints

                                                                                1.4 – Business Case
                                                                     52. The Business Case
                                                                     53. Benefit Cost Ratio
                                                                     54. Business Case Examples

                                                                                 1.5 – Stakeholders
                                                                     55. Project Stakeholders

                                                                                1.6 – Other Elements
                                                                     56. Other Charter Elements
                                                                     57. Exercise 1.1 – Your Project's Charter

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                                                                            Phase 2 – Project Planning




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                                                          2.1 – Introduction                                          86.    Breaking Down By Interim Delivery
                                          62. Project Manager Role                                                    87.    Deliverables⇨Work Packages⇨Activities
                                          63. Planning Process Flow                                                   88.    WBS Dictionary
                                          64. Core Project Team                                                       89.    Relationship of WBS & Requirements
                                                                                                                      90.    WBS Process
                                                            2.2 – Requirements
                                                                                                                      91.    Exercise 2.2 – WBS
                                          65.   Objective to Requirements
                                                                                                                      92.    WBS Drawing Tool
                                          66.   Requirements – A Long Time Challenge
                                          67.   Importance of Requirements                                                                 2.4 – Logic
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                                          68.   Gathering Requirements                                                93.    Network Diagram
                                          69.   Requirements Example                                                  94.    Kinds of Precedence Links
                                          70.   Requirements Attributes                                               95.    Leads and Lags
                                          71.   Requirements Key Points                                               96.    Generic Example
                                          72.   Requirements Document & Approval                                      97.    Shed Example
                                          73.   Exercise 2.1 – Objective to Requirements                              98.    Software Example
                                                                                                                      99.    Standards Development Example
                                                               2.3 – Scope
                                                                                                                      100.   Network Diagram Process
                                          74.   The Work Breakdown Structure
                                                                                                                      101.   Network Diagram Patterns
                                          75.   WBS Example – An Aircraft
                                                                                                                      102.   Including Waiting Time
                                          76.   WBS Example – Hiring
                                                                                                                      103.   Exercise 2.3 – Develop a Network Diagram
                                          77.   WBS Example – Warehouse / POS System
                                                                                                                      104.   Network Diagram Tool
                                          78.   WBS Example – Banquet
                                          79.   WBS Hierarchical Decomposition                                                           2.5 – Estimating
                                          80.   WBS Phasing & Combined Methods                                        105.   Exercise 2.4 – The Power Of Estimation
                                          81.   System Integration Hierarchical Decomposition                         106.   Estimating Cost and Time
                                          82.   System Integration Project Phasing                                    107.   The Statistical Power Of Multiple Estimates
                                          83.   WBS Key Points                                                        108.   Time Estimation – Activity Breakdown
                                          84.   Breaking Down By Length                                               109.   Activity Breakdown Adjustment
                                          85.   Breaking Down By Responsibility

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                                                                     Phase 2 (Cont'd) – Project Planning




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                                          110.   Including Resources                                                              2.9 – Resources
                                          111.   Effort ⇨ Productive Time ⇨Duration                                134. Resources Planning
                                          112.   Estimation Spreadsheet                                            135. Resource Leveling
                                          113.   PERT & 3-Point Techniques
                                                                                                                                          2.10 – Cost
                                          114.   PERT & 3-Point Example
                                                                                                                   136. Cost Baseline
                                          115.   Delphi Technique
                                          116.   Exercise 2.5 – Time Estimation                                                         2.11 – Risks
                                          117.   Estimating Cost                                                   137.   Risk Management
                                          118.   Cost Roll-up – Bill of Materials                                  138.   Risk Management Process
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                                          119.   Exercise 2.6 – Cost Estimation                                    139.   Risk Identification
                                                                                                                   140.   Standard Risk Statement Form
                                                          2.6 – Critical Path
                                          120.   The Schedule Critical Path
                                                                                                                   141.   Risk Qualification
                                          121.   Critical Path Process                                             142.   Risk Quantification
                                          122.   Network Diagram Example                                           143.   Quantification Estimation
                                          123.   Forward Pass                                                      144.   Risk Register Example
                                          124.   Backward Pass                                                     145.   Risk Budget Allocation
                                          125.   Critical Path With Float                                          146.   Response Planning
                                          126.   Exercise 2.7 – Determine Critical Path                            147.   Other Risk Elements
                                                                                                                   148.   Risk, Contingency & Management Reserves
                                                           2.7 – Schedule
                                                                                                                   149.   Positive Risks – Opportunities
                                          127.   Network Diagram ⇨ Schedule
                                                                                                                   150.   IT Risk & Security Standards
                                          128.   Building the Schedule
                                                                                                                   151.   Exercise 2.9 – Prepare A Risk Register
                                          129.   Gantt Chart Schedule
                                          130.   Gantt Chart With Work Packages                                                2.12 – Communications
                                          131.   Gantt Chart With Activities                                       152. Communications Planning
                                                                                                                   153. Exercise 2.10 – Communications Plan
                                                       2.8 – Milestones
                                          132. Schedule Milestones                                                        2.13 – Project Management Plan
                                          133. Exercise 2.8 – Choose Milestones                                    154. The Project Management Plan

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                                                                        Phase 3 – Project Execution




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                                                      3.1 – Introduction                                                       3.6 – Design & Build
                                          160. Project Manager Role                                             175.    Design Before Build
                                                                                                                176.    Build or Buy Decisions
                                                        3.2 – Project Team
                                                                                                                177.    Exercise 3.1 – Identify Design Elements
                                          161.   Building The Project Team
                                                                                                                178.    Software Development
                                          162.   Project Team Key Points
                                                                                                                179.    Axosoft Scrum Diagram
                                          163.   Functional Organizations
                                                                                                                180.    Common I.T. Project Problems
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                                          164.   Projectized Organizations
                                          165.   Matrix Organizations                                                          3.7 – Procurement
                                          166.   Management of Matrix Organizations                             181.    Procurement Document Types
                                          167.   Matrix Personnel Allocation                                    182.    Contract Types
                                                                                                                183.    Selecting The Winner
                                          168.   Delegation
                                                                                                                184.    Exercise 3.2 – Contract Approach
                                          169.   Team Motivation
                                          170.   Managing People Conflict                                                   3.8 – Acceptance
                                                                                                                185. Change Management
                                                       3.3 – First Steps
                                                                                                                186. Scope Verification
                                          171. The Kick-Off Meeting
                                                                                                                187. Scenario Based Verification
                                          172. Project Requirements Review

                                                  3.4 – Communications
                                          173. Communication Modes

                                                 3.5 – Problem Identification
                                          174. Finding Root Causes
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                                                               Phase 4 – Project Monitoring & Control




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                                                     4.1 – Introduction                                                     4.6 – Quality
                                          192. Project Manager Role                                           208. Managing Quality
                                          193. Managing Expectations                                          209. Peer Reviews
                                                                                                              210. Ensuring Fit For Use
                                                  4.2 – Control Meetings
                                          194. Project Monthly Heartbeat                                                     4.7 – Risk
                                          195. Project Weekly Heartbeat                                       211. Managing Risk
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                                                          4.3 – Scope                                                4.8 – Earned Value Management
                                          196.   Managing Scope                                               212.   Earned Value Overview
                                          197.   Change Control – Scope                                       213.   Cost & Schedule Metrics
                                                                                                              214.   Earned Value Meaning
                                          198.   Change Control – Schedule
                                                                                                              215.   Project Projections
                                          199.   Change Control – Cost
                                          200.   Exercise 4.1 – Change Control                                       4.9 – Problem Resolution
                                                                                                              216. Resolution Options
                                                            4.4 – Time
                                                                                                              217. Persuasion Techniques
                                          201.   Managing Schedule
                                          202.   Management of Critical Schedules                                          4.10 – Reporting
                                          203.   Critical Chain Management                                    218. Project Reporting
                                          204.   Crashing & Fast-Tracking                                     219. One Page Reporting
                                          205.   Exercise 4.2 – Fast-Tracking                                             4.11 – Summary
                                                        4.5 – Cost                                            220. Process Flowchart
                                          206. Managing Cost                                                  221. Exercise 4.3 – Monitoring & Control
                                          207. Cost Reports

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                                                                       Phase 5 – Project Closure




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                                                                               5.1 – Introduction
                                                                         226. Project Manager Role

                                                                                5.2 – Contracts
                                                                         227. Contract Closure

                                                                                       5.3 – Delivery
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                                                                         228.     Delivery Key Points
                                                                         229.     Transition to Operations
                                                                         230.     Project Handover
                                                                         231.     I.T. System Delivery

                                                                             5.4 – Lessons Learned
                                                                         232. Lessons Learned Capture

                                                                              5.5 – Team Transition
                                                                         233. People Transition

                                                                                5.6 – Final Report
                                                                         234. Final Report

                                                                              5.7 – Team Closeout
                                                                         235. Team Closeout

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                                                                                         Project Selection




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                                          ●
                                              Choose a team name.

                                          ●
                                              Choose a project:

                                              ➢       Something related to your work.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Construct a building – hotel, office tower, house…

                                              ➢       Hold an awards banquet.

                                              ➢       Build a web site for hotel bookings.

                                              ➢       Create a set of financial standards.

                                              ➢       Re-engineer department work processes.

                                              ➢       Hold a conference on some subject.
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                                                                                         Chapter 0




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                                             Project Management Overview
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                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                     The Foundation

                                               “The loftier the building, the deeper must the foundation be laid.”
                                                                      – Thomas Kempis, 1380 - 1471.




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                                                                 Chapter 0 – Project Management Overview




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                                                   0.1 – Processes                                                     0.6 – Techniques & Tools
                                          17. Why Processes Are Useful                                           29. Project Management Tools
                                                                                                                 30. Project Management Techniques
                                                0.2 – Success & Failure
                                          18. Exercise 0.1 – Project Success &                                                0.7 – Players
                                              Failure                                                            31. Project Players
                                          19. Causes of Project Failure                                          32. Role of Project Manager
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                                          20. Causes of Project Success                                          33. Exercise 0.3 – Players for Your
                                                                                                                     Project
                                                       0.3 – Foundation
                                          21.    Project Management Institute                                               0.8 – Scalability
                                          22.    Project Definition                                              34. Application To Small Projects
                                          23.    Program Definition                                                       0.9 – Project Manager Skills
                                          24.    PMBOK® Guide Project Phases                                     35.     Project Manager Attributes
                                          25.    PMBOK® Guide Knowledge Areas                                    36.     Communications
                                                                                                                 37.     Team Formation
                                                   0.4 – Strategic Plan
                                                                                                                 38.     Team Foundations
                                          26. Link to Strategic Plan
                                                                                                                 39.     Team Dynamics
                                          27. Exercise 0.2 – Your Strategic Plan
                                                                                                                 40.     Negotiation & Leadership
                                                 0.5 – Triple Constraint
                                          28. The Triple Constraint
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              0.1 Overview – Processes




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                                                                              Why Processes Are Useful




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                                          ●
                                              How many items can a person keep in their head at the same time?
                                              ➢       Three to four – this is why phone numbers are split into sets of 3 to 4
                                                      digits.

                                          ●
                                              Take-aways?
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              1. Human beings are the smartest animals on this planet... but that's not
                                                 saying very much!
                                                      ➔
                                                             We should have some humility about our capabilities.
                                              2. The simple written list is our most powerful and under-utilized tool.
                                              3. We writing down best practices in tried-and-true processes to capture
                                                 excellence so we – and others – don't have to re-invent them.

                                          ●
                                              This project management process is the result of thousands of
                                              people's experience across many $B of work over several decades:
                                              ➢       It is a simple framework that can accept any kind of project.
                                              ➢       It can save you enormous amounts of trouble, stress, and problems.
                                              ➢       It greatly increases the chances of scope, cost, and schedule success.

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              0.2 Overview – Success & Failure




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                                                                   Exercise 0.1 – Project Success & Failure




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                                          ●
                                              What in your experience are the main causes of project failure?

                                          ●
                                              What in your experience are the main causes of project success?
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               0.2 Overview – Success & Failure




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                                          ●
                                              Standish Group – Chaos Report (1995):
                                              ➢      First comprehensive review of project performance.

                                          ●
                                              Results – more than half of projects:
                                              ➢      Cost more than 190% of the original cost estimate.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢      Took more than 222% of the original schedule estimate.

                                          ●
                                              Ranked causes of project failure:

                                                  1 – Incomplete Requirements
                                                  2 – Lack of User Involvement
                                                  3 – Lack of Resources
                                                  4 – Unrealistic Expectations
                                                  5 – Lack of Executive Support
                                                  6 – Changing Requirements & Specifications
                                                  7 – Lack of Planning
                                               8 – Didn't Need It Any Longer (!)
                                               9 – Lack of IT Management
                                              10 – Technology Illiteracy
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               0.2 Overview – Success & Failure




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                                                                           Causes of Project Success




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                                          ●
                                              Standish Group – Chaos Report (1995)

                                          ●
                                              Ranked keys to project success:

                                               1 – User Involvement
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                                               2 – Executive Management Support
                                               3 – Clear Statement of Requirements
                                               4 – Proper Planning
                                               5 – Realistic Expectations
                                               6 – Smaller Project Milestones
                                               7 – Competent Staff
                                               8 – Ownership
                                               9 – Clear Vision & Objectives
                                              10 – Hard-Working, Focused Staff



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              0.3 Overview – Foundation




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                                                                         Project Management Institute




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                                                              “The world’s leading not-for-profit membership association
                                                                      for the project management profession.”
                                                                                                   – PMI®

                                          ●
                                              Established 1969.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              First PMBOK® Guide published 1983.

                                              More than a million members in more than 185 countries.




                                                                                                                                                                                 PMI is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc..
                                          ●



                                          ●
                                              Certifications offered:
                                              ➢     Project Management Professional (PMP)®
                                              ➢     Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)®
                                              ➢     Program Management Professionals (PgMP)®
                                              ➢     PMI Risk Management Professional (PMI-RMP)®
                                              ➢     PMI Scheduling Professional (PMI-SP)®


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              0.3 Overview – Foundation




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                                                                                         Project Definition




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                                                                             “A project is a temporary endeavor
                                                                   undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.”
                                                                                             – PMBOK® Guide.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              When do you know you have a project, and the project
                                              management process will be very helpful?




                                                                                                                                                                                     PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc..
                                              ➢       Unique – We start out not knowing how to do it – scope, cost,
                                                      schedule, and/or risks – and so have to figure it out and then monitor
                                                      and control it.

                                              ➢       Temporary – The team comes together, plans the project, implements
                                                      it, and goes on to another project.




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              0.3 Overview – Foundation




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                                                                                      Program Definition




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                                                   “A program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way
                                                 to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.”
                                                                                            – PMBOK® Guide.


                                          ●
                                               Very important, but nowhere near as much fun as projects:
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                               ➢      Related Projects – Share outputs, inputs, budgets, people, etc.




                                                                                                                                                                                         PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc..
                                               ➢      Coordinated Way – Needs a Program Manager to oversee and make
                                                      decisions to optimize the projects as a group.


                                            Communicate with the
                                                                                                         C
                                              Program Manager                                                         F
                                                                                                                                              If there needs to be lots of
                                                                                            A
                                          to ensure they understand                                                                      interaction between the projects
                                             your project's needs.                                       D            G                   of a program, e.g. weekly, then
                                              Provide lots of notice                        B
                                                                                                                                         it is probably better as one large
                                              about your project's                                       E            H                   project with several area leads.
                                               schedule changes.

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              0.3 Overview – Foundation
                                                                          PMBOK® Guide Project Phases




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                                          Initiation           Planning                        Monitoring & Control                             Closing
                                          ● Charter           ● Requirements                  ● Scope                                           ● Contract Close
                                                              ● WBS                           ● Time                                            ● Lessons Learned
                                                              ● Network Diagram               ● Cost                                            ● Final Report
                                                              ● Estimates                     ● Risk
                                                              ● Gantt Chart
                                                              ● Cost Curve                     Execution
                                                              ● Risk Register
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                              ● Git R Done
                                                                                              ● Delivery

                                                        ±50%                            ±10%




                                                                                                                                                                                    PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.
                                          ●
                                              The key point of project management is to prepare a plan using
                                              proven best practices that improves the accuracy of estimation of
                                              scope, cost, time, and risk to about +/– 10% before proceeding.
                                          ●
                                              There must be a review at the end of planning where the
                                              Stakeholders provide feedback on the plan, and if they wish
                                              adjustments, the plan is updated to maintain a balance between
                                              scope, cost, time, and risk before proceeding.
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              0.3 Overview – Foundation
                                                                             PMBOK® Guide Knowledge Areas




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                                          ●
                                              Project management deals with nine “knowledge areas”:
                                              ➢       Integration
                                              ➢       Scope
                                              ➢       Time
                                              ➢       Cost                                                  Project Management probably started
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                            with building of the Egyptian Pyramids.
                                              ➢       Quality




                                                                                                                                                                                       PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc..
                                              ➢       Human Resources
                                              ➢       Communications
                                              ➢       Risk
                                              ➢       Procurement

                                          ●
                                              Some of these are included in each of the five project phases.

                                          ●
                                              We will cover each of these areas throughout this manual.


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              0.4 Overview – Strategic Plan




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                                                                                    Link to Strategic Plan




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                                                                                          Strategic Plan                                   Risk Budget




                                              What is the
                                                link?                                           Programs                                   Risk Budget
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                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                  Projects                                 Risk Budget


                                          ●
                                              The Strategic Plan is the leadership's identification of the 3 to 5 key
                                              objectives required for organization success over the next 3 to 5 years.
                                          ●
                                              Know, document, and communicate the link – projects that are:
                                              ➢      Unrelated to the Strategic Plan can easily be canceled.
                                              ➢      Related to the Strategic Plan will be supported by senior management even
                                                     when they get in trouble.

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              0.4 Overview – Strategic Plan




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                                                                          Exercise 0.2 – Your Strategic Plan




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                                          ●
                                              Class discussion:

                                                  Does your organization have a Strategic Plan?
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                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Have you read it?

                                                  How does your organization's Strategic Plan influence your projects?




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              0.5 Overview – Triple Constraint




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                                                                                     The Triple Constraint




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                                                  Your Triangular                                                                                 The most important




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                                                  Steering Wheel                                                                                    concept in PM:




                                                                                                                        st
                                                                                                                                                  “Keep it balanced”
                                                                                                        Risk
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                                                                                                                                                                                          Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                      Scope
                                          ●
                                              Baseline the bottom of the triangle – scope – first:
                                              ➢    Only then will you be able to get an accurate time and cost .
                                              ➢    The risk budget provides a shock absorber to help the other three in balance.

                                          ●
                                              “A change in any one of these constraints will change one or both of the others.”
                                              ➢    Always re-balance the triangle by making changes as needed.

                                          ●
                                              When one or more is stressed, ask the Stakeholders for direction:
                                              ➢    “Which constraint is the most important to you?”                                               At end of planning when
                                              ➢    They usually pick two.                                                                         you receive Stakeholder
                                              ➢    Preserve those as best as possible.                                                           feedback, and during the
                                              ➢    Your project will then be an effective success.                                            project when scope increases.
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              0.6 Overview – Techniques & Tools




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                                                                             Project Management Techniques




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                                          Two fundamental techniques are used throughout project management:

                                          ●
                                              Breakdown complex items into simpler parts, solve them, roll them up:
                                                    Break the project down into the five phases.
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                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                    Break the scope down into manageable size deliverables.
                                                    Break the deliverables down into individual activities.

                                          ●
                                              Do one thing at a time to avoid thrashing:
                                                    List all the possible Stakeholders first, then decide how to communicate
                                                     with them.
                                                    List all possible risks first, then shortlist them and quantify them.
                                                    Build the schedule first, then resolve any resource conflicts.




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              0.6 Overview – Techniques & Tools




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                                                                              Project Management Tools




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                                          ●
                                              Project management can benefit greatly from the use of software application tools
                                              to handle a range of tasks:
                                              ➢     Tools marked FOSS are Free Open Source Software.

                                          ●
                                              Requirements Management:
                                              ➢     A spreadsheet can work for a few dozen, then need a database tool.
                                              ➢     Specific applications: Doors, Requisite Pro, RTM.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     Databases: Microsoft Access, LibreOffice Base (FOSS).

                                          ●
                                              Work Breakdown Structure:
                                              ➢     The organization chart tool in Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, OrgPlus.
                                              ➢     A mind mapping application like FreePlane (FOSS).

                                          ●
                                              Network Diagram:
                                              ➢     Any drawing tool with “connectors” so lines move with the boxes.
                                              ➢     Microsoft PowerPoint, Visio, LibreOffice Draw (FOSS).

                                          ●
                                              Gantt Schedule:
                                              ➢     Microsoft Project, Primavera, Gnome Planner (FOSS), ProjectLibre (FOSS).

                                          ●
                                              Estimates, Risk Register, Change Impact:
                                              ➢     Any spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel or LibreOffice Calc (FOSS).

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              0.7 Overview – Players




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                                                                                            Project Players




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                                          ●
                                              Sponsor:
                                              ➢       Provides the funding.
                                              ➢       Usually selects the Project Manager.
                                              ➢       Provides organization level support.
                                              ➢       Lead on solution of problems that you can't resolve.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Customer:
                                              ➢       The end-users of the project output – they physically touch it.

                                          ●
                                              Stakeholders
                                              ➢       Are affected by the project and/or can affect the project.

                                          ●
                                              Project Manager (PM):
                                              ➢       Day-to-day manager of the project.

                                          ●
                                              Core Project Team (CPT):
                                              ➢       Helps the PM plan the project.

                                          ●
                                              Project Team:
                                              ➢       Implements the project and delivers the result.
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              0.7 Overview – Players




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                                                                              Role of Project Manager




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                                          ●
                                              The Project Manager should be one person with both the accountability
                                              and authority to plan and implement the project.
                                          ●
                                              The Sponsor should publicly assign the accountability and authority.

                                                                                                                                   ●
                                                                                                                                          When there is one person
                                                                                                                                          with accountability (they will
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                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                          be asked what went wrong if
                                                                                                                                          there are problems) that
                                                                                                                                          person will have the courage
                                                                                                                                          to take the actions necessary
                                                                                                                                          to work towards project
                                                                                                                                          success.

                                                                                                                                   ●
                                                                                                                                          They should have the title
                                                                                                                                          Project Manager for complete
                                                                                                                                          clarity of their role throughout
                                                                                                                                          the organization.

                                                                                                                                   ●
                                                                                                                                          They must have direct access
                                                                                                                                          to the Sponsor / Customer.


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              0.7 Overview – Players




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                                                                     Exercise 0.3 – Players for Your Project




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                                          ●
                                              Who are these key players for your project?

                                                  Customer?
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Sponsor?

                                                  Project Manager – You.

                                                  Core Project Team – what key people will you need to help plan and
                                                   estimate the project?




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              0.8 Overview – Scalability




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                                                                             Application To Small Projects




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                                          ●
                                              How does the project management process apply to small projects?
                                              ➢      Don't skip any steps, just don't spend more time than required.

                                          ●
                                              Typical percentage of project time spent on planning is 2.5% - 5%:
                                              ➢      For a one week project, spend 1 to 2 hours planning.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢      For a four week project, spend 0.5 of a day to 1 day planning.
                                              ➢      For a three month project, spend 1.5 to 3 days planning.

                                          ●
                                              Produce all the key documents – if the project is small it should be quick
                                              and easy, and fit in just a few pages!
                                              ➢      Charter, requirements, deliverables, network diagram, schedule, cost roll-up,
                                                     risk register, HR plan, communications plan.

                                          ●
                                              Now you have a standard, organized, baselined plan:
                                              ➢      Even for a very small project, you have removed significant uncertainty and
                                                     stress, and considerably improved the chances of success.
                                              ➢      And you have a document you can provide to others to easily explain the
                                                     project and plan.
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              0.9 Overview – Project Manager Skills




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                                                                           Project Manager Attributes




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                                          ●
                                              Should have management and organization skills:
                                              ➢ Keep an action list, work on the most important item first.


                                          ●
                                              Should have PM training, skills, and experience.
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                                          ●
                                              Should have expertise in the project domain area – e.g. IT,
                                              Financial, Construction, etc.
                                                  Or a Deputy Project Manager in the area, and then lean on them for
                                                   expertise.

                                          ●
                                              Should have soft-skills – “PM is a communications job”:
                                                  Communications.
                                                  Team Dynamics.                               People do projects:
                                                  Negotiation.                              make or break requirement
                                                                                               for significant efforts.
                                                  Leadership.


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              0.9 Overview – Project Manager Skills




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                                                                             Communications Essentials




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                                          ●
                                              Active listening:
                                              ➢       Listening is an active, energetic process.
                                              ➢       Repeat internally what you hear.                                                            Message
                                                                                                                                    Sender                        Receiver
                                          ●
                                              Basic communications model:                                                                         Feedback
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                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Confirm messages you transmit:
                                                      ➔
                                                             “Let's make sure we are on the same page / wavelength / song-sheet,
                                                              can you give that back to me in your own words?”
                                              ➢       Confirm messages you hear:
                                                      ➔
                                                             “Let me make sure I got that, so you are saying ABCDEF?”

                                          ●
                                              Number of communications channels = n x (n-1) / 2
                                              ➢       For team of 5 the channels are 10, for team of 20 the channels are 190.
                                              ➢       Smaller teams are better – size 5 is optimal if it fits the job:
                                                      ➔
                                                             Large enough to get things done, small enough there is not too much
                                                             communications overhead, and an odd number so less deadlock.
                                              ➢       Adding people to teams can slow them down.
                                              ➢       Add one extremely skilled person that has just done the same job.
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              0.9 Overview – Project Manager Skills




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                                                                                          Team Formation




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                                          ●
                                              Tuckman Model:
                                              ➢       All teams go through these four stages:
                                                                     Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing
                                                      ➔
                                                              You can't skip these stages.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                      ➔
                                                              However you can accelerate the movement through the phases with
                                                              more meetings rather than less up front.

                                          ●
                                              Communicate to the team important Norms you want them to
                                              display:
                                              ➢       No interruptions.
                                              ➢       Write down any actions.
                                              ➢       Honesty.
                                              ➢       Integrity.
                                              ➢       Mutual accountability.
                                              ➢       Etc.
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              0.9 Overview – Project Manager Skills




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                                                                                          Team Foundations




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                                                                        “It's OK to admit our mistakes, that's how we learn.”
                                                                         – President Barack Obama, Speech to CIA, 2009.

                                          ●
                                              Remove Interruptions:
                                              ➢    Until the team has a culture of non-interruption, it will function at partial productivity.
                                                   Interrupters usually are trying to help, they just can't stop themselves.
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                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢

                                              ➢    Technique to stop:
                                              ➢    Open hand + “I want to hear your input” + “First let me get my full thought out”.
                                              ➢    Tell your team this, then if they can't do it, you must step in when needed.

                                          ●
                                              Trust – the most necessary attribute of a high performing team:
                                              ➢    Be honest, or you can lose your team in seconds.
                                              ➢    Admit your own mistakes – it makes taking risk for success by others OK.
                                                   ➔
                                                         Admit and “let's move on” – never beat yourself up in front of the team.
                                              ➢    Delegate and be tolerant of errors – the only way to learn – mentor but don't do the work.
                                              ➢    Use simple team building exercises at the start of a couple early meetings:
                                                   ➔
                                                         Tell us your childhood dream job, not what you are doing now.
                                                   ➔
                                                         Tell us a hobby or interest you have that we don't know about.
                                              ➢    Use coffee breaks, pizza Fridays, to discuss elements of commonality, no work discussion.


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              0.9 Overview – Project Manager Skills




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                                                                                           Team Dynamics




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                                          ●
                                              Open Conflict (of ideas):
                                              ➢    Encourage the team to raise any concerns they may have about anything at any time.
                                              ➢    For key subjects, ask the team one by one if they have any “comments or concerns” before
                                                   closing it.
                                              ➢    Smooth the way:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                   ➔
                                                         Reflect back what you heard before disagreeing. “So you are saying ABC?”
                                                   ➔
                                                         Avoid the word “you”.
                                                   ➔
                                                         Say “however” instead of “but”.

                                          ●
                                              Rotating Leadership:
                                              ➢    Everyone can lead – whoever is most experienced in that area, regardless of seniority.

                                          ●
                                              Mutual Accountability:
                                              ➢    The highest level of team performance.
                                              ➢    “The entire project depends on every team member meeting their commitments to each other.”
                                              ➢    “If a commitment genuinely cannot be met, provide notice as far in advance as possible.”
                                              ➢    “Hold each other accountable for your commitments, track each other down and ask for delivery
                                                   when required before taking to management.”




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              0.9 Overview – Project Manager Skills




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                                          ●
                                              Negotiating basics:
                                              ➢     Believe that win-wins are possible:
                                                    ➔
                                                          The world is full of them – e.g. two sports teams trade offense for defense.
                                              ➢     State that you both want to obtain a successful agreement – you are on the same side.
                                              ➢     Agree simple issues first to establish some momentum.
                                              ➢     Know your top line and your bottom line.
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                                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     Know a set of items you can give up along the way to agreement.
                                              ➢     Get into these conversations – the essence of negotiation:
                                                    ➔
                                                          “If I did this, could you do that?”
                                                    ➔
                                                          “If you did that, I could do this”.                                                          From a non-smiling
                                                                                                                                                  labor union negotiator for the
                                              ➢     Strive for 55% / 45% wins, or it won't be sustainable.
                                                                                                                                                  US Teamsters trucker's union.
                                          ●
                                              Leadership basics:
                                              ➢     Continually emphasize the key goals – clear one sentence descriptions.
                                              ➢     Motivate the team – why is this work worthwhile?
                                              ➢     Solve the problems your team cannot.
                                              ➢     Work constantly on increasing trust (see previous pages).
                                              ➢     Resources:
                                                    ➔
                                                          Colin Powell Leadership presentation – Google.
                                                    ➔
                                                          The Fun Standard – FunStandard.org.
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              0. Overview – Summary




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                                          ●
                                              Good processes capture best practices so we don't have to remember or reinvent them.
                                          ●
                                              The Project Management Institute (PMI)® is the world-wide standard for maintaining the PM
                                              process and certifications.
                                          ●
                                              Projects are temporary and unique – that's when the PM process is really useful.
                                          ●
                                              Programs are sets of inter-related projects managed as a group.
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                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Both programs and projects should flow from the organization strategic plan.
                                          ●
                                              The 5 PM phases are Initiation, Planning, Execution, Monitoring & Control, and Closing.
                                          ●
                                              The 9 project management knowledge areas are Integration, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human
                                              Resources, Communications, Risk, and Procurement.
                                          ●
                                              Scope, time, and cost are fundamentally inter-related: whenever one changes the other two must
                                              be rebalanced – the Project Manager's main job.
                                          ●
                                              Project management uses two key tools: (a) breaking down complex items into simpler parts,
                                              solving the parts, and rolling up; and (b) doing one thing at a time to avoid thrashing.
                                          ●
                                              There are several powerful automated tools to assist project management, including several “free
                                              open source software” applications.
                                          ●
                                              To be optimally effective, the Project Manager should have the accountability and authority to do
                                              the job publicly assigned by the Sponsor, and the title “Project Manager”.
                                          ●
                                              Project managers need PM skills, management skills, domain experience, and soft skills.
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                                                                                           Phase 1




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                                                                     Project Initiation
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                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                        The First Gate

                                          “We succeed only as we identify in life, or in war, or in anything else,
                                            a single overriding objective, and make all other considerations
                                                               bend to that one objective.”
                                           – President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Speech To Nation, April 2, 1957




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                                                                       Phase 1 – Project Initiation




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                                                                                  1.1 – Introduction
                                                                     44. Project Manager Role
                                                                     45. Where Projects Come From

                                                                                    1.2 – Charter
                                                                     46. Project Charter Purpose
                                                                     47. Charter Contents
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                                                                                                                                                                              Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                       1.3 – Scope
                                                                     48.   Project Objective
                                                                     49.   Objective – Process
                                                                     50.   Canadian Forces Health Information
                                                                           System – Objective
                                                                     51.   Assumptions and Constraints

                                                                                1.4 – Business Case
                                                                     52. The Business Case
                                                                     53. Benefit Cost Ratio
                                                                     54. Business Case Examples

                                                                                 1.5 – Stakeholders
                                                                     55. Project Stakeholders

                                                                                1.6 – Other Elements
                                                                     56. Other Charter Elements
                                                                     57. Exercise 1.1 – Your Project's Charter

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              1.1 Initiation – Introduction




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                                                                                    Project Manager Role




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                                          ●
                                              The prospective Project Manager for the project is often known at the
                                              Initiation stage.
                                          ●
                                              It is helpful for the Project Manager take the lead on preparation of the
                                              charter for the Sponsor:
                                              ➢      Likely has the project management training – objective first!
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢      Can help avoid the main problem – a charter so large it looks impressive
                                                     enough to justify skipping planning (!) which results in final approval of the
                                                     project before planning produces an estimate of +/– 10%.
                                                     ➔
                                                             Many bad things happen once the true time and cost become apparent after the
                                                             project is underway.

                                          ●
                                              Requirements gathering by the Business Analyst or equivalent person
                                              (see planning section) should be under the supervision of the Project
                                              Manager:
                                              ➢      Help the B.A. avoid the common mistake of “making the Customer happy” by
                                                     including much more than required by the project objective:
                                                     ➔
                                                             The second most common cause of project failure.

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              1.1 Initiation – Introduction




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                                                                             Where Projects Come From




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                                          ●
                                              Project sources and causes:
                                              ➢       There is a “Need” – some problem that needs to be solved:

                                                      1.      Operational costs are too high.
                                                      2.      Senior management cannot obtain timely information.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                      3.      There is an unrealized opportunity to sell a new product.
                                                      4.      The company has no presence in the South American market.
                                                      5.      The community wants a local baseball league.


                                          ●
                                              What to do if there is not enough information to start a project?
                                              ➢       Conduct a feasibility study:

                                                      1.      Are there cost-effective ways to reduce operational costs?
                                                      2.      Can decision information be extracted from existing data?
                                                      3.      Does the company have the capability to develop the new product?
                                                      4.      Can entry to the South American market be done at acceptable cost?
                                                      5.      Can enough resources be found to build a community baseball league?

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              1.2 Initiation – Charter




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                                                                              Project Charter Purpose




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                                          ●
                                              Formally starts the project planning – not execution!

                                          ●
                                              Authorizes the PM to conduct the planning:
                                                   Often provides a specific budget and target date.
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                                                   PM can use the budget to obtain internal assistance, and sometimes
                                                    external assistance if consulting is needed in key areas for planning.

                                          ●
                                              Documents support commitments from required Stakeholders:
                                                   Obtain explicit sign-off or review at a meeting with all Stakeholders.

                                          ●
                                              Is sent to all Stakeholders by the Sponsor.

                                          ●
                                              Don't overdo the charter content – this is just a gate to project
                                              planning, not the plan itself.


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              1.2 Initiation – Charter




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                                                                                         Charter Contents




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                                          ●
                                              Typical Charter Table of Contents:
                                              ➢       Objective(s)
                                                                                            First top-level baseline
                                              ➢       Assumptions
                                                                                             of the project scope.
                                              ➢       Constraints
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Business Case
                                              ➢       Customer – end-user
                                              ➢       Sponsor – paying for it
                                              ➢       Stakeholders & Responsibilities
                                              ➢       Project Manager & Authority
                                              ➢       Major Deliverables
                                              ➢       Initial Risks


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              1.2 Initiation – Charter




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                                                                                         Project Objective




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                                              “This nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out,
                                                    of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth.”
                                                              – President John F. Kennedy; Speech To Nation, May 25, 1961

                                          ●
                                              The ultimate benefits of the project desired by the Stakeholders, written down in
                                              concise, clear sentences – ideally one.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Popularized by Peter Drucker in book The Practice of Management, 1954:
                                                     Single sentences concise enough to provide a focused target.
                                                     Identifies what needs to be achieved without confusing it with how.

                                          ●
                                              SMART acronym can be helpful, especially S,M,T:
                                                     Specific.
                                                                                                                             Overheard during a planning session:
                                              ➢       Measurable ⇦ Should have numbers.
                                                     Agreed.                                                                “That's a great idea, but it's not in the
                                                     Realistic.                                                             objective – we aren't going to do that.”
                                                     Time-bound.
                                                                                                                                  Scope creep stopped before the
                                                                                                                                       project even started!
                                          ●
                                              Examples:
                                                     Capture new channels to increase sales by 20% per year for 3 years.
                                                     Develop improved workflow processes to increase productivity by 10% by 15 September.
                                                     Implement automated booking system to decrease costs by 15% by 10 June.
                                                     Add new security controls to reduce possibility of breaches by 90% by 25 March.
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              1.2 Initiation – Charter




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                                          ●
                                              Convene a meeting of all Stakeholders.
                                          ●
                                              Use a laptop and projector to triple the effectiveness and halve the time:
                                              ➢       Participants can see the options and provide effective feedback.
                                          ●
                                              Start by typing “Objective:” on the first line for the eventually agreed result.
                                          ●
                                              Ask the senior Stakeholder (Sponsor, Customer, company executive) to provide a full
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              sentence that defines the “ultimate outcome and benefit from your point of view”.
                                              ➢       Type that sentence on a second line in the document.
                                          ●
                                              Ask the next senior Stakeholder for their view, and type that sentence on a third line.
                                          ●
                                              Ask if anyone has any other suggestions – if so type those sentences as well.
                                          ●
                                              Then state “we have enough to work with, let's see if we can come to agreement on
                                              one sentence so we can fix the project target for the planning team”.
                                          ●
                                              As discussion proceeds, and agreement is reached on parts of the objective, type
                                              those parts on the first line – leave the second and later lines untouched for constant
                                              reference back to the first suggestions.
                                          ●
                                              Strive for S,M,T from the SMART model – specific, measurable, with a target date.
                                          ●
                                              This is the first place that differences in Stakeholder views are coordinated into a
                                              single purpose – the most important step in the project.
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              1.2 Initiation – Charter




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                                                   Canadian Forces Health Information System – Objective




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                                          ●
                                              “CFHIS will provide the capability to manage health information effectively
                                              and efficiently in support of decision making and enhanced operational
                                              effectiveness to improve the quality of health services throughout the CF by
                                              supporting the following goals:
                                              ➢       Establishing an Electronic Heath Record for all CF personnel that will
                                                      enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of health services.
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                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Providing seamless, integrated, automated heath information to
                                                      deployed CF formations.
                                              ➢       Making heath information a corporate shared resource that is readily
                                                      available for decision making at all levels resulting in improved Quality
                                                      of Life and enhanced operational effectiveness.
                                              ➢       Reducing DND current operations cost for health care information
                                                      management.”
                                                                                                                                             Too much for one project,
                                          ●
                                              Would have better as one sentence – example:                                               later moved to a separate phase.

                                              ➢       “CFHIS will implement an Electronic Health Record capability for all CF
                                                      personnel that enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of health
                                                      services, improves quality of life, supports decision making at all levels,
                                                      enhances operational effectiveness, and reduces operations costs.”
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              1.2 Initiation – Charter




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                                                                             Assumptions and Constraints




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                                          ●
                                              Together with the objective, they define the first top-level view of the
                                              project scope.
                                          ●
                                              Assumptions:
                                              ➢       Elements to assume are true during the planning phase.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       E.g: Internal resources have all skills required, office space will be made
                                                      available for consultants, the feeder project ABC will finish in time.
                                              ➢       Might turn out not to be true – review during risk planning.

                                          ●
                                              Constraints:
                                              ➢       Are absolutely true now – no assumptions are being made.
                                              ➢       They limit planning flexibility – this can be very helpful.
                                              ➢       Often budget and/or schedule limits, can also be standards, policies, etc.
                                              ➢       E.g: The project must cost less than $1.2M, must take less than 10
                                                      months, must be compliant with existing policies and procedures.


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              1.4 Initiation– Business Case




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                                                                                          The Business Case




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                                                     “The question should be 'is it worth trying to do?' – not 'can it be done?'“
                                                                             – Allard Lowenstein, O Magazine, Sep. 2002.


                                          ●
                                              Sometimes the business case is easy – the project must be done:
                                              ➢       Legal, health, or safety issues.
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                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       The decision has been made at a higher level, e.g. program level.

                                          ●
                                              Typical business case methods:
                                              ➢       Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) = Benefits / Costs.
                                              ➢       Net Present Value = Costs and Benefits normalized to this year.
                                              ➢       Return On Investment (ROI) = Percentage return on expenditure.

                                          ●
                                              The cost and benefit estimates during initiation are often +/– 50%
                                              ➢       An approximate estimate is often good enough to make a hard decision:
                                              ➢       Called a “Rough order of Magnitude” (ROM).
                                              ➢       The whole point of planning is to improve this to +/– 10%.
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              1.4 Initiation– Business Case




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                                                                                       Benefit Costs Ratio




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                                          ●
                                              Costs are relatively easy to estimate to +/– 50% accuracy:
                                              ➢      Analogous estimate: Compare to a similar project.
                                              ➢      Or just estimate: (People x Time) + Everything else.

                                          ●
                                              Benefits estimation can be more challenging:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢      Often: # years x (# incidences / year) x ( $ benefit / incident)
                                                     ➔
                                                           3 to 5 years for process projects, can be much longer for capital projects.

                                              ➢      Common benefits you can put $ on:
                                                     ➔
                                                           Cost decreases.
                                                     ➔
                                                           Profit increases.
                                                     ➔
                                                           Productivity increases.
                                                     ➔
                                                           Avoidance of costs.

                                              ➢      At an absolute minimum list the areas of benefits – what are the good reasons you
                                                     doing the project?

                                          ●
                                              Also consider payback period / break-even time:
                                              ➢      More than 3 years for process projects is a warning bell:
                                                     ➔
                                                           The world will completely change by that time.
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              1.4 Initiation– Business Case




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                                                                                      Business Case Examples




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                                          ●
                                              Implement automated purchase orders to save personnel time:
                                                     Cost                   =   $25K software + $25K people costs = $50K
                                                     Benefits               =   Save 15 minutes for each purchase order
                                                                             =   3 yrs x 5K purchase orders x $10 time
                                                                             =   $150K
                                                     BCR                    =   3/1         or    ROI = 300%

                                          ●
                                              Upgrade computers from Windows NT to Windows XP:
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                                                     Cost                   =   $400K software + $100K people costs
                                                     Benefits               =   Avoid $400K/year increased support costs                                      Real examples.
                                                                             =   3 yrs x $400K = $1.2M
                                                     BCR                    =   2.4 / 1     or     ROI = 240%

                                          ●
                                              Information package to help clean up toxic dumps:
                                                     Cost                   = 2 people x 2 months = $25K
                                                     Benefits               = less infrastructure and health spending
                                                                             = 3 yrs x ( 0.05% x 50K dumps = 25 ) x
                                                                             ( $100K benefit per cleanup ) = $7.5M
                                                     BCR                    = 300 / 1       or     ROI = 30,000%                           !
                                          ●
                                              Hold wine and cheese food tasting event:
                                                     Cost                   = $20K facility rental + $20K advertising costs = $40K
                                                     Benefits               = 2500 tickets @ $20 + 25 vendors @ $1000 / booth = $75K
                                                     BCR                    = 1.875 / 1     or     ROI = 87.5%

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              1.5 Initiation – Stakeholders




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                                          ●
                                              Every organization and person that is affected by the project or can affect the project:
                                              ➢    Include those that oppose the project!
                                                   ➔
                                                         Might be able to help or mitigate opposition.
                                              ➢    Assign one key representative from each Stakeholder group to ease management.
                                              ➢    Determine what is most important to each Stakeholder – Scope, Time, or Cost.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Purposes:
                                              ➢    Help define the requirements to identify the full scope as first step in planning.
                                              ➢    Are who you communicate with regularly during the project to manage expectations.
                                              ➢    Provide direction when you need to balance the triple constraint.

                                          ●
                                              Supporting Stakeholders:
                                              ➢    Identify and record in the charter the area of responsibility for those Stakeholders whose
                                                   support is necessary to the project.
                                              ➢    Obtain their sign-off on the charter to get buy-in before planning begins:
                                                   ➔
                                                         Can be an email agreement, even a positive reply to your email.
                                                   ➔
                                                         Can be agreement in a final review meeting.




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              1.6 Initiation – Other Elements




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                                                                                  Other Charter Elements




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                                          ●
                                              Customer – the end-user:
                                              ➢       If building a school – the teachers, children, and maintenance personnel.

                                          ●
                                              Sponsor – pays for it:
                                              ➢       If building a school – the school board.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Project Manager and Authority:
                                              ➢       Name and authority – directly communicate with the Customer, access
                                                      financial information, etc.

                                          ●
                                              Major deliverables:
                                              ➢       Very high-level end products of key concern to Stakeholders.
                                              ➢       E.g.: Web site, hotel with restaurant and pool, training package.

                                          ●
                                              Initial risks:
                                              ➢       Significant areas of risk known at the charter stage.
                                              ➢       E.g.: Dependencies on other projects, external events.
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              1.6 Initiation – Other Elements




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                                                                          Exercise 1.1 – Your Project's Charter




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                                          ●
                                              What are the following Charter elements for your project?
                                                  Objective

                                                  Assumptions

                                                  Constraints
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                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Business Case

                                                  Customer

                                                  Sponsor

                                                  Stakeholders & Responsibilities

                                                  Project Manager (You)

                                                  Major Deliverables

                                                  Initial risks (if any)

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              1. Initiation – Summary




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                                                                                     Chapter Summary




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                                          ●
                                              The signed charter formally starts project planning, not execution.
                                          ●
                                              The most important part of the charter is the objective – no work including the
                                              business case should proceed without this baselined first.
                                          ●
                                              Together with the objective, the assumptions and constraints are the top-level
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              baseline of the project scope.
                                          ●
                                              The business case helps management decide if the charter should be signed
                                              and at least planning done, and later provides key team motivation info.
                                          ●
                                              Stakeholders help you define requirements, and provide triple constraint
                                              direction when required.
                                          ●
                                              Obtain supporting Stakeholder commitment at the charter stage to solve a lot
                                              of common issues later.
                                          ●
                                              Other sections of a typical charter include the Customer, Sponsor, Project
                                              Manager, major deliverables, and initial risks.



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                                                                                                  Phase 2




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                                                                            Project Planning
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                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                            The Second Gate
                                          He was exaggerating
                                                                                                                                                     His point.
                                           to make the point.



                                                                   “Plans are worthless, but planning is everything.”
                                                           – President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Speech, Nov. 14 1957.




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                                                          2.1 – Introduction                                          86.    Breaking Down By Interim Delivery
                                          62. Project Manager Role                                                    87.    Deliverables⇨Work Packages⇨Activities
                                          63. Planning Process Flow                                                   88.    WBS Dictionary
                                          64. Core Project Team                                                       89.    Relationship of WBS & Requirements
                                                                                                                      90.    WBS Process
                                                            2.2 – Requirements
                                                                                                                      91.    Exercise 2.2 – WBS
                                          65.   Objective to Requirements
                                                                                                                      92.    WBS Drawing Tool
                                          66.   Requirements – A Long Time Challenge
                                          67.   Importance of Requirements                                                                 2.4 – Logic
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                                                                                                                                                                                           Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          68.   Gathering Requirements                                                93.    Network Diagram
                                          69.   Requirements Example                                                  94.    Kinds of Precedence Links
                                          70.   Requirements Attributes                                               95.    Leads and Lags
                                          71.   Requirements Key Points                                               96.    Generic Example
                                          72.   Requirements Document & Approval                                      97.    Shed Example
                                          73.   Exercise 2.1 – Objective to Requirements                              98.    Software Example
                                                                                                                      99.    Standards Development Example
                                                               2.3 – Scope
                                                                                                                      100.   Network Diagram Process
                                          74.   The Work Breakdown Structure
                                                                                                                      101.   Network Diagram Patterns
                                          75.   WBS Example – An Aircraft
                                                                                                                      102.   Including Waiting Time
                                          76.   WBS Example – Hiring
                                                                                                                      103.   Exercise 2.3 – Develop a Network Diagram
                                          77.   WBS Example – Warehouse / POS System
                                                                                                                      104.   Network Diagram Tool
                                          78.   WBS Example – Banquet
                                          79.   WBS Hierarchical Decomposition                                                           2.5 – Estimating
                                          80.   WBS Phasing & Combined Methods                                        105.   Exercise 2.4 – The Power Of Estimation
                                          81.   System Integration Hierarchical Decomposition                         106.   Estimating Cost and Time
                                          82.   System Integration Project Phasing                                    107.   The Statistical Power Of Multiple Estimates
                                          83.   WBS Key Points                                                        108.   Time Estimation – Activity Breakdown
                                          84.   Breaking Down By Length                                               109.   Activity Breakdown Adjustment
                                          85.   Breaking Down By Responsibility

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                                          110.   Including Resources                                                              2.9 – Resources
                                          111.   Effort ⇨ Productive Time ⇨Duration                                134. Resources Planning
                                          112.   Estimation Spreadsheet                                            135. Resource Leveling
                                          113.   PERT & 3-Point Techniques
                                                                                                                                          2.10 – Cost
                                          114.   PERT & 3-Point Example
                                                                                                                   136. Cost Baseline
                                          115.   Delphi Technique
                                          116.   Exercise 2.5 – Time Estimation                                                         2.11 – Risks
                                          117.   Estimating Cost                                                   137.   Risk Management
                                          118.   Cost Roll-up – Bill of Materials                                  138.   Risk Management Process
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                                                                                                                                                                                           Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          119.   Exercise 2.6 – Cost Estimation                                    139.   Risk Identification
                                                                                                                   140.   Standard Risk Statement Form
                                                          2.6 – Critical Path
                                          120.   The Schedule Critical Path
                                                                                                                   141.   Risk Qualification
                                          121.   Critical Path Process                                             142.   Risk Quantification
                                          122.   Network Diagram Example                                           143.   Quantification Estimation
                                          123.   Forward Pass                                                      144.   Risk Register Example
                                          124.   Backward Pass                                                     145.   Risk Budget Allocation
                                          125.   Critical Path With Float                                          146.   Response Planning
                                          126.   Exercise 2.7 – Determine Critical Path                            147.   Other Risk Elements
                                                                                                                   148.   Risk, Contingency & Management Reserves
                                                           2.7 – Schedule
                                                                                                                   149.   Positive Risks – Opportunities
                                          127.   Network Diagram ⇨ Schedule
                                                                                                                   150.   IT Risk & Security Standards
                                          128.   Building the Schedule
                                                                                                                   151.   Exercise 2.9 – Prepare A Risk Register
                                          129.   Gantt Chart Schedule
                                          130.   Gantt Chart With Work Packages                                                2.12 – Communications
                                          131.   Gantt Chart With Activities                                       152. Communications Planning
                                                                                                                   153. Exercise 2.10 – Communications Plan
                                                       2.8 – Milestones
                                          132. Schedule Milestones                                                        2.13 – Project Management Plan
                                          133. Exercise 2.8 – Choose Milestones                                    154. The Project Management Plan

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              2.1 Planning – Introduction




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                                          ●
                                              Has all required accountability, responsibility, and authority to prepare a proper project
                                              management plan.
                                          ●
                                              Supervises the business analyst preparation of requirements (if internal project).
                                          ●
                                              Authorized to visit all Stakeholders for information, clarification, and finalization of support
                                              commitments.
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                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Authorized to visit functional managers and other department heads to negotiate for
                                              personnel and other resources required during planning and execution.
                                          ●
                                              Reviews the plan during development with Stakeholders to obtain interim direction if
                                              needed – e.g. after requirement gathering if clear the cost constraint cannot be met.
                                          ●
                                              Chairs the key meetings and finalizes all elements of the project management plan –
                                              scope, time, cost, risks.
                                          ●
                                              Reviews the final project management plan with Stakeholders at the all important second
                                              gate, obtains any direction, and re-balances the triple constraint as required.
                                          ●
                                              Has a professional and ethical requirement to never propose or proceed with an infeasible
                                              plan – one that does not have enough time, cost, and risk budget to achieve the planned
                                              scope – in order to protect the Sponsor, project team, and Customer.



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              2.1 Planning – Introduction




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                                                                                            Planning Process Flow




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         Prepared by Customer
          if commercial RFP.                                                                                       Response if commercial RFP.



                                                                                                                                                                              Project Plan
                                          Requirements                   Work Breakdown                          Network                             Schedule
                                                                            Structure                            Diagram
                                                                                                                                                                             Scope = WBS
                                              Complete
                                                                                                                                                                          Time = Gantt Chart
                                             Consistent                 Deliverables only.                 Flow of deliverables.
                                                                                                                                                                           Cost = Cost Curve
                                               Feasible                Documents, material,
                                                                                                                                                                          Risk = Risk Register
                                          Demonstratable                services, facilities.                   Just logic,
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                                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                                                 ------
                                                ------                     Max 6 levels.                       no numbers.                          Cost Curve             Network Diagram
                                          Needs not wants
                                                                                                                                                                             Requirements
                                           What not how
                                                                                                                                                                             Business Case
                                          Q: “Why, why...”
                                                                                                                                                                                HR Plan
                                          Q: “What else...”
                                                                                                                                                                              Comms Plan
                                            Prototyping
                                                                                                                                                                          Change Control Plan




                                                                                                                                  Estimation

                                                                                                                                     Time
                                                                                                                                     Costs
                                                                                                                                     -----
                                                                                                                             Activity breakdown.
                                                                                                                                Pert / 3-point.
                                                                                                                                    Delphi.



                                      ±50%                                                                                                                                            ±10%
                                                                                 Each step can be reviewed with the Stakeholders to
                                                                                  get interim direction – e.g. the scope is too large.
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              2.1 Planning – Introduction




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                                                                                     Core Project Team




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                                                              “There is no wider gulf in the universe than yawns
                                                        between those on the hither and thither side of vital experience.”
                                                                 – Rebecca West, Black Lamb and Grey Falcon, 1941.

                                          ●
                                              Works for the PM.
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Helps develop the Project Management Plan – deliverables, cost
                                              and time estimates, risk register.

                                          ●
                                              One key representative from each of the project areas – technical,
                                              financial, training, logistics, etc.

                                          ●
                                              Should be either the team that will implement the project, or their
                                              managers, so they take it seriously.

                                          ●
                                              Start by reviewing any project final reports and lessons learned
                                              from similar past projects.

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              2.2 Planning – Requirements




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                                                                       Objective to Requirements




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                                                                     Objective:
                                                                                Ultimate project benefits.
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                                                                                                                                                                              Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                     Functional requirements:
                                                                                Functions & features.
                                                                                Quantities.
                                                                                Applicable standards.




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                                          Circa 1980
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                                                                                                                                                                                 Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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                                                                                   Requirements Example




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                                              Extract from Canadian Forces Health Information System (CFHIS)
                                                                project – 1,200 requirements.

                                          Req ID        Function                Requirement
                                          CFHIS1.1      Identify Patient        Shall have ability to update information within Master Patient Index.
                                          CFHIS1.2.1    Verify Appointment      Shall have ability to verify existing appointment in scheduler.
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                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          CFHIS1.2.2    Verify Appointment      Patient demographics shall be accessible and pulled during the "Identify
                                                                                Patient" sub-process. [Patient demographics can be attached to views and to
                                                                                formats for printing.]
                                          CFHIS1.3.1    Register Patient        Shall have the ability to place a patient with the demographic data on active
                                                                                list.
                                          CFHIS1.3.2    Register Patient        Access to Medical Chart shall be initiated.
                                          CFHIS1.3.3    Register Patient        Reception screening shall be done by clerical staff placing patient on active
                                                                                list.
                                          CFHIS1.3.4    Register Patient        Active list shall be annotated with provider identity and location on scheduler.

                                          CFHIS1.3.5    Register Patient        Shall have the ability to establish templates for registration for various types
                                                                                of appointments by provider in order to follow correct workflow for each type
                                                                                of appointment.
                                          CFHIS1.3.6    Register Patient        Shall provide schedule at a glance, ability to search for open appointments,
                                                                                and support enterprise-wide registration.
                                               :                      :                                                                :


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                                          ●
                                              Standish Group Chaos Report (1995) – main causes of project failure:

                                              1 – Incomplete requirements.                                                                        True Stories
                                              2 – Lack of user involvement.                                                       ● A hospital in Ontario builds a new
                                                                                                                                  wing. On opening it is discovered
                                              6 – Changing requirements & specifications.                                         that the elevator doors are not wide
                                                                                                                                  enough to admit stretchers without
                                              KPMG Canada Survey (1997) – main causes
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                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                                                                                                                  having to lower the safety rails.
                                              of project failure:                                                                 ● A hospital in Quebec builds a new
                                                                                                                                  wing. On opening it is discovered the
                                              1 – Unclear / change of requirements.                                               elevators are 4 inches too short –
                                              2 – Poor project management.                                                        they cannot fit a stretcher at all.
                                              3 – Lack of executive sponsorship & management buy-in.
                                          ●
                                              “Requirements Errors account for 70% to 85% of rework”:
                                              ➢    Dean Liffingwell, Calculating the Return on Investment from More Effective
                                                   Requirements Management, American Programmer 10(4): 13–16, 1997.

                                          ●
                                              “Poor requirements account for 71% of project failures”:
                                              ➢    Robert Grady, Insights into Software Project Management, Proceedings of the
                                                   Applications of Software Measurement Conference, 227–239, 1999.
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                                                                                 Gathering Requirements




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                                          ●
                                              Business Analysts are the professional requirements experts.
                                          ●
                                              During planning we identify all the functional requirements – the “what's”:
                                              ➢     The design requirements are the “how” and are defined as the first step in execution.

                                          ●
                                              Interview all Stakeholders:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     “What is needed to meet the Objective”                                         International Institute of
                                              ➢     “Why? Why? Why?”                                                             Business Analysis – IIBA.org
                                              ➢     “What else do I need to know?”
                                              ➢     Scenarios / workflows / use cases.

                                          ●
                                              If there is great uncertainty, prototyping can help to build the “outside” quickly and
                                              cheaply:
                                              ➢     Mockups.
                                              ➢     Cardboard models.
                                              ➢     Drawings.
                                              ➢     Walkthroughs.
                                              ➢     Example screens and reports.

                                          ●
                                              If there are no Business Analysts available – just do it yourself!
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              2.2 Planning – Requirements




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                                                              “You can't always get what you want, but if you try sometimes,
                                                                    well you just might find, you get what you need.”
                                                                              – Rolling Stones, Let It Bleed, 1969.

                                          ●
                                              The Business Analysis must identify the needs, not the wants:
                                                                                                                                                    Why? Why? Why?
                                                     “Users know what they want, not always what they need.”
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                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Attributes of a good requirements document:
                                                                                                                                                  “I need a rocket ship.”
                                                     Complete.
                                                                                                                                                           “Why?”
                                                     Consistent.
                                                     Feasible.                                                                                      “I need to travel.”
                                                     Demonstrable.                                                                                        “Why?”
                                          ●
                                              Identify the boundary, what is in and what is out:                                                  “I need to travel across
                                                                                                                                                    town once a month.”
                                                     Geography, organizations, training, etc.
                                                                                                                                                  “Would a taxi chit do?”
                                          ●
                                              Common mistake – don't design the solution now:
                                                     Identify what is needed – functional requirements only – not how to accomplish it,
                                                      which will be determined by the team in design during execution.

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                                                                                Requirements Key Points




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                                          ●
                                              Break the Objective(s) down into what is needed to achieve it.
                                          ●
                                              Long time convention is that each requirement includes the word “shall”:
                                              ➢      “The something shall do something…”

                                          ●
                                              Collected related requirements together into sections:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢      Size, finishing, interfaces, support, training, etc.

                                          ●
                                              Use a maximum of two priority levels: Mandatory and Desirable:
                                              ➢      If two levels, be prepared to only get the Mandatory.
                                              ➢      One level is best – include only essential requirements.

                                          ●
                                              Use an automated tool if more than a few dozen:
                                              ➢      Trace each requirement to an objective, to deliverables, to verification steps...
                                              ➢      A spreadsheet can work up to a point, need a database if several hundred.
                                              ➢      Requirements specific tools: Doors, Requisite Pro, RTM.
                                              ➢      Databases: Microsoft Access, LibreOffice Base (free open source software):
                                                     ➔
                                                            Less expensive, much more flexible – especially for reporting.

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              2.2 Planning – Requirements




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                                                                              Requirements Document & Approval




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                                           ●
                                               How much detail goes into the requirements document?
                                               ➢      If in any doubt perform additional investigation, since the most common project
                                                      mistake is missing functional requirements.
                                               ➢      Around half the cost and time of planning is commonly spent during the
                                                      requirements identification process.
                                               ➢      However, stop above the level of “how” – no design!
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                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                           ●
                                               Put in a formal document and circulate:
                                               ➢      Typical name: Project Requirements Document (PRD).
                                           ●
                                               Essential to have the Stakeholders review and approve in writing:
                                               ➢      Hold a final review meeting, walk through every single requirement to obtain any
                                                      final changes and approval – hold another meeting if many changes.
                                               ➢      State more than once: “Any requirement identified now will be five to ten times
                                                      less costly to include in the project than one added once underway.”
                                               ➢      Helpful if you can state: “Any additions later will come out of your budget!”

                                          “It was a classic case of not getting the requirements sufficiently defined from the beginning. And
                                           so it required a continuous redefinition of requirements that had a cascading effect on what had
                                                                         already been designed and produced.”
                                                    – FBI Inspector General Glenn Fine, Failure of $170M Virtual Case File project.
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              2.2 Planning – Requirements




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                                                                  Exercise 2.1 – Objective to Requirements




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                                          ●
                                              What are the key requirements for your project?

                                                  Needs not wants.
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  What is required not how.

                                                  Quantities, Standards, Functions, Features, Quality …




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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                             The Work Breakdown Structure




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                                                            “A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work
                                                       to be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives
                                                                       and create the required deliverables.”
                                                                                              – PMBOK® Guide.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Deliverables are tangible outputs of work at points at which you can
                                              unambiguously tell something is finished:




                                                                                                                                                                                      PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc..
                                                   Hardware.
                                                   Software.
                                                   Facilities.
                                                   Documents, document, documents – manuals, check-lists, sign-offs, contracts…

                                          ●
                                              The WBS is the official scope baseline, because it includes both the product
                                              scope and the project scope:
                                                   Product Scope: all the requirements, each traced to at least one deliverable.
                                                   Project Scope: includes all of the Product Scope, as well all of the other
                                                    deliverables required to carry out the project – Plans, Designs, Reviews,
                                                    Approvals, Inspections, Tests, etc.


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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                     WBS Example – An Aircraft




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                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                       One of the very first WBS – organized
                                                                            a very complex endeavor.




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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                           WBS Example – Hiring




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                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                              Should this be
                                                                         two deliverables or one?



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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                    WBS Example – Warehouse / POS System




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                                              Should this be                                                                                    What is the deliverable?
                                          3 deliverables, 2, or 1?                                                                            How will we know it's finished?
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                                                                                                                                                                                          Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                                WBS Example – Banquet




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                                             Usually not on the WBS,
                                             since this is what we are
                                          preparing now – we will have
                                           this when the project starts.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                         WBS Hierarchical Decomposition




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                                          Decompose the final deliverable
                                            into parts, then decompose
                                               those – repeat until of
                                                 “manageable” size.
                                            Best for large projects and
                                            those substantial product
                                                   component.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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                                                                             WBS Phasing & Combined Methods




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                                                     Phasing
                                          Good for projects where phases
                                            are a major characteristic.
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                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                           Bottom Line: Try hierarchical decomposition
                                                                                                                                 first, be flexible, and try to collect
                                                                                                                            significant numbers of deliverables with an
                                                                                                                                   important attribute in common.
                                                Combined
                                          Good when some product,
                                               some phases.




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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                      System Integration Hierarchical Decomposition




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Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                     System Integration Project Phasing




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                                                                                                                                                                                Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                             Exactly the same deliverables
                                                                                              in both versions of this WBS.




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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                                          WBS Key Points




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                                          ●
                                              When in doubt, make a deliverable the name of a document that captures
                                              the output of the work:
                                              ➢      Analyze Regulations ⇨ Applicable Regulations Document.

                                          ●
                                              Each deliverable is assigned to one team member during planning that is
                                              responsible for its time and cost estimation.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Rule of thumb – a WBS six levels or more deep can usually be restructured
                                              to flatten it out – six is sufficient for an airplane.
                                          ●
                                              Add a PM branch to catch Project Management activity cost and time,
                                              including of at least these deliverables:
                                              ➢      The Project Plan – captures the PM's salary and other PM functions.
                                              ➢      The Risk Budget – captures the cost and time in the risk reserve.
                                              ➢      Closeout – captures all the work in closing the project (Chapter 5).

                                          ●
                                              Make sure you have enough plans, reviews, and approvals:
                                              ➢      Add a plan before most substantial work to give the lead time to do some
                                                     detailed preparation once the project is underway.
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              2.3 Planning – Scope




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                                                                                         Breaking Down By Length




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                                                                                                                                                            Work packages must be added to
                                          ●
                                               Three factors guide how far you breakdown a deliverable:                                                      the Gantt schedule for tracking
                                                                                                                                                               (see later sections), but are
                                               ➢    Length, Responsibility, and an Interim Deliverable.                                                         optional on the WBS and
                                                                                                                                                            network diagram – PM decision.
                                          ●
                                               Length: Any deliverable longer than two weeks must be decomposed into mini-
                                               deliverables called “work packages” of maximum two weeks in length (up to four
                                               weeks for large multi-year projects):
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                                           Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                               ➢    Provides smaller, more manageable components of work for estimation, therefore
                                                    producing longer, more accurate estimates for the whole deliverable.
                                               ➢    Establishes checkpoints for later monitoring so you can tell every month if schedule is
                                                    slipping.

                                          ●
                                               Example – say preparation of a document will take more than a month:
                                               ➢    It could be broken up into the following eleven more manageable, trackable work
                                                    packages (shown here in the network diagram format covered in the next section).


                                                                                               Executive                            Executive
                                                                                               Feedback                             Feedback
                                                         Executive             First                               Second                                            Executive           Approved
                                          Outline                                                                                                           Final
                                                           Input               Draft                                Draft                                            Approval              Final
                                                                                              Stakeholder                          Stakeholder
                                                                                               Feedback                             Feedback



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                                                                             Breaking Down By Responsibility




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                                          ●
                                              Responsibility: If different people or groups are responsible for
                                              different parts of a deliverable, it should be broken up into parts
                                              each led by a single person or group.
                                              ➢       Provides clearer components of work for estimation.
                                              ➢       Provides clearer components of work for later monitoring and control.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Example – the plan for a conference has three main parts, which
                                              will be led by three different people:
                                              ➢       Break up the plan into the three different parts:


                                                                                                                          Speakers
                                                                                                                           (Albert)


                                                                                    Conference                             Catering
                                                                                       Plan                                 (Bob)


                                                                                                                             Venue
                                                                                                                            (Cathy)


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                                                                             Breaking Down By Interim Delivery




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                                          ●
                                              Interim Delivery: If another deliverable can start part way through
                                              the current deliverable, the current deliverable should be broken up
                                              into two parts, with the first part being an interim deliverable from
                                              which the other deliverable can start:
                                              ➢       Provides clearer components of work for estimation.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                                 Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Enables clear presentation of the project logic in the network diagram.
                                              ➢       Results in a faster and more accurate schedule.

                                          ●
                                              Example: The user manual for an application is started after the
                                              design is completed, then updated after the final build.


                                                                                                                     Application                     Application
                                                                                                                       Design                          Build

                                                                                   User
                                                         Application
                                                                                  Manual
                                                                                                                                User                         User
                                                                                                                               Manual                       Manual
                                                                                                                                Draft                        Final



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                                                                       Deliverables⇨Work Packages⇨Activities




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                                             Deliverables and
                                          work packages are the
                                          Project Manager's view.
                                             Activities are the
                                           team member's view.
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                                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                            The secret to PM:
                                                                                                                                                              do not cross.

                                                                                                                               Put in Gantt schedule for
                                                                                                                                sure, optional on WBS
                                                                                                                                and network diagram.
                                                                                                                                                           Project Manager
                                                                                                                                                            Team Members
                                           Tasks / Activities
                                                                                “Basis Of Estimate” (BOE)
                                           Do this    1 day
                                           Do that    3 days
                                                                                  is the team member's
                                           Do this    5 days                     estimate, never on WBS
                                           Do that    4 days                       or network diagram,
                                           Do this    2 days
                                           Do that    1 day                     possibly in Gantt schedule.

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                                                                                               WBS Dictionary




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                                          ●
                                              Any information that can't fit on the graphical WBS:
                                              ➢          Unique deliverable ID.                                                         Prepare any way that works and
                                                        Responsible person.                                                             is unique for each deliverable:
                                                                                                                                                    1, 2, 3...
                                                        Brief text description.                                                               1010, 1020, 1030...
                                                        Add cost account later with Finance.                                                AAAA, AAAB, AAAC...
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                          Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              WBS ID   Name                     Description               Lead                                        Cost Acct
                                               1020 W ebsite               E-commerce website to J. Smith                                              143-7830
                                                                           enable customers to
                                                                           book hotel rooms
                                               1025             Deployment Schedule, facilities, site R. Brooks                                         143-7855
                                                                Plan       sequence for
                                                                           deployment
                                               1030             Design     Signed approval of site A. Doucet                                            143-7944
                                                                Approval   mockups by the
                                                                           customer
                                                     :               :                 :                    :                                               :

                                                                              Assigned by Finance for capture of costs – can
                                                                             include more than one deliverable if appropriate.
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                                                                        Relationship of WBS & Requirements




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                                          Requirements cover the product – the WBS includes the product and the rest of the project.
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                                                                                                                                                                                            Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                 Every requirement has a home
                                                                                                                                                   in at least one deliverable.

                                                                                                                                                       Requirements
                                                                                                                                                       Shall do this ...
                                                                                                                                                       Shall do that ...
                                                                                                                                                       Shall not do this ...
                                                                                                                                                       Shall not do that ...
                                                                                                                                                              :
                                                                                                                                                              :
                                                                                    Other deliverables exist
                                                                                 because they are project scope.
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                                                                                              WBS Process




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                                                                       “Once the what is decided, the how always follows.”
                                                                                      – Pearl S. Buck, 1892-1973

                                          ●
                                              Meet with Core Project Team, everyone read the requirements before meeting, and
                                              have a copy handy:
                                                                                                                                    Once the deliverables are identified,
                                              ➢    Expect three meetings before the WBS stabilizes.                                the project is broken into manageable
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                     pieces, and everything gets easy:
                                          ●
                                              First meeting:                                                                          assignment to team, estimating,
                                                                                                                                       scheduling, risk identification...
                                              ➢    Walk through the project from beginning to end.
                                              ➢    Cover each area of the project – technical, marketing, support, etc.
                                              ➢    Find a deliverable for each element of work.
                                              ➢    Write down deliverables on post-it notes and paste onto a draft WBS – flip-chart or wall.
                                              ➢    Move the deliverables around into some logical grouping (not critical!).

                                          ●
                                              Subsequent meetings:
                                              ➢    Draw up the WBS with an organization chart tool, such as Microsoft PowerPoint Org Chart,
                                                   Org Plus, or mind mapping tool like FreePlane.
                                              ➢    Come back for at least two more meetings to review and update.

                                          ●
                                              It is common to add / find more deliverables when you flowchart the Network Diagram.

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                                                                                    Exercise 2.2 – WBS




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                                          ●
                                              Identify the deliverables for your project – 15 to 20.

                                          ●
                                              Include Customer end deliverables, and any interim project
                                              deliverables that will cost time and money:
                                                  Plans
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Designs
                                                  Reviews
                                                  Inspections
                                                  Approvals
                                                  Etc.

                                          ●
                                              Write on post-it notes and arrange loosely in a WBS:
                                                  Does not have to be perfect, this is the first meeting.

                                          ●
                                              The WBS is not strictly chronological – just the whats, not when.


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                                                                               WBS Drawing Tool




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                                                                                                                                          Microsoft PowerPoint or Word
                                                                                                                                             Organization Chart Tool.
                                                                                                                                          Can also use a mind mapping
                                                                                                                                            application like FreePlane
                                                                                                                                          (free open source software).
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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              2.4 Planning – Logic




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                                                                                           Network Diagram




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                                                                       “Arriving at one goal is the starting point to another.”
                                                                                 – Fyodor Dostoevsky, 1821-1881.

                                          ●
                                              Your most important project management tool:
                                              ➢      A flowchart showing the fundamental logic of the project.                                                             Vienna
                                                                                                                                                                         Conference
                                                                                                                                                                                         Trip Report:
                                                                                                                                                                                         Issues and
                                                                                                                                                                                           Lessons
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Stakeholder
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Consultations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lessons
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Learned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Commun-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sustainment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Plan
                                                                                                                                                                            Visit                                                      Plan         Draft
                                                                                                                                                                                           Learned                       Advice



                                              ➢      Shows how the deliverables flow together.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                                           Steering                                      ISACS                     ISACS          Sustainment
                                                                                                                                                                          Committee                                     Section 1                 Section 1          Plan
                                                                                                                                                                           Formed                                         Draft                     Final            Final
                                                                                                                                                           Project
                                                                                                                                                    S    Coordinator
                                                                                                                                                          Assigned
                                                                                                                                                                            Office                         Existing      ISACS       Steering      ISACS           Steering




                                                     Also known as a Precedence Diagram.
                                                                                                                                                                            Space          Workplan                     Section 2                 Section 2

                                              ➢
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Standards                 Committee                     Committee
                                                                                                                                                                          Agreement         Agreed                        Draft                     Final
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Review                    Review                        Review



                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ISACS                     ISACS
                                                                                                                                                                         Consultants                                    Section 3                 Section 3
                                                                                                                                                                          Recruited                                       Draft                     Final




                                              ➢      You can see the project, and explain it to others.
                                                                                                                                                                                         ISACS
                                                                                                                                                                                         Website



                                                                                                                                                                                                        Presentation     Project




                                              Shows the precedence relationships:
                                                                                                                                                         ISACS          Steering
                                                                                                                                                                                          ISACS            at 4'th      Report:      One year        Recc for
                                                                                                                                                        Document       Committee                                                                                       F
                                                                                                                                                                                         CDROM            Biennial      Lessons     Assessment      Next Steps

                                          ●                                                                                                               Final         Approval
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Meeting       Learned


                                                                                                                                                                                         ISACS
                                                                                                                                                                                       Operational
                                                                                                                                                                                         Guide




                                              ➢      Which deliverables need to be done first?
                                              ➢      Which deliverables are needed to start others?
                                              ➢      Which deliverables can be started after others are done?

                                          ●
                                              Strive for parallelism:
                                              ➢      There are often several parallel paths that can be done independently.
                                              ➢      Add hard dependencies only – one really needs to be done before the other.
                                              ➢      Resource constraints will be taken into account later.
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              2.4 Planning – Logic




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                                                                          Kinds of Precedence Links




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                                          ●
                                               Finish to Start:
                                                                                                                            Predecessor
                                               ➢       Predecessor must finish,
                                                                                                                                                Successor
                                                       then successor starts.

                                          ●
                                               Finish to Finish:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                      Predecessor
                                               ➢       Successor must finish
                                                       same time as predecessor.                                                       Successor



                                          ●
                                               Start to Start:
                                                                                                                                        Predecessor
                                               ➢       Successor must start
                                                       same time as predecessor.                                                          Successor


                                          ●
                                               Start to Finish:
                                                                                                                                              Predecessor
                                               ➢       Successor must finish
                                                       when predecessor starts.                                              Successor

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                                                                                        Leads and Lags




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                                          ●
                                              Finish-to-Start is the most common link, and can be adjusted to show
                                              Leads and Lags in a Gantt scheduling tool (see later sections).
                                          ●
                                              Leads:
                                                  Overlapping deliverables, typically used for fast-tracking.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  MS Project notation to overlap five days: FS – 5d

                                                                                        Predecessor
                                                                                                                      –5d

                                                                                                          Successor
                                          ●
                                              Lags:
                                                  Add time in between deliverables for waiting time.
                                                  MS Project notation to add ten days lead time: FS + 10d

                                                                             Predecessor
                                                                                                             +10d

                                                                                                                     Successor

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                                                                                    Generic Example




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                                                                     Time
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                                                                                                                                                                                Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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                                                                                     Shed Example




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                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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              2.4 Planning – Logic




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                                                                                Software Example




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                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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                                                                             Standards Development Example




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                                                                                      Trip Report:                            Lessons
                                                                      Vienna                                                                     Commun-      Sustainment
                                                                                      Issues and         Stakeholder          Learned
                                                                    Conference                                                                    ications       Plan
                                                                                        Lessons         Consultations           and
                                                                       Visit                                                                        Plan         Draft
                                                                                        Learned                                Advice


                                                                      Steering                                                 ISACS                            ISACS         Sustainment
                                                                     Committee                                                Section 1                        Section 1         Plan
                                                                      Formed                                                    Draft                            Final           Final
                                                 Project
                                          S    Coordinator
                                                Assigned
                                                                       Office                               Existing           ISACS             Steering       ISACS           Steering
                                                                                        Workplan
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                       Space                               Standards          Section 2         Committee      Section 2       Committee
                                                                     Agreement           Agreed
                                                                                                            Review              Draft            Review          Final          Review


                                                                                                                               ISACS                            ISACS
                                                                    Consultants                                               Section 3                        Section 3
                                                                     Recruited                                                  Draft                            Final




                                                                                                                      Real project for the Canadian Department
                                                                                      ISACS
                                                                                      Website
                                                                                                                  of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT):
                                                                                                                  International Small Arms Consolidation Standard.
                                                                                                        Presentation           Project
                                               ISACS              Steering
                                                                                       ISACS               at 4'th            Report:             One year        Recc for
                                              Document           Committee                                                                                                         F
                                                                                      CDROM               Biennial            Lessons            Assessment      Next Steps
                                                Final             Approval
                                                                                                          Meeting             Learned


                                                                                     ISACS
                                                                                   Operational
                                                                                     Guide



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              2.4 Planning – Logic




                                                                                                                                                                                   Co
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                                                                               Network Diagram Process




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                                          ●
                                              Meet with Core Project Team, with the WBS in hand:
                                              ➢     Expect at least three meetings before it stabilizes.

                                          ●
                                              Process:
                                              ➢     Put a Start box at the beginning, and a Finish box at the end.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     Write the deliverables onto post-it notes.
                                              ➢     Move the deliverables around to find the precedence relationships.
                                              ➢     Add arrows only for hard dependencies – where the predecessor is really needed.
                                              ➢     Draw arrows in pencil first, then marker when finished.
                                              ➢     Ensure no dangling deliverables – everything has a predecessor and successor.

                                          ●
                                              Add newly discovered deliverables as necessary:
                                              ➢     Plans, reviews, contracts, approvals…
                                              ➢     Divide deliverables in two when work on something else can start in the middle.

                                          ●
                                              Draw up with any tool with “connector” lines:
                                              ➢     Visio, PowerPoint, LibreOffice Draw (free open source software).

                                          ●
                                              Circulate for comment – post where people see it – improve as necessary.
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              2.4 Planning – Logic




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                                                                               Network Diagram Patterns




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                                                                    Floor
                                                                    Plan                                                                           Parallel Paths
                                          S      Kickoff
                                                                                                                Executive                         Merging Together
                                                                                                                Approval

                                                                 Business
                                                                 Processes
                                                                                                                                  Training


                                                                  Training
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                    Plan
                                                                                                                                                  Implem-
                                                                                                                                                                 Closeout          F
                                                                                                                                                  entation
                                                                  Implem-
                                                                  ent Plan




                                                                                                 Simplifying
                                              Complex – high risk                                                                                  More organized
                                                 of mistakes
                                                                                                 Complexity
                                                                                                                                                     Less risk




                                                                                                                                                             Review




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              2.4 Planning – Logic




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                                                                                   Including Waiting Time




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                                          ●
                                              A project often has waiting time for various events
                                              ➢       Approvals, procurement, deliveries, paint drying.

                                          ●
                                              Sometimes they are at the deliverable or work package level,
                                              sometimes at the activity level.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              In all cases it is usually best to break out a separate event, estimate
                                              the waiting time, and allocate none of your resources to the event.
                                              ➢       Much clearer, easier to estimate, and highlights the waiting event.


                                                                                Request               Approval                  Initiate
                                                                              For Facilities         Waiting Time                Move



                                              Examples:                        Purchase              Procurement               Inspect
                                                                               Order Sent            Waiting Time            New Material



                                                                                  Room                   Paint                Finishings
                                                                                 Painted              Drying Time               Install



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              2.4 Planning – Logic




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                                                                Exercise 2.3 – Develop a Network Diagram




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                                          ●
                                              Flowchart your project deliverables in a Network Diagram.

                                          ●
                                              Add new deliverables wherever required to make the project make
                                              sense.
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Every deliverable must have a predecessor and a successor, even
                                              if only the Start and Finish.

                                          ●
                                              Use a separate arrow for every dependency – makes things much
                                              simpler when calculating the critical path.

                                          ●
                                              Use a pencil or pen and get team agreement before finalizing with
                                              marker!



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              2.4 Planning – Logic




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                                                                           Network Diagram Tool




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                                                                                                                                             Microsoft PowerPoint
                                                                                                                                              Connector Lines.
                                                                                                                                             Can also use any other
                                                                                                                                             drawing tool – MS Visio,
                                                                                                                                                LibreOffice Draw
                                                                                                                                          (free open source software).
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                       Exercise 2.4 – The Power Of Estimation




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                                          ●
                                              Any analysis can almost always produce a better estimate than a
                                              single point guess.

                                          ●
                                              Example: estimate the number of piano tuners in Toronto:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       You have no input information at all.

                                              ➢       How did you break it down?

                                              ➢       How close do you think it is?




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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                               Estimating Cost and Time




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                                          ●
                                              Project cost and time = sum of cost and time for deliverables:
                                              ➢    Much easier and more accurate than estimating the project as a whole.
                                              ➢    With many deliverables, some error will cancel out, leading to a much more
                                                   accurate overall estimate.
                                                                                                                                                  Good for +/- 50% estimate
                                              Common methods:                                                                                      for business case during
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                                                                                                                                        Initiation stage.
                                              ➢    Analogous: Comparison to similar projects / deliverables.
                                              ➢    Activity Breakdown: Break the deliverable down into the activities required to
                                                   implement it, estimate individually, then roll-up – the most accuracy and best if it
                                                   counts.
                                              ➢    Delphi: Ask several experts, have them compare responses, discuss the
                                                   reasons for different estimates, then iterate until consensus found.
                                              ➢    PERT / 3-Point: Estimate the best case, most likely, and worst case, then
                                                   average – fast and much better than a single point guess, however not as good
                                                   as activity breakdown.
                                              ➢    Historical: Hard data recorded for past projects / deliverables – need to make
                                                   sure you are comparing like items.
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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                  The Statistical Power Of Multiple Estimates




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                                          ●
                                              Say the correct value of something is 100:
                                              ➢     Any one estimate, from a normal distribution, may have considerable error.
                                              ➢     However, the sum of multiple estimates converges to close to the correct value.
                                          ●
                                              This principle applies both to estimating multiple deliverables of a project, and to
                                              estimating multiple activities of a deliverable – combining both is the key to overall
                                              project estimates with accuracy of +/– 10%.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                      Less than
                                                                                                                                      10% error
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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                      Time Estimation – Activity Breakdown




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                                          “Whoever wants to reach a distant goal must take small steps.” – Saul Bellow, 1915-2005.

                                          ●
                                              Implementation Plan:

                                                   Review requirements             1 day
                                                   Review best prior plans         2 days                                                       Prep
                                                   Prepare plan outline            1 day
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                               Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                                           Basis
                                                   First draft                     8 days
                                                   Peer review                     1 day                                                                                   Of
                                                                              Two                                                                Three               Estimate
                                                   Second draft                    5 days
                                                                            reviews                                                             versions
                                                   PM review                       2 days                                                                             (BOE)
                                                   Final update                    2 days
                                                    –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
                                                   Total                           23 days


                                          ●
                                              Many deliverables can benefit from preparation time, creation of
                                              more than one version, and more than one review.
                                          ●
                                              Estimate time liberally in this step to make sure you have enough…
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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                          Activity Breakdown Adjustment




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                                          ●
                                              Implementation Plan:

                                                  Review requirements             1 day
                                                  Review best prior plans         1 days                                                        Prep
                                                  Prepare plan outline            1 day
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                               Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                                           Basis
                                                  First draft                     6 days
                                                  Peer review                     1 day                                                                                    Of
                                                                             Two                                                                 Three               Estimate
                                                  Second draft                    4 days
                                                                           reviews                                                              versions
                                                  PM review                       2 days                                                                              (BOE)
                                                  Final update                    2 days
                                                   –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
                                                  Total                           18 days


                                          ●
                                              Then do a gut check, cut back if the total is too high, increase if the
                                              total is too low:
                                              ➢ Critically important step – about doubles the accuracy.


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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                                  Including Resources




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                                          ●
                                              Implementation Plan:                                                                             Personnel
                                                                                         Mgr Jr Docs
                                               Review requirements            1 day       1
                                               Review best prior plans        1 days      1   1
                                               Prepare plan outline           1 day       1
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                               First draft                    6 days      6   3
                                               Peer review                    1 day       1
                                               Second draft                   4 days      4   1
                                               PM review                      2 days      2
                                               Final update                   2 days      2   1   1
                                              ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
                                               Total                          18 days    18d 5d 1d


                                          ●
                                              Decide the team composition before estimating, since the duration of work
                                              cannot be factored linearly by changing the number of people later.
                                          ●
                                              If it is apparent here that one group works one part, and another group
                                              another part, it should be split into two deliverables.
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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                             Effort ⇨ Productive Time ⇨Duration




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                                          ●
                                              Your raw estimate is pure effort time:
                                              ➢       E.g. 100 hours assuming the personnel are tireless robots.

                                          ●
                                              Then first factor for productivity – no-one works at 100%:
                                                      Common standard is effective productivity between 72% - 85%,
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢
                                                      depending on organization.
                                              ➢       E.g.: Suncor factors outdoor winter work at 60% productivity.
                                              ➢       Factor all estimates before entering into the scheduling tool.

                                          ●
                                              Then enter into scheduling tool, along with personnel availability:
                                              ➢       If a resource is available 50% of the time the tool will double the time, if
                                                      available 33% of the time it will triple the time, etc.
                                                      ➔
                                                              Reduce if skeptical the availability is accurate, e.g. reduce 33% to 25%.
                                              ➢       The tool will take account of length of working day, e.g. 7.5 h or 8 h.
                                              ➢       The tool skips weekends, holidays and other non-working days.
                                              ➢       Output is actual duration – calendar time.

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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                                               Estimation Spreadsheet




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                                               ●
                                                        The following spreadsheet shows the estimate from the previous
                                                        pages as it would be actually done in practice:
                                          Deliverable:                              Implementation Plan                 ID:                               1025 Work day hours:                         8
                                          Human Resources                                                                                                         Material
                                          Activity                                   Impl. Lead        Impl. Jr.          Graphics         Item                   Qty          Cost          Total
                                          Review requirements                                     8                                                                                                  $0
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                                                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          Review previous work for best                           8                                        Taxi for site visit           1          $35         $35
                                          practices
                                          Develop outline                                     16                    4                                                                                $0
                                          First draft                                         40                   16                16                                                              $0
                                          Peer review                                             8                                        Telecon rental                2         $250        $500
                                          Second draft                                        32                                     16                                                              $0
                                          PM review                                               8                                                                                                  $0
                                          Final                                               24                                       8                                                             $0
                                          Effort hours                                     144.0               20.0                40.0
                                          Effort days                                       18.0                 2.5                5.0
                                          Productivity                                      85%                85%                85%
                                          Factored hours                                   169.4               23.5                47.1
                                          Factored days                                     21.2                 2.9                5.9
                                          Rate / hour                                      $100                 $80                $60
                                          Costs                                          $16,941            $1,882              $2,824                                                         $535
                                          Availability                                     100%                30%                33% Total cost                                             $22,182
                                          Duration hours                                   169.4               78.4              142.6 Max duration hours                                      169.4
                                          Duration days                                     21.2                 9.8               17.8 Max duration days                                       21.2

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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                             PERT & 3-Point Techniques




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                                          ●
                                              Estimate the best case (B), most likely case (M), and worst-case (W):
                                                     Most people produce low estimates because they are afraid of looking incompetent.
                                                     Key value of this technique: factors in the worst-case.
                                          ●
                                              Original Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) developed for the
                                              Polaris nuclear submarine project in 1950's:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                     PERT = ( B + 4xM + W ) / 6.
                                                     It multiplies M by 4 to approximate a normal distribution.
                                                     Since W is usually >> M, this provides a larger and therefore more realistic estimate.
                                                     However the PERT result often still underestimates.
                                          ●
                                              Straight 3-point average with no weighting is often recommended today:
                                                     3-Point = ( B + M + W ) / 3.
                                          ●
                                              You can pad the estimate with the standard deviation SD = (W - B) / 6
                                                     Add one SD and the actual result should be less than or equal to the padded
                                                      estimate 68% of the time.
                                                     Add two SD and the result should be less than or equal 95% of the time.
                                                     Add three SD and the result should be less than or equal 99% of the time.

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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                                  Pert & 3-Point Example




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                                          ●
                                              An expert estimates that preparation of a document will take 10 days
                                              in the best case, most likely 15, and could be as much as 30 in the
                                              worst case.
                                              ➢       PERT = (10 + 4x15 + 30) / 6                           = 16.7
                                              ➢       3-Point = (10 + 15 + 30) / 3                          = 18.3
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Using 3-Point, the standard deviation is = (30 - 10) / 6 = 3.3
                                          ●
                                              Therefore:
                                              ➢       68% of results should be between 15 and 21.6
                                              ➢       95% of results should be within 11.7 and 24.9
                                              ➢       99% of results should be within 8.4 and 28.2

                                          ●
                                              Faster technique than activity breakdown, however not as accurate:
                                              ➢       About +/– 25%.


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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                                         Delphi Technique




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                                                                                                “Know thyself.”
                                                             – Inscription carved above the entrance to the Oracle of Delphi.

                                          ●
                                              Works well for time, cost, and probability (risk quantification).
                                          ●
                                              Gather your core project team (CPT) or group of experts together.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Brief the group on the item being estimated, and provide all information
                                              available:
                                              ➢       Each expert then writes down their first estimate on a piece of paper.
                                              ➢       Everyone turns over their estimate at once:
                                                      ➔
                                                             Removes the large influence of early estimates on later estimates.
                                              ➢       The group discusses why their estimates differ – what are their different
                                                      assumptions?
                                              ➢       Iterate – write down next estimate, turn over all at once, discuss.

                                          ●
                                              Usually 3 to 5 rounds are enough to get a consensus estimate.
                                          ●
                                              Much better and more defensible than an individual estimate.
                                              ➢       However not as accurate as activity breakdown, about +/– 20%
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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                             Exercise 2.5 – Time Estimation




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                                          ●
                                              Estimate the time for one deliverable of your project using an
                                              activity breakdown:
                                              ➢       A good one with some complexity.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Then just for this class exercise come up with approximate time
                                              estimates for the rest of the deliverables using abbreviated Delphi –
                                              ask your team members for their estimates, and then average:
                                              ➢       We only need approximate numbers to take the next steps.

                                          ●
                                              Write the estimates in the middle of the deliverable.
                                          ●
                                              Use common units: all days or all weeks.
                                              ➢       No partial units, round up.




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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                                           Estimating Cost




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                                          ●
                                              There are two general types of costs:
                                              ➢       Direct: Directly costed to your project, part of the overall budget.
                                              ➢       Indirect: General administrative overhead, not directly costed to your
                                                      project, since they are already included in the direct costs:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                      ➔
                                                              E.g. Contracts, legal, QA, IT support, shipping and receiving, etc.
                                                      ➔
                                                              Calculated once a year and added to the direct costs for all other personnel,
                                                              material, and services – this is why rates are so much higher than salary.

                                          ●
                                              The cost of each deliverable is the sum of the direct costs:
                                              ➢       People x Time x Rates.         ⇦ From the activity breakdown.
                                              ➢       Material – computers, furniture, printing...
                                              ➢       Services – consultants, rentals...
                                              ➢       Travel.
                                              ➢       Insurance.
                                              ➢       Anything else ...


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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                             Cost Roll-up – Bill of Materials




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                                          ●
                                              The BOM is a spreadsheet that collects all costs by WBS ID:
                                              ➢       Sometimes personnel costs are provided in the Gantt Chart tool.

                                              WBS ID                   Item                Type                         Unit Cost Qty Total Cost
                                               1025                 Analyst            Personnel                               $50 140    $7,000
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                               1025                 Graphics           Personnel                               $40 16        $640
                                               1025                 Taxis              Travel                                  $25 10        $250
                                              Subtotal                                                                                    $7,890
                                               1036                 Laptops            Rental                                 $750    8   $6,000
                                               1036                 Room               Rental                                 $950    2   $1,900
                                              Subtotal                                                                                    $7,900
                                               1048                 Printing           Subcontract                            $400    1      $400
                                                 :                        :                 :                               :       :      :
                                                 :                        :                 :                               :       :      :
                                               Total                                                                                     $31,980


                                                                    Used for financial processing – tax recovery, etc.
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              2.5 Planning – Estimating




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                                                                          Exercise 2.6 – Cost Estimation




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                                          ●
                                              Pick three deliverables.

                                          ●
                                              For each deliverable:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Estimate the people time, assuming any rate that's close – in real life
                                                   you would get this number from the finance department.

                                                  Estimate everything else required – material, services, travel, etc. – and
                                                   assume a cost for each.

                                                  Roll up the cost for the deliverable.

                                          ●
                                              Add up the total cost for the three deliverables.




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              2.6 Planning – Critical Path




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                                                                              The Schedule Critical Path




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                                                                                                          `The critical path should be monitored closely
                                          ●
                                              Critical Path definition:                                  even when Stakeholders do not put it first, since
                                                                                                         schedule drives cost, and brand new risks arise.
                                              ➢       The longest path through the project that drives the schedule.
                                              ➢       The shortest amount of time in which the project can be done.
                                              ➢       If the critical path deliverables slip, the entire project end date slips.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Float (or slack):
                                              ➢       The amount of time a deliverable can slip without impacting the end
                                                      date.
                                              ➢       The difference between the latest and earliest a deliverable can start.
                                              ➢       The critical path deliverables have zero float.

                                          ●
                                              Meaning:
                                              ➢       The PM focuses more attention on the Critical Path, since schedule
                                                      drives increases in cost and risk.
                                              ➢       If the project is in trouble, move resources from non-critical path
                                                      deliverables with some float to troubled critical path deliverables.

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              2.6 Planning – Critical Path




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                                                                                    Critical Path Process




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                                          1. Forward pass – find Earliest Start (ES) and Earliest Finish (EF):
                                             ➢     Add numbers.
                                             ➢     Choose the greatest if you have a choice to make.


                                                                                         Float = LF – EF
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                  ES                                       EF
                                                                                                Duration

                                                                                  LS                                       LF


                                          2. Backwards pass – find Latest Start (LS) and Latest Finish (LF):
                                             ➢     Subtract numbers.
                                             ➢     Choose the least if you have a choice to make.

                                          3. Float – calculate the Float equals Late Start minus Early Start.
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              2.6 Planning – Critical Path




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                                                                                      Network Diagram Example




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                                              Project: Develop more efficient department processes and improved floor plan
                                                       to increase productivity by 20%.



                                                                  New                                  New
                                                               Floor Plan                           Floor Plan
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                                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                1st Draft                           2nd Draft
                                                                    4                                   3

                                                                                                                                                           Implement
                                                 Kickoff                       Executive                                      Executive          Project      New          Training
                                          S                                                                                                                                                   F
                                                 Meeting                        Review                                        Approval           Buffer    Floor Plan      Session
                                                    1                              1                                              1                 7          3               2


                                                               New Dept                      New Dept
                                                               Processes                     Processes         One Page
                                                                1st Draft                    2nd Draft           FAQ
                                                                   10                            8                2




                                                                                     Training                                        Training
                                                                Training              Manual                                          Manual
                                                                  Plan               1st Draft                                       2nd Draft
                                                                    2                    5                                               4




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              2.6 Planning – Critical Path




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                                                                                                             Forward Pass




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                                          ●
                                              Early Start + Duration = Early Finish
                                          ●
                                              Copy Early Finish to next Early Start, choose the greatest if several feeders.

                                                                ES + Dur = EF
                                                                 1              5                            12          15
                                                                    New                                         New
                                                                 Floor Plan                                  Floor Plan
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              Copy                1st Draft                                  2nd Draft
                                                                      4                                          3
                                              0             1                       11        12                                       22        23   23         30   30        33    33        35
                                          0                                                                                                                                                                  35
                                                                                                                                                                      Implement
                                          S
                                                  Kickoff                           Executive                           Copy           Executive           Project       New            Training
                                                                                                                                                                                                             F
                                                  Meeting                            Review                            Greatest        Approval            Buffer     Floor Plan        Session
                                                     1                                  1                                                  1                  7           3                 2
                                                                 1          11                       12           20     20       22
                                                                 New Dept                            New Dept
                                                                 Processes                           Processes            One Page
                                                                  1st Draft                          2nd Draft              FAQ
                                                                     10                                  8                   2


                                                                 0          2            2               7                                  23        27
                                                                                             Training                                        Training
                                                                     Training                 Manual                                          Manual
                                                                       Plan                  1st Draft                                       2nd Draft
                                                                         2                       5                                               4




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              2.6 Planning – Critical Path




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                                                                                                             Backward Pass




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                                          ●
                                              Late Finish – Duration = Late Start
                                          ●
                                              Copy Late Start to previous Late Finish, choose the least if several feeders.


                                                                 1              5                            12        15
                                                                    New                                         New
                                                                 Floor Plan                                  Floor Plan
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                  1st Draft                                  2nd Draft
                                                                      4                                          3
                                              0             1                       11        12                                    22         23    23        30       30        33    33        35
                                          0                      7          11                               19        22                                                                                      35
                                                                                                                                                                        Implement
                                                  Kickoff                            Executive                                      Executive            Project           New            Training
                                          S                                                                                                                                                                    F
                                                  Meeting                             Review                                        Approval             Buffer         Floor Plan        Session
                                                     1                                   1                                              1                   7               3                 2
                                          0                                                                                                                                                                    35
                                              0             1    1          11      11         12    12           20   20     22 22            23   23             30   30        33    33        35
                                                                 New Dept                            New Dept
                                                                 Processes                           Processes          One Page         Copy
                                              Copy                1st Draft                          2nd Draft            FAQ
                                              Least                  10                                  8                 2
                                                                 1          11                      12            20   20      22

                                                                 0          2            2               7                                23        27
                                                                                             Training                                      Training
                                                                     Training                 Manual                                        Manual
                                                                       Plan                  1st Draft                                     2nd Draft
                                                                         2                       5                                             4
                                                                 22         24           24         29                                    29        33
                                                                LS = LF - Dur




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              2.6 Planning – Critical Path




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                                                                                                          Critical Path With Float




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                                               ●
                                                       Float = Late Start – Early Start
                                               ●
                                                       The Critical Path runs through the deliverables that drive the schedule –
                                                       those with zero float – that if late will delay the schedule end date.

                                              LS – ES = Float              (6)                                        (7)
                                                                     1              5                            12         15
                                                                        New                                          New
                                                                     Floor Plan                                   Floor Plan
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                      1st Draft                                   2nd Draft
                                                         (0)              4                  (0)                      3                          (0)                 (0)               (0)             (0)
                                                   0             1                      11          12                                      22         23     23           30     30         33   33         35
                                          0                          7            11                             19         22                                                                                            35
                                                                                                                                                                                  Implement
                                                       Kickoff                           Executive                                          Executive              Project           New            Training
                                          S                                                                                                                                                                               F
                                                       Meeting                            Review                                            Approval               Buffer         Floor Plan        Session
                                                          1                (0)               1                  (0)              (0)            1                     7               3                 2
                                          0                                                                                                                                                                               35
                                                   0             1   1            11    11           12    12         20    20         22 22           23     23             30   30         33   33         35
                                                                     New Dept                              New Dept
                                                                     Processes                             Processes         One Page
                                                                      1st Draft                            2nd Draft           FAQ
                                                                         10                                    8                2
                                                                     1            11                       12         20    20         22
                                                                           (22)                        (14)                                             (4)
                                                                     0            2            2            7                                     23          27
                                                                                                   Training                                        Training
                                                                         Training                   Manual                                          Manual
                                                                           Plan                    1st Draft                                       2nd Draft
                                                                             2                         5                                               4
                                                                     22           24           24          29                                     29          33




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              2.6 Planning – Critical Path




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                                                                         Exercise 2.7 – Determine Critical Path




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                                          ●
                                              Determine the critical path for your project:
                                              ➢       Forward pass.
                                              ➢       Backwards pass.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Calculate the float.

                                          ●
                                              Highlight the critical path (zero float) in red marker.

                                          ●
                                              After seeing the critical path, are their any updates to deliverables or
                                              the network diagram you would like to consider?
                                              ➢       The plan has not been submitted yet, still time to make adjustments.




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              2.7 Planning – Schedule




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                                                                             Network Diagram ⇨ Schedule




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                                          ●
                                              Add the network diagram to a Gantt chart:
                                              ➢       Invented by Henry L. Gantt in 1917.

                                              Work done to this point provides a straightforward mapping:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●



                                                     The deliverables are the Gantt chart “tasks”.

                                                     The network diagram dependencies (arrows) are the precedence links.

                                          ●
                                              Doing the network diagram first means:
                                                     The Gantt chart includes only deliverables.

                                                     The number of precedence links is minimized.

                                                     The schedule is as simple as possible, maintainable, actually useful.


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              2.7 Planning – Schedule




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                                                                                    Building the Schedule




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                                          ●
                                              Use a Gantt chart scheduling tool:
                                                     Microsoft Project.
                                                     Primavera.
                                                     Gnome Planner – free open source software
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                     LibreProject – free open source software.
                                          ●
                                              Specify a calendar start date – a “schedule” has real dates.
                                          ●
                                              Add the deliverables, durations, and resources:
                                              ➢       Almost never use “effort driven” - uncheck the box!
                                                      ➔
                                                              Will change the duration every time you adjust resources.

                                          ●
                                              Use the tool to calculate the critical path:
                                                     But now you know how yourself on paper if needed!



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              2.7 Planning – Schedule




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                                                                                    Gantt Chart Schedule




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                                          ●
                                              One-to-one with the network diagram:
                                              ➢       The deliverables are the bars.
                                              ➢       The links are the precedence arrows.

                                                                               Department Processes Project
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                    Critical Path
                                                                                                                                                    shown in red




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              2.7 Planning – Schedule




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                                                                             Gantt Chart With Work Packages




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                                          ●
                                              Work packages rarely go on the WBS or Network Diagram:
                                              ➢       The added complexity obscures the value of the deliverable focus.
                                          ●
                                              However, they must go in the Gantt chart to enable later monitoring
                                              and control:
                                              ➢       Indent them underneath the deliverable for easy management.
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                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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              2.7 Planning – Schedule




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                                                                            Gantt Chart With Activities




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                                          ●
                                              Activity breakdowns prepared by team members can also be added:
                                              ➢   Usually because different activities require different personnel.
                                              ➢   If all activities take the same people, not needed, just add personnel to
                                                  higher level deliverable or work package to save added complexity.
                                          ●
                                              Can be nicely indented under the deliverable or work package.
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                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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              2.8 Planning – Milestones




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                                                                                  Schedule Milestones




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                                          ●
                                              Milestone: A deliverable important to Stakeholders that shows a
                                              significant achievement and progress towards completion.

                                          ●
                                              Purpose of milestones:
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Reduce the set of all deliverables to a manageable number for reporting
                                                   upwards.
                                                  Ensure the Stakeholders can do their job of providing oversight of
                                                   project progress.
                                                  Provide agreed checkpoints for release of partial payments to
                                                   contractors.

                                          ●
                                              Rule of thumb:
                                                  About one every 2 months, no longer than 4 months.
                                                  This provides enough granularity for Stakeholder oversight, and few
                                                   enough to be manageable for project reporting.



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              2.8 Planning – Milestones




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                                                                          Exercise 2.8 – Choose Milestones




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                                          ●
                                              Select milestones for your project.

                                          ●
                                              Mark them on your network diagram with stars ‫٭‬
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                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Are they all on the critical path – why or why not?




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               2.9 `Planning – Resources




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                                                                                      Resources Planning




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                                          ●
                                              Review all deliverables and associated activity breakdowns for personnel and other
                                              resource requirements.
                                          ●
                                              Add a human resource planning section to the project management plan:
                                              ➢     What personnel are required?
                                              ➢     Where will you get them – functional organizations, hire, contract?
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     How will you replenish them if they leave the project?
                                              ➢     Do you need a training budget?
                                              ➢     Add a project organization chart including PM and area leads – customer at the top.
                                              ➢     Identify the deliverable responsibilities for each position.

                                          ●
                                              Add a section for key material resources needed from within the organization to the
                                              project management plan:
                                              ➢     What key resources are required – equipment, software, facilities?
                                              ➢     If you need external resources, address in procurement plan section.

                                          ●
                                              Are any HR or material resources in high demand and need advance booking?
                                              ➢     Cannot miss those dates – will need to add time buffer in the plan (see later critical chain
                                                    management section).



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               2.9 `Planning – Resources




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                                                                                        Resource Leveling




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                                          Use the scheduling tool to calculate the loading of personnel and other resources.

                                          1 – If the project is schedule constrained:                             2 – If the project is resource constrained:
                                          ●
                                              Use float to move deliverables forward.                             ●
                                                                                                                        Use float to move deliverables forward.
                                          ●
                                              If not possible, must find more resources.                          ●
                                                                                                                        If not possible, must extend the schedule.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          A. Albert is
                                          overloaded




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              2.10 Planning – Cost




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                                                                                             Cost Baseline




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                                          ●
                                              For a small project the cost baseline is a number – $25K.
                                          ●
                                              For a larger project it is a Cumulative Cost Curve.
                                          ●
                                              Plug in the deliverable cost estimates to a software tool (e.g. Excel)
                                              and graph the rate of spending across time.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Enables identification of what falls in which fiscal year.
                                              ➢       Helps finance manage cash flow.
                                          ●
                                              Basis of Earned Value Management (see Monitoring and Control).




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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                                        Risk Management




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                                                           “Project Risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs,
                                                          has a positive or negative effect on at least one project objective.”
                                                                                            – PMBOK® Guide


                                          ●
                                              Risk management is one of the most important jobs of a Project Manager:
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢    Protecting your project from negative risks (threats) is the main job.
                                              ➢    However, also keep track of potential upside or positive risks (opportunities).




                                                                                                                                                                                         PMBOK is a registered mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc..
                                          ●
                                              For small projects, the fastest way to allocate a risk budget is to set aside time
                                              and money as a percentage of the rest of the project, most commonly 15%.
                                          ●
                                              For larger projects, you need an analysis to back up the budgets:
                                              ➢    Each risk has a Probability % of occurring, Time Impact, and Cost Impact.
                                              ➢    Roll-up the Probable Time and Probable Cost impact.
                                                                                                                                                            Bad Things
                                          ●
                                              Analysis enables proactive response planning to get ahead of them.
                                                                                                                                                                   Risks
                                          ●
                                              Management wants to know the risks – never, ever minimize them.                                                          ?


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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                              Risk Management Process




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                                          ●
                                              Risk Planning:
                                              ➢     Table of contents is this chart, should be in a standard process document.

                                          ●
                                              Identification:
                                              ➢     Brainstorm, use an historical risk checklist, list every risk your core project team can
                                                    envision.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Qualitative analysis:
                                              ➢     Shortlist to meaningful ones, 5 to 10, either by removing the smallest ones, or using
                                                    ranking.

                                          ●
                                              Quantitative analysis:
                                              ➢     Estimate Probability, Time Impact, Cost Impact, and then Probable Cost and Probable
                                                    Time.

                                          ●
                                              Response planning:
                                              ➢     Assign owner for day to day management, plan what are you going to do to address it.

                                          ●
                                              Monitoring and Control:
                                              ➢     Review at least monthly during the project, take action as necessary.
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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                                         Risk Identification




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                                          ●
                                              Bring in your core project team (CPT) of experienced experts to help:
                                              ➢      Three brains are more useful than three times one.
                                              ➢      Have more than one meeting for larger projects.

                                          ●
                                              Use two key tools to help identify the initial “long list” to make sure as
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                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              best as possible nothing has been missed:
                                              ➢      Risk Checklist: The complete list of everything bad that has ever
                                                     happened to projects in your organization (there are many
                                                     Internet templates).
                                              ➢      SWOT: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats:
                                                     ➔
                                                             Start by identifying weaknesses, making it easier to identify threats that arise
                                                             from those weaknesses.
                                                     ➔
                                                             Start by identifying strengths, making it easier to identify opportunities that
                                                             arise from those strengths:
                                                             •
                                                                      Opportunities can be hard to find – this is the main value of SWOT.


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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                             Standard Risk Statement Form




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                                          ●
                                              While identifying risks, write them in standard risk statement form:
                                              ➢       If Vulnerability then there could be Threat causing Consequence.

                                          ●
                                              Helps to understand the components of the risk, and provides
                                              information to help manage them.
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                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Examples:
                                              ➢       If the fence is weak then the fox could get in and eat all the
                                                      chickens.
                                              ➢       If the team has no fun then morale could drop causing them to leave
                                                      for other jobs.
                                              ➢       If we don't take the time to define all the requirements then we will
                                                      miss essential scope causing costly mistakes and rework.
                                              ➢       If the distributed team does not have good communication tools
                                                      they will not be able to effectively coordinate causing loss of
                                                      productivity and mistakes.
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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                                         Risk Qualification




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                                          ●
                                              Then short-list the risks to max top ten by ranking from worst to least:
                                              ➢     Management of ten risks is enough for any risk manager, even on $B projects.
                                              ➢     Lower ranked risks should be addressed by putting enough time and money directly
                                                    into the project plan.

                                          ●
                                              With your core project team, estimate the Probability and Impact from the
                                              following table (use your organization's table if they have a standard).
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              Priority           Probability                                 Impact
                                                     5           Likely – 60% to 80%                         Very High – Prevents achievement of the
                                                                                                             main objective of project.
                                                     4           Possible – 40% to 60%                       High – Serious impact requiring large
                                                                                                             amounts of time and money to address.
                                                     3           Probably not – 20% to 40% Medium – Significant impact requiring
                                                                                           significant time and money to address.
                                                     2           Unlikely – 10% to 20%                       Low – Real impact but manageable.
                                                     1           Very unlikely – 0% to 10%                   Very low – Little impact, part of the job.

                                          ●
                                              Multiply Probability and Impact for each risk to get a ranking from 1 to 25:
                                              ➢     Rank from greatest to least.
                                              ➢     Shortlist to the top ten maximum.
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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                                       Risk Quantification




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                                          ●
                                              Then do detailed numerical analysis of the short-listed risks to get a
                                              quantified time and dollar risk reserve.

                                          ●
                                              Putting aside the total potential cost and time for all risks, as though
                                              they will all happen, would be too much.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       If you have at least five risks, some will happen, and some will not.

                                          ●
                                              Instead roll up the probable time and probable cost:
                                              ➢       We put some time and money aside, without allocating too much.
                                              ➢       This gets as close as we can to the most likely amount that will be required.

                                          ●
                                              For each of the 5 to 10 shortlisted (qualified) risks:
                                              ➢       Estimate Probability, Time, and Cost.
                                              ➢       Then calculate Probability x Time, Probability x Cost.
                                              ➢       Roll-up the probable time and probable cost to get the total risk budget.


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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                          ●
                                              Use good historical information when available – otherwise estimate as follows.

                                          ●
                                              Probability:

                                              ➢       Use the Delphi method, the iterated consensus of experts – see estimating section.

                                          ●
                                              Time:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Include all personnel time needed to directly address the risk if it happens:
                                                      ➔
                                                              If a complex impact, may need to prepare a small WBS, activity breakdown, network
                                                              diagram, and Gantt chart, similar to that prepared for change control (see Monitoring and
                                                              Control phase).
                                              ➢       Otherwise, use the Delphi method to get an iterated consensus of experts.
                                              ➢       Then calculate Probable Time = Probability x Time.

                                          ●
                                              Cost:

                                              ➢       Add the direct costs of addressing the risk – material, leasing, etc.
                                              ➢       Add costs for personnel needed to address the risk, from the time estimate above.
                                              ➢       Add costs for personnel that must be retained on the project while the risk is being addressed:
                                                      ➔
                                                              If the team is dedicated, then this is the whole project team at the point the risk occurs.
                                                      ➔
                                                              If much of team can be redeployed while the risk is being addressed, then just add the
                                                              personal that must continue to charge to the project – PM, other area leads, etc.
                                              ➢       Then calculate Probable Cost = Probability * Cost
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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                                                Risk Register




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                                            ●
                                                Assume worst case, a dedicated team, with a “burn rate” of $5K/day.
                                                    Risk                             P%                T               $              PxT      P x $ Response
                                          Lose team members                          20%              40 d           $200K              8d     $40K   Mitigate
                                          Approval delays                            50%              18 d           $90K               9d     $45K    Avoid
                                          Procurement delays                         60%              12 d           $60K              7.2 d   $36K   Mitigate
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                                                                                                                                                                                              Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          Vendor performance                         40%              20 d           $100K              8d     $40K   Mitigate
                                          Requirements problems                      20%              16 d           $80K              3.2 d   $16K   Mitigate
                                          “Problems at the end”                      50%              15 d           $75K              7.5 d  $37.5K  Accept
                                          Budget                                                                                      42.9 d $214.5K

                                            ●
                                                Probability one of 10%, 20%, ... 80% maximum:
                                                ➢      Above 80% there is not enough uncertainty,
                                                       instead put directly into the project.                                                          Time buffer goes at the
                                                                                                                                                         end of the project.
                                            ●
                                                Min 5 risks to get a statistical meaningful outcome.                                                Money into a special account.
                                            ●
                                                Max 10 risks even for very large projects.
                                            ●
                                                Do a gut check: total time and $ should be an absolute minimum of 5% of
                                                project, 15% common, and higher as appropriate.
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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                                                Risk Budget Allocation




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                                              ●
                                                  Time: goes directly before the “key Customer or delivery event” (critical chain method):
                                                  ➢     The time buffer takes the hits from schedule slips, not the Customer or delivery.

                                                                      New                                   New
                                                                   Floor Plan                            Floor Plan
                                                                    1st Draft                            2nd Draft
                                                                        4                                    3

                                                                                                                                                                Implement
                                                      Kickoff                       Executive                                      Executive          Project      New          Training
                                          S                                                                                                                                                        F
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                                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                      Meeting                        Review                                        Approval           Buffer    Floor Plan      Session
                                                         1                              1                                              1                 7          3               2


                                                                   New Dept                        New Dept
                                                                   Processes                       Processes        One Page
                                                                    1st Draft                      2nd Draft          FAQ
                                                                       10                              8               2




                                                                                          Training                                        Training
                                                                    Training               Manual                                          Manual
                                                                      Plan                1st Draft                                       2nd Draft
                                                                        2                     5                                               4



                                              ●
                                                  Cost: The dollars go into a special risk account:
                                                  ➢  You need to fill out a form and specify which risk you are taking the money for, or identify which risk has
                                                     decreased so you can take the money from it.
                                                  ➢  Do not hesitate to get risk money if you need it, whether the risk is on the register or not – the finance
                                                     department will try to keep the risk budget, but it belongs to the Project Manager.
                                                  ➢  You always win these arguments, since you are accountable for project performance.
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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                                       Response Planning




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                                                                                         “Risk is our business.”
                                                                                 – Captain Kirk, Star Trek, 1969.


                                          ●
                                              First identify which of four standard risk response categories applies
                                              best to the threat:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     Avoid – The Probable Impact is too high, do whatever is necessary to
                                                    avoid it.
                                              ➢     Mitigate – Reduce the Probability and/or Impact.
                                              ➢     Transfer – Insurance is the only feasible transfer method.
                                              ➢     Accept – The Probable Impact is too low to worry about.

                                          ●
                                              By far the least trouble is to avoid risks before they happen.

                                          ●
                                              Always strive to avoid the risk now by changing the project plan
                                              before you start, so you can take it off the risk register!

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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                                         Other Risk Elements




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                                                                 “I've come to believe the biggest risk is being too cautious.”
                                                                             – David Spiegelhalter, Cambridge Ideas, 2009.

                                          ●
                                              During the planning step you also commonly record in the Risk
                                              Register:
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                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Owner – Person responsible for managing the risk day-to-day, closest to
                                                      the risk and best able to address it.
                                              ➢       Trigger – The earliest sign will be that the risk is happening, so you can
                                                      look for it later.
                                              ➢       Plan – The actual plan for avoiding, mitigating, or transferring (insurance)
                                                      as best as you can describe it now.
                                              ➢       Secondary Risks – Risks created by the response plan itself.
                                              ➢       Residual Risks – Risks remaining even after the response plan is
                                                      activated and presumably successful.
                                              ➢       Contingency Plan – Back-up plan, the plan B, what to do if the risk
                                                      happens anyway.
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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                  Risk, Contingency & Management Reserves




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                                          ●
                                              The Risk Reserve (risk budget) – both time and money – is under
                                              the control of the Project Manager.
                                          ●
                                              On larger projects the Project Manager will also have a
                                              Contingency Reserve:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       To address secondary and residual risks, and activate contingency plans
                                                      (the plan B's).

                                          ●
                                              There should also always be a Management Reserve:
                                              ➢       Despite the name, it is not the Project Manager's, and rather is kept by
                                                      the next level up – usually the Sponsor or Program Manager.
                                              ➢       Standard amount is 10% of the project budget – more if needed.
                                              ➢       It often includes the contingency reserve, which is not given to the
                                                      Project Manager.
                                              ➢       The Project Manager should never count on the management reserve,
                                                      mention it, or even let the next layer up know he/she knows it exists!

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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                             Positive Risks – Opportunities




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                                                           “My friends, as I have discovered myself, there are no disasters,
                                                           only opportunities. And, indeed, opportunities for fresh disasters.”
                                                                                         – Boris Johnson, 2004.

                                          ●
                                              Positive Risk – an uncertain event that could improve the project outcome, or benefit
                                              another part of the organization:
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                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢    This is a good idea, since if you don't keep look for opportunities, keep a list, and then do
                                                   something about them, they are much less likely happen.
                                              ➢    Often are opportunities to capture more business, or solve more than one problem at once.
                                              ➢    However don't chase opportunities at the expense of your project, try to get someone else in
                                                   the organization to take the lead whenever possible.

                                          ●
                                              Four response categories:
                                              ➢    Exploit – The opportunity is so good, do whatever is necessary to make it happen.
                                              ➢    Enhance – Improve the chances of realizing the opportunity.
                                              ➢    Share – Provide to another organization or group and then share the benefit.
                                              ➢    Accept – Do nothing – the benefit is too low to worry about.

                                          ●
                                              Perform the same quantitative analysis as for negative risks, do response planning on
                                              how to exploit, enhance, or share, and assign an owner and trigger.
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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                          IT Risk & Security Standards




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                                          ●
                                              Information Technology – Security Techniques – Information Security Risk
                                              Management, International Standards Organization, ISO/IEC 27005:2011,
                                              2011-05-19.

                                          ●
                                              Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems, National
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              Institute of Standards and Technology, Special Publication 800-30, July
                                              2002.

                                          ●
                                              Minimum Security Requirements for Federal Information and Information
                                              Systems, Federal Information Processing Standards, FIPS PUB 200, March
                                              2006

                                          ●
                                              Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation, Common
                                              Criteria Recognition Arrangement, CCMB-2009-07-001, July 2009




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              2.11 Planning – Risk




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                                                                        Exercise 2.9 – Prepare A Risk Register




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                                          ●
                                              Assume a burn rate for a dedicated team, such as $5K / day, for a worst-
                                              case cost of schedule slips.
                                          ●
                                              Come up with 3 reasonable risks to your project, and write them in standard
                                              risk statement form.
                                          ●
                                              For each risk, estimate:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                     Probability
                                                     Time Impact
                                                     Dollar Impact
                                          ●
                                              Then:
                                                     Probability x Time Impact
                                                     Probability x Dollar Impact
                                          ●
                                              Roll-up a total risk budget of time and dollars.
                                          ●
                                              Assign an owner closest to each risk best to manage it.
                                          ●
                                              Pick a response category for each risk, and a basic response plan.


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              2.12 Planning – Communications




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                                                                                   Communications Planning




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                                                                             “Project Management is a communications job.”
                                                                                           – Ancient PM expression.

                                          ●
                                              Can be part of the project plan, or a separate document for a large project.
                                          ●
                                              Document the following elements:
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                                                                                                                                                                                          Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢      Who – Review the Stakeholders list.
                                              ➢      What – Schedule, scope, cost, risks, Customer issues?
                                              ➢      When – Weekly, monthly, by specific event, ad-hoc?
                                              ➢      How – Weekly update, monthly report, phone, in person?

                                          ●
                                              Regularly review the plan during execution, and ensure communications are
                                              current and expectations are being managed:
                                              ➢      Visit the Sponsor, Customer, vendors, and other Stakeholders in person.
                                              ➢      Hard job but very important – get the bad news out when it happens.
                                              ➢      Ask for help early, and Stakeholders will be most willing:
                                                     ➔
                                                            They feel like part of the project success.
                                                     ➔
                                                            Much easier than helping once it is almost too late.

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              2.12 Planning – Communications




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                                                                         Exercise 2.10 – Communications Plan




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                                          ●
                                              Prepare the outlines of a communications plan for your project.

                                          ●
                                              Elements:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                     Who should you regularly communicate with?

                                                     What should you communicate – scope, cost, schedule, risks,
                                                      Customer issues?

                                                     When should you communicate – Weekly, monthly, by specific event,
                                                      ad-hoc?

                                              ➢       How should you communicate – Weekly update, monthly report, phone,
                                                      in person?



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              2.13 Planning – Project Management Plan




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                                                                             The Project Management Plan




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                                                                              “A goal without a plan is just a wish.”
                                                                             – Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, 1900-1944.

                                          ●
                                              Document the triple constraint and risks – a baseline likely within +/– 10% accuracy:
                                              ➢    Scope = WBS.
                                                                                                                                       The Key Value Of Planning!
                                              ➢    Time = Gantt Chart.
                                                   Cost = Cost Curve.                                                        Review the plan with Stakeholders, and if
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                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢

                                              ➢    Risk = Risk register.                                                      changes are requested – especially to
                                                                                                                                scope, time, or cost – ask for time to
                                          ●
                                              Usually useful:                                                                 work them in, and then bring them back
                                                                                                                               a balanced, feasible plan for approval
                                              ➢    Business Case (from Charter).                                                  before proceeding to execution.
                                              ➢    Requirements.
                                              ➢    Network diagram.
                                              ➢    Change control process.
                                              ➢    Communications plan.
                                              ➢    Human resources plan.

                                          ●
                                              Include, or reference, any other plans as required:                                                 Risk
                                              ➢    Quality Plan.
                                              ➢    Procurement plan.                                                                              Scope
                                              ➢    The project management plan takes precedence if any conflicts.
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              2. Planning – Summary




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                                                                                      Chapter Summary




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                                          ●
                                              Planning is the most important project phase, where scope, time, cost, and
                                              risks are baselined, and your future ability to monitor and control the project is
                                              determined.
                                          ●
                                              Planning should include a core project team (CPT) of senior experts in the
                                              main project areas that can assist preparation of an accurate plan.
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                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              The solution to the most common cause of project failure is to take the time to
                                              baseline the project requirements – complete, consistent, demonstrable, needs
                                              not wants, what not how.
                                          ●
                                              Defining a work breakdown structure of the project deliverables is the key step
                                              in planning, providing manageable size pieces of work for the rest of planning.
                                          ●
                                              Deliverables are tangible outputs of work that you can unambiguously tell
                                              later if they are finished or not.
                                          ●
                                              Deliverables need to be broken up if: (a) they are longer than two weeks into
                                              “work packages” of max two weeks for later monitoring and control; (b) there is
                                              more than one person or group leading separate parts; and (c) if another
                                              deliverable can start part way through the current deliverable.

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              2. Planning – Summary




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                                                                            Chapter Summary (Cont'd)




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                                          ●
                                              The network diagram of deliverables shows the fundamental structure of your
                                              project, and is your most important project management tool.
                                          ●
                                              Waiting time should be broken out as a separate deliverable, work package, or
                                              activity for clarity, ease of estimation, and to highlight the waiting event.
                                          ●
                                              Estimating is most accurately done by an activity breakdown performed by an expert
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                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              in the area.
                                          ●
                                              Estimation with the 3-Point technique is fast, better than a single point guess, about
                                              +/– 25%, not as accurate as an activity breakdown.
                                          ●
                                              Estimation with the Delphi technique is better than a single point guess, about +/–
                                              25%, however not as accurate as an activity breakdown.
                                          ●
                                              Estimating can be also done with analogous and historical methods.
                                          ●
                                              Factor time estimates by a productivity ratio, often between 72% - 85%.
                                          ●
                                              Roll-up cost estimates by deliverable in a bill of materials (BOM), and if not in the
                                              BOM then roll-up personnel costs in the Gantt application.
                                          ●
                                              The critical path drives the project length and gives you information to know where to
                                              focus most of your time and energy – schedule drives cost, and brand new risks.

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              2. Planning – Summary




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                                                                            Chapter Summary (Cont'd)




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                                          ●
                                              The official schedule baseline is the network diagram applied to a calendar.
                                          ●
                                              Resource leveling solves overallocation (if float won't work) by adding
                                              resources if time is the key constraint, extending schedule if resources are the
                                              key constraint.
                                          ●
                                              The cost baseline is the total cost for a small project, for a large project a
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                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              cumulative cost curve that graphs spending across time.
                                          ●
                                              Risk planning adds time and money into the project to take account of
                                              uncertain events that might impact the project.
                                          ●
                                              5 to 10 risks are manageable, a minimum of 5% of the rest of the project time
                                              and cost, with 15% common and more if needed.
                                          ●
                                              The risk time buffer goes at the end of the project before the “key Customer
                                              event” so it takes the hits from schedule slips instead of the Customer.
                                          ●
                                              Also identify risk opportunities, any potential upside.
                                          ●
                                              Also include communications, HR, change control, quality management,
                                              procurement, and any other planning information to the project management
                                              plan as required for the project.
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                                                                                            Phase 3




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                                                                      Project Execution
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                                                                                                                                                                              Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                     Project is Approved

                                              “Take time to deliberate, but when the time for action has arrived,
                                                                   stop thinking and go in.”
                                                                      – Napoleon Bonaparte, 1769-1821.




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                                                                        Phase 3 – Project Execution




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                                                      3.1 – Introduction                                                       3.6 – Design & Build
                                          160. Project Manager Role                                             175.    Design Before Build
                                                                                                                176.    Build or Buy Decisions
                                                        3.2 – Project Team
                                                                                                                177.    Exercise 3.1 – Identify Design Elements
                                          161.   Building The Project Team
                                                                                                                178.    Software Development
                                          162.   Project Team Key Points
                                                                                                                179.    Axosoft Scrum Diagram
                                          163.   Functional Organizations
                                                                                                                180.    Common I.T. Project Problems
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                                                                                                                                                                                 Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          164.   Projectized Organizations
                                          165.   Matrix Organizations                                                          3.7 – Procurement
                                          166.   Management of Matrix Organizations                             181.    Procurement Document Types
                                          167.   Matrix Personnel Allocation                                    182.    Contract Types
                                                                                                                183.    Selecting The Winner
                                          168.   Delegation
                                                                                                                184.    Exercise 3.2 – Contract Approach
                                          169.   Team Motivation
                                          170.   Managing People Conflict                                                   3.8 – Acceptance
                                                                                                                185. Change Management
                                                       3.3 – First Steps
                                                                                                                186. Scope Verification
                                          171. The Kick-Off Meeting
                                                                                                                187. Scenario Based Verification
                                          172. Project Requirements Review

                                                  3.4 – Communications
                                          173. Communication Modes

                                                 3.5 – Problem Identification
                                          174. Finding Root Causes
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              3.1 Execution – Introduction




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                                                                                    Project Manager Role




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                                          ●
                                              “Project Management is a communications job”:
                                                     Ensure the project goals are continually clear – single sentences.
                                                     Motivate the team – tell them why this is a worthwhile project.

                                          ●
                                              Implement the communications plan with the Stakeholders:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                     Who, What, When, and How.
                                                     Manage expectations – what do they care most about?
                                                     Keep them proactively informed about serious problems.
                                                     Stakeholders want the project to succeed – ask for help early when you need it.

                                          ●
                                              MBWA – Management By Walking Around:
                                                     Obtain unfiltered information from team members that don't report directly to you.
                                                     Ask questions, never direct – pass that through their regular manager.
                                                     If distributed use MBCA – Management By Calling Around.

                                          ●
                                              Provide the resources and solve the problems the team cannot so they can
                                              get the project work done.


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                                                                 “A person does not need to be rounded, but a team does.”
                                                                                    – Old team building maxim.

                                          ●
                                              Assemble the best project team you can:
                                              ➢      Keep planning personnel – the Core Project Team – to help continuity.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢      Negotiate across the organization for the best team members.
                                              ➢      Look for skills, energy, team temperament, and ethics.
                                              ➢      Never bring people on just because they are like you.

                                          ●
                                              Diversity in teams is proven to produce better results:
                                              ➢      Analytical & strategic thinkers.
                                                     ➔
                                                            All strategic, great plans, no work – All analytic, great work, wrong direction.
                                              ➢      Gender.
                                              ➢      Ethnicity.
                                              ➢      Experience and age.
                                              ➢      Interview as widely as you can to find the best for the jobs.
                                              ➢      More identification of problems, more creativity in solutions, more fun.
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                                                                                 Project Team Key Points




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                                          ●
                                              Part of the Project Manager's job is to help build a team identity:
                                              ➢       Off-site team-building sessions – Bowling, facility visits.
                                              ➢       Team training – Bring in onsite training for the group for key skills.
                                              ➢       Pizza Fridays – Everyone contributes a few dollars, rule is no talking
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                      about work.
                                              ➢       Have someone with artistic abilities design a team / project logo:
                                                      ➔
                                                              Document cover pages, coffee cups, baseball caps, warm-up jackets.
                                              ➢       Trust building exercises and other soft-skills (see Chapter 0).
                                              ➢       A team with a cohesive identity will perform at a much higher level.

                                          ●
                                              Collocation is critical for important projects:
                                              ➢       Electronic communications have higher risk of misunderstandings.
                                              ➢       A schedule can double, triple, or more simply due to the delays between
                                                      communications.


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                                          ●
                                              No Project Managers.
                                          ●
                                              The functional Managers coordinate projects as a committee.
                                          ●
                                              Not great for getting projects done on schedule.

                                                                                                                                 Project management by committee.
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                                                                         Organizational Structures – Projectized




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                                              ●
                                                  Each department is stand-alone, no sharing of personnel.
                                              ●
                                                  Great for control by the Project Manager.
                                              ●
                                                  Not great for getting the best people for the job across organization.
                                              ●
                                                  Not great for personnel career development.

                                          Project management
                                          within departments.
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                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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                                                                             Organizational Structures – Matrix




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                                          ●
                                              Functional Managers manage personnel, and allocate to projects:
                                              ➢     Also train and mentor personnel to build their skills and for career development.
                                          ●
                                              Project managers only job is to focus on the projects.
                                          ●
                                              The PM's and FM's must work well together.
                                          ●
                                              Best compromise for everyone.
                                                                                                                                                    Project collects best team
                                                                                                                                                    from across organization.
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                                                                                                                                                                                          Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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                                                                          Management of Matrix Organizations




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                                          ●
                                              Functional Manager needs a scheduling tool to track the allocation
                                              of their personnel across the multiple projects.
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                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                  ProjectLibre
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              3.2 Execution – Project Team




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                                                                             Matrix Personnel Allocation




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                                          ●
                                              The Functional Manager can then obtain reports showing where their personnel are over-
                                              allocated or under-allocated, enabling them to plan to avoid conflicts between projects.
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                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                    B. Baker is sometimes
                                                                                                                                                  over-allocated, sometimes
                                                                                                                                                       under-allocated.




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                                                                                                 Delegation




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                                          ●
                                              The PM's job is to manage what needs to be done, and the team's job to manage how it is
                                              done:
                                              ➢   The PM always retains accountability – must monitor and manage the team where required.
                                              ➢   If possible delegate complete responsibility for deliverable performance to the area leads.

                                          ●
                                              Tell the leads to:
                                              ➢   Inform you early if there are any problems.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢   Ask for help with anything they cannot resolve.

                                          ●
                                              Normal projects will have:
                                              ➢   Risks taken by the team to achieve better performance, that sometimes fail.
                                              ➢   Teams taking longer and not doing as good a job as their leaders could.

                                          ●
                                              Grow your leads wherever possible and give appropriate credit where due – have them present
                                              to Customers and senior management on subjects in their area.
                                          ●
                                              Every level of the team should have a “sign-off level”, an amount of money they can expend
                                              without authorization, to ultimately save money from unnecessary administration:
                                              ➢   The sign-off level for the PM may be in the thousands to enable them to obtain material or services
                                                  rapidly when required.
                                              ➢   The level for junior workers without any staff may only be $100.

                                          ●
                                              The PM's focus should mainly be on goal clarity, team motivation, the critical path, scope and
                                              cost control, avoiding risk, partnerships, and communications.
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                                                                                          Team Motivation




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                                          ●
                                              A team that is passionate about their work will work faster, better, and less
                                              expensively – better project performance.
                                          ●
                                              The business case is the place to start with motivation:
                                              ➢     We are making the organization 10% more productive.
                                              ➢     We are helping break into a brand new market.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     We are creating a new local baseball league that will last for years.
                                              ➢     We are helping people get better health care when they need it most.

                                          ●
                                              Let people know – not too often – how the work is benefiting them directly:
                                              ➢     They are learning a new domain area, new skills.
                                              ➢     They are improving their career prospects.

                                          ●
                                              Sincere appreciation is a profound motivator:
                                              ➢     Never institute an award that must be given to someone, i.e. once a month.
                                              ➢     Provide public thanks for good work – in a team meeting, in front of the Customer.
                                              ➢     Give private thanks when meeting in a hallway.
                                              ➢     Tell their boss or functional manager about their great work.
                                              ➢     Tell your boss about their great work – have your boss pass on congratulations.

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                                                                               Managing People Conflict




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                                          ●
                                              Common causes:
                                                     Poor communication.
                                                     Perceived lack of respect.
                                                     Fear a new member is taking their place.
                                                     Fear of organization / business / project failure.

                                              Common solutions:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●



                                                     Move people into a better role fitted to their skills and temperament.
                                                     Separate people into different teams and physical offices.

                                          ●
                                              If needed address the problem directly:
                                                     Call together into a room.
                                                     Get the grievances aired one by one, then positive comments tabled one by one.
                                                     Make clear the negative impact on the team and project of the conflict.
                                                     Demand the parties go away and resolve themselves.
                                                     Make clear “other solutions” will need to be taken if the parties do not resolve.

                                          ●
                                              If hard decisions are required, remember the Star Trek principle:
                                                     “The needs of the many outweigh the needs of the one”.
                                                     Protect the project – do not incur team failure due to inability to deal with one.
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              3.3 Execution – First Steps




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                                          ●
                                              The first all-team meeting of the project:
                                              ➢       Highest ROI meeting after the lessons learned meeting.

                                          ●
                                              Invite the whole team, and representatives from all supporting
                                              departments – contracts, IT, legal, QA, shipping and receiving, etc.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Walk through the charter, network diagram, schedule, and risks.
                                              ➢       Focus the team on the objective, exactly what the project is to achieve.

                                          ●
                                              Invite and answer any questions through the meeting.
                                              ➢       Collect an issues list for any questions you cannot answer on the spot,
                                                      and then followup to resolve.

                                          ●
                                              This single meeting on day one can save days or weeks of time
                                              later in the project.


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                                                                                 Project Requirements Review




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                                          ●
                                                  The most important protection of your project is to get all the functional requirements
                                                  – “what” is needed to meet the objective – before execution starts.
                                          ●
                                                  However, sometimes the requirements come from an external source and have
                                                  problems, such as in competitive bidding situations, or otherwise cannot be fixed
                                                  until the project starts.
                                          ●
                                                  Even if the requirements are “perfect”, always conduct a Project Requirement
                                                  Review (PRR) in the first week of execution:
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                                                  ➢     Assemble all relevant Stakeholders.
                                                  ➢     Project the requirements on a screen with a clarification column.
                                                  ➢     Review every requirement, and add clarifications to remove any issues.
                                                  ➢     This is legal even for competitive, fixed price contracts.

                                          ID             Requirement                                                  Clarification
                                          002            The room shall be 10m wide x 20m                             None.
                                                         long x 2.5m high.
                                          001            The room shall be secure.                                    The door shall have an RCMP certified
                                                                                                                      Category 1 deadbolt.
                                          003            The software shall be user-friendly.                         There shall be pop-up help for every entry
                                                                                                                      field.
                                              :
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              3.4 Execution – Communications




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                                                                               Communication Modes




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                                          ●
                                              Lean towards face to face, phone, and written form in that order.

                                          ●
                                              Verbal is best for:
                                                  Issues that are not yet well defined.
                                                  Problem resolution and negotiating.
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Face to face is better than the phone.

                                          ●
                                              Meetings are best for:
                                                  Regular team statusing (one hour max).
                                                  Brainstorming new issues needed wide input.
                                                  Reviews requiring presentations and walkthroughs.

                                          ●
                                              Email / written form is best for:
                                                  Data transmission.
                                                  Record of agreements.
                                                  Formal approvals.
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              3.5 Execution – Problem Identification




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                                                                                 Finding Root Causes




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                                          ●
                                                Put the Ishikawa or “fishbone” diagram in your toolbox.
                                          ●
                                                Works well to find the root causes behind a problem.
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              3.6 Execution – Design & Build




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                                                                                      Design Before Build




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                                          ●
                                              The functional requirements – what was needed – were identified during
                                              planning.
                                          ●
                                              The first real work of execution is to baseline the design requirements – how to
                                              meet the functional requirements.
                                          ●
                                              Prepare cost effective design deliverables before doing the actual work:
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                                              ➢    E.g.: Preliminary architecture diagrams, detailed architecture diagrams.
                                              ➢    E.g.: Document outline, first draft, second draft, copy for comment.

                                          ●
                                              “Prototyping” can be helpful:
                                              ➢    Mockup “the outside” of the deliverable inexpensively.
                                              ➢    Can be physical or virtual – building model, office layout, website interface.
                                              ➢    Can include very basic functionality to show the core purpose.
                                              ➢    For software always mockup screens and reports before coding.

                                          ●
                                              Get Customer review of the design at every significant point in the process to
                                              greatly improve the chances of success (see Quality in Monitoring and Control).
                                              ➢    Helps Customer provide critical feedback before significant spending.

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               3.6 Execution – Design & Build




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                                                                                   Build or Buy Decisions




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                                          ●
                                              Building internally:
                                              ➢      When you need to retain the expertise in house.
                                              ➢      Ensure you have the skills and tools to do it in house.
                                              ➢      Is often expensive – make sure there is no external solution that meets the
                                                     needs at less cost.
                                                     Ensure the total cost of ownership, including long term support, is included in
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢
                                                     the cost analysis.
                                              ➢      Customizing existing solutions can easily become a complete rebuild.

                                          ●
                                              Buying externally:
                                              ➢      When you don't have the resources or time for an in-house build.
                                              ➢      When it is really the least cost and time solution.
                                              ➢      Many bought products can be extensively configured to match Customer needs.
                                              ➢      Good bought products incorporate valuable best practices.
                                              ➢      Always check at least three references to find others that have used it.
                                              ➢      Never buy on a presentation or demo, always trial the solution first.
                                              ➢      If you are the only Customer, it is not really “off-the-shelf” and you might have to
                                                     pay for all support and maintenance.
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                                                                       Exercise 3.1 – Identify Design Elements




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                                          ●
                                              For your project:

                                              ➢       Identify what you can design before you build.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Can you apply this principle to any documentation?

                                              ➢       Are there Customer reviews of design elements that could be useful?

                                              ➢       Should you add any deliverables to your network diagram?




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               3.6 Execution – Design & Build




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                                                                                    Software Development




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                                                             “He's a lot like a Project Manager, but that's such a boring title,
                                                             we'll call him a SCRUM master to imply he knows some jiujitsu.”
                                                                    – Hamid Shojaee, SCRUM Master In 10 Minutes, 2012.

                                           ●
                                               Complexity of software usually requires several (3 to 5) builds:
                                               ➢     Allows the team to ramp up and get smarter after each build – better performance.
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                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                               ➢     Allows checkpoints for Customer feedback and redirection before all cost and
                                                     schedule is expended.

                                           ●
                                               Scrum methodology is the state-of-the-art:
                                               ➢     A form of Agile software development.
                                               ➢     Breaks work into several “sprints” of just a few weeks in length.
                                               ➢     Estimates requirement complexity for each sprint beforehand.
                                               ➢     Provides daily tracking of progress to determine the development team “velocity”.
                                               ➢     Preparation of “burndown charts” enables unusually good schedule projection.
                                                                                  Example System Development Builds

                                            Build 1                             Build 2                                          Build 3
                                                                  User                                     User                                     User
                                            System                            Applications                                     Integration                         Final Build
                                                                 Review                                   Review                                   Review
                                          50% of Reqr                         30% of Reqr                                     50% of Reqr


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                                                                         Axosoft Scrum Diagram




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                                                                                                                                                               Link
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                                                                                                                                                                             © Axosoft 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerive 3.0 Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Personal Single-User Unported License
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               3.6 Execution – Design & Build




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                                                                             Common I.T. Project Problems




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                                          ●
                                              Solving too many problems at once:
                                              ➢   Most common cause of I.T. project cost and schedule blow-up.
                                              ➢   Must continually pare scope down to the “essential” requirement, at the beginning and throughout.

                                          ●
                                              Performance issues – CPU, RAM, Storage, Bandwidth:
                                              ➢   Include more in the design than you think you will need.
                                              ➢   Buy production hardware as late as possible.
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                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  ➔
                                                        Less expensive, more performance.                                          Assemble an IT Risk Checklist -
                                                                                                                                    many examples on Internet.
                                          ●
                                              Building it yourself instead of buying:
                                              ➢   Very high cost and schedule risk.
                                              ➢   Usually high ongoing maintenance and support cost.
                                              ➢   Use open source software wherever possible – FreeOpenSourceSoftware.org.

                                          ●
                                              Security issues:
                                              ➢   Have personnel with security expertise manage this domain from the requirements forward.
                                              ➢   Build the features in up-front, don't add them afterward.
                                              ➢   Nothing is 100% secure – don't restrict functionality so much it becomes practically unusable.

                                          ●
                                              Interfaces between software or systems:
                                              ➢   High risk of surprise incompatibilities.
                                              ➢   Use known systems adhering to known standards whenever possible.
                                              ➢   Test portions of the interface capability in small pieces as you build it up.
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              3.7 Execution – Procurement




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                                                                             Procurement Document Types




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                                          ●
                                              Request for Quote (RFQ):
                                              ➢     When you need something straightforward – chairs, computers, service rates.
                                              ➢     Customer provides a specification, requests a price.
                                              ➢     Customer usually chooses the least expensive from several quotes.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Request for Information (RFI):
                                              ➢     When you are looking for industry input on a potential later contract.
                                              ➢     “This RFI does not imply that a contract will be let…”
                                              ➢     Industry provides information on the best parts of their offering in the hope they will be
                                                    included in the requirements for any future RFP.

                                          ●
                                              Request for Proposal (RFP):
                                              ➢     Something complex enough to need a project plan as a proposal.
                                              ➢     Includes a Statement of Requirements (SOR) or similar name – the Customer
                                                    requirements for the solution requested.
                                              ➢     Includes a Statement of Work (SOW) – administrative items, points of contact, required
                                                    reviews, mandatory standards.
                                              ➢     Includes an evaluation approach – mandatory/least cost (not great), best value (better).

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              3.7 Execution – Procurement




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                                                                                           Contract Types




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                                          ●
                                              Cost Plus:
                                              ➢    Better for larger value and more complex contracts where the scope will probably
                                                   change and cost plus management is worth the effort.
                                              ➢    Obtain a Level Of Effort (LOE) estimate of the work.
                                              ➢    Customer agrees to pay the contractor's costs plus a pre-negotiated profit.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢    More Customer project management needed:
                                                   ➔
                                                          Obtain monthly and possibly weekly reports as though part of your organization.
                                                   ➔
                                                          Put in formal checkpoints for notification on spending, e.g. 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%.
                                              ➢    If no profit, then called “Time and Materials” - not often used, only for short efforts.

                                          ●
                                              Fixed Price:
                                              ➢    Better for small value contracts, or contracts where the scope is very well defined
                                                   and unlikely to change.
                                              ➢    Parties agree on a price for a specified product or service, and then the contractor
                                                   can make or lose money without impacting the buyer:
                                                   ➔
                                                          Also fixes the scope, so changes are often much more expensive.
                                                   ➔
                                                          Small companies will not be able to proceed if losing money – “sue me”.
                                              ➢    If trapped on a fixed price contract and scope changes, whenever possible offset the
                                                   additional scope by removing existing scope – best for Customer and contractor.

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              3.7 Execution – Procurement




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                                                                                    Selecting The Winner




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                                          ●
                                              PM is responsible for selecting the preferred contract type and award procedure:
                                              ➢   The contract department will have polices and preferences, often prefers fixed price even
                                                  for projects where the scope is likely to change since it sounds like least risk.
                                              ➢   However the PM is accountable – negotiate with contract personnel to finalize the best type
                                                  and award procedure.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Selection approaches:
                                              ➢   Lowest price:
                                                  ➔
                                                       For those bidders that meet the requirements, choose lowest price:
                                                  ➔
                                                       Can easily get gamed on the requirements, receive the lowest possible quality, and pay much
                                                       more for any changes to get what you really want.

                                              ➢   Best value:
                                                  ➔
                                                       PM needs to set up a scoring criteria – e.g. 15% for the experience of the resumes of the leads,
                                                       20% for experience of the firm in this domain area, 15% for the support solution, 50% for
                                                       response to the requirements.
                                                  ➔
                                                       Then divide the bidder scores by their price to get a value number.
                                                  ➔
                                                       Industry will now put their best foot forward, bidding what they are best at.
                                                  ➔
                                                       Usually provides the “best value” solution, and ultimately usually the least cost.



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                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2
              3.7 Execution – Procurement




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                                                                          Exercise 3.2 – Contract Approach




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                                                                                                                                                                         Scope




                                          ●
                                              Should your project build everything in-house, or does it have any
                                              deliverables best done by contract?

                                              For any contracts:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                    Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●




                                                  Should they be cost-plus or fixed price?

                                                  Should the selection criteria be lowest price, or best value?




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              3.8 Execution – Acceptance




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                                                                                     Change Management




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                                          ●
                                              Project that introduce significant change to an organization require careful change
                                              management to avoid resistance by users.
                                          ●
                                              Identify an “internal champion” with credibility inside the organization being affected
                                              as early as planning or latest the beginning of execution.
                                              ➢    Include the champion in the project design and development to obtain their buy-in first.
                                              ➢    Brief them on the business case – why the project benefits are worth the effort.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢    Identify what is most important to them so they can sell their organization – improved
                                                   processes, more capability, reduced errors, cost savings, etc.
                                              ➢    Provide the champion with any information and assistance that can help sell internally –
                                                   briefing packages, demonstrations, business metrics, etc.
                                          ●
                                              Ultimate goal – the champion should feel confident in saying: “There might be some
                                              issues when this is first introduced that we will need to resolve, but when fully
                                              implemented it will be worth it because of the benefits.”
                                          ●
                                              Ensure the delivery is accompanied by all required training “just in time” before the
                                              change, and support personnel on call to help immediately with any issues.
                                          ●
                                              Always implement user surveys to obtain metrics so you can show most users like the
                                              change or identify issues early and fix them – “How much from 1 to 5 has this
                                              improved your productivity... customer responsiveness... profitability... etc.”
                                          ●
                                              Whenever possible pilot the project in part of the organization and phase in the most
                                              useful parts first to obtain an interim success to build on.
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              3.8 Execution – Acceptance




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                                                                                     Scope Verification




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                                                                                                                                                                       Scope




                                          ●
                                              Key responsibility – demonstrate the project output is “fit for use”:
                                                  Inspections, tests, demonstrations, physical audit.
                                                  Conduct demonstrations based on user scenarios (next page).

                                              Obtain formal written agreement from the Customer that all the
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●


                                              scope was delivered:
                                                  All requirements have been verified.
                                                  All material and services have been delivered.
                                                  All documentation is delivered.
                                                  All required training has been held.
                                                  All facilities are built to specification.

                                          ●
                                              Often convenient to hold a final administration meeting based on
                                              documentation of several past individual verification events



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              3.8 Execution – Acceptance




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                                                                                 Scenario Based Verification




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                                          ●
                                              Ideally the Customer requirements were derived from a set of user scenarios:
                                              ➢    Documentation of how the Customer works – a typical hour / day / week in the life.

                                          ●
                                              Group the requirements into verification procedures that reflect the Customer scenarios:
                                              ➢    Prepare user scenarios after the fact if they don't already exist.

                                          ●
                                              Agree with the Customer that the verification procedures, if they function as intended,
                                              will verify the requirements they contain – update as needed to get agreement.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                         Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Then run the verification procedures to reflect how the Customer works.
                                          ●
                                              Provides much greater Customer confidence the project output is “fit for use” than
                                              holding disjointed requirements verifications.


                                                                             Customer                                               Customer
                                                                             Scenarios                                             Requirements




                                                                                                      Verification
                                                                                                      Procedures


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              3. Execution – Summary




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                                                                                      Chapter Summary




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                                                                                                                                                                        Scope




                                          ●
                                              Ensure the key project objective is constantly clear, motivate the team to do their
                                              best because the project and their work is worthwhile, and solve any problems
                                              the team cannot.
                                          ●
                                              Assemble teams based on skills, energy, team temperament, and ethics, and
                                              choose from a wide set to maximize diversity, creativity, and performance.
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                                                                                                                                                                                   Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Collocate the project team in one room / floor / building if the project is important
                                              in order to minimize communication delays and mistakes.
                                          ●
                                              Focus on team building to improve trust, fun, and therefore scope, cost, and
                                              schedule performance.
                                          ●
                                              Matrix organizations are usually the best compromise, however the functional
                                              manager needs a scheduling tool to manage the personnel allocation.
                                          ●
                                              Delegate responsibility for the work so the team can learn, grow, do their best
                                              work, and you have time to do your management job.
                                          ●
                                              Hold a kick-off meeting even when you think everyone already knows everything
                                              they need, brief the project plan, and answer any questions.


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              3. Execution – Summary




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                                                                           Chapter Summary (Cont'd)




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                                          ●
                                              Hold a project requirements review the first week of the project to
                                              clarify any issues, even when the requirements are “perfect”.
                                          ●
                                              Prepare one or more designs inexpensively first, and get Customer
                                              review and feedback early before spending significant funds on the
                                              real deliverables.
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Build in-house when it is least expensive and you can do it best,
                                              outsource when it is least expensive and others can do it best.
                                          ●
                                              Chose fixed price contracts only when the scope will not change,
                                              choose cost plus when the scope might change.
                                          ●
                                              Select winning bidders based on low price for very simple work,
                                              select by best value for more complex work.
                                          ●
                                              Hold a formal Customer review and obtain written agreement the
                                              project scope was successfully accomplished – whenever possible
                                              hold verification events based on user scenarios.
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                                                                                           Phase 4




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                                                                                                                                                                  Scope




                                                            Monitoring and Control
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                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                            Status, Manage, Report


                                                             “Have no fear of perfection: you'll never reach it.”
                                                                       – Salvador Dali, 1904-1989




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                                                               Phase 4 – Project Monitoring & Control




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                                                     4.1 – Introduction                                                     4.6 – Quality
                                          192. Project Manager Role                                           208. Managing Quality
                                          193. Managing Expectations                                          209. Peer Reviews
                                                                                                              210. Ensuring Fit For Use
                                                  4.2 – Control Meetings
                                          194. Project Monthly Heartbeat                                                     4.7 – Risk
                                          195. Project Weekly Heartbeat                                       211. Managing Risk
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                                                                                                                                                                               Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                          4.3 – Scope                                                4.8 – Earned Value Management
                                          196.   Managing Scope                                               212.   Earned Value Overview
                                          197.   Change Control – Scope                                       213.   Cost & Schedule Metrics
                                                                                                              214.   Earned Value Meaning
                                          198.   Change Control – Schedule
                                                                                                              215.   Project Projections
                                          199.   Change Control – Cost
                                          200.   Exercise 4.1 – Change Control                                       4.9 – Problem Resolution
                                                                                                              216. Resolution Options
                                                            4.4 – Time
                                                                                                              217. Persuasion Techniques
                                          201.   Managing Schedule
                                          202.   Management of Critical Schedules                                          4.10 – Reporting
                                          203.   Critical Chain Management                                    218. Project Reporting
                                          204.   Crashing & Fast-Tracking                                     219. One Page Reporting
                                          205.   Exercise 4.2 – Fast-Tracking                                             4.11 – Summary
                                                        4.5 – Cost                                            220. Process Flowchart
                                          206. Managing Cost                                                  221. Exercise 4.3 – Monitoring & Control
                                          207. Cost Reports

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              4.1 Monitoring & Control – Introduction




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                                                                                    Project Manager Role




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                                          ●
                                              Monitor the triple constraint:
                                                     Scope – are the deliverables getting done?
                                                     Time – is the work being done on time?
                                                     Cost – is the work being done within budget?

                                              Monitor the risks:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●



                                                     Are there warning signs, triggers, should you take proactive action?

                                          ●
                                              Manage change control:
                                                     No additions to scope without approval of additional cost and time.

                                          ●
                                              Ensure the work is being done professionally:
                                                     Use Quality Personnel to help where possible.

                                          ●
                                              Being behind plan is not unusual – the key is to know how much:
                                                     Then you can extrapolate and see where you will end up, determine if the risk
                                                      budget will be sufficient, and if you need to get Stakeholder assistance or
                                                      direction.

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               4.1 Monitoring & Control – Introduction




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                                                                                  Managing Expectations




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                                          ●
                                              Know the different priorities of the different parties – typically:
                                              ➢       Sponsor – Cost
                                              ➢       Customer – Scope, Schedule
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Program Manager – Schedule, Cost
                                              ➢       Functional Managers – Schedule, Resource Needs
                                              ➢       Project Team – Achievement, Recognition, Career Development
                                              ➢       Senior Management – Ensure Success, External Perceptions
                                              ➢       Contractors / Partners – Cost, Communication, Consultation.

                                          ●
                                              Stay out of doing the project work:
                                              ➢       Keep time to implement the communications plan.
                                              ➢       Keep time for ad-hoc communications to manage expectations.

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              4.2 Monitoring & Control – Control Meetings




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                                                                                Project Monthly Heartbeat




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                                          ●
                                              Need formal project status monthly to ensure you have timely information:
                                              ➢   High tempo, high risk, and schedule critical projects might need statusing weekly.

                                          ●
                                              Obtain from each team lead the schedule status for each deliverable:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢   Is it done, when will it be done, how much is complete?

                                          ●
                                              Obtain current cost status for each deliverable from finance department.
                                          ●
                                              Make adjustments as required to bring the project back on plan.
                                          ●
                                              If you cannot make adjustments to get back on plan, use some risk budget.
                                          ●
                                              If the risk budget is being used faster than the rate of progress through the
                                              project:
                                              ➢   Let Stakeholders know early.
                                              ➢   Ask which elements of the triple constraint are the most important.
                                              ➢   Make adjustments as required to preserve the Stakeholder priorities.


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              4.2 Monitoring & Control – Control Meetings




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                                                                                 Project Weekly Heartbeat




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                                          ●
                                              The weekly meeting and status of the issues list is the weekly project heartbeat:
                                              ➢    Meet every Monday morning (no later than Tuesday morning) with project leads to review.
                                              ➢    Only status important project-level issues – the leads may have their own meetings with
                                                   their teams.
                                              ➢    Keep issues list in a simple word processor table or spreadsheet – easy to sort.
                                          ●
                                              Re-prioritize after each update – word processor Table/Sort, spreadsheet Data/Sort:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢    Lead, Due, Pri                ⇦ Most common ordering.                                           A weekly one hour
                                              ➢    Due, Pri, Lead                                                                                 meeting is only 2.5%
                                              ➢    Pri, Due, Lead                                                                                  of a 40 hour week.
                                          ●
                                              Key purpose: Help identify and resolve important problems before they get worse:
                                              ➢    Never, ever cancel this meeting “to get work done”.
                                                        Pri        Issue            Lead                              Notes                              Due
                                                         1 Facilities Shortage B. Anderson               Converting meeting room 5 to                   2010-01-10
                                                                                                         working area
                                                         1    Printing of         C. Jones               Have told printer need copies                  2010-01-12
                                                              Training Manuals                           by Friday or won't pay.
                                                         2    Software Schedule D. Baker                 Descoping the management                       2010-02-14
                                                                                                         functions until next phase
                                                         3    Requirements For J. Smith                  Onsite session to be held on                   2010-03-15
                                                              Next Phase                                 Thursday
                                                         :
                                                         :
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2
              4.3 Monitoring & Control – Scope




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                                                                                          Managing Scope




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                                                                                                                                                                          Scope




                                                  “Because things are the way they are, things will not stay the way they are. ”
                                                                                    – Bertolt Brecht, 1898-1956.

                                          ●
                                              “Scope Creep” is the second most common cause of project failure:
                                              ➢   Best solution is to solve the number 1 cause of project failure – get all the requirements up front.

                                              The project must have a rigorous change control process:
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●

                                                                                                                                                      Keep it balanced!
                                              ➢   Any change, no matter how minor, must be written down on a
                                                  change control form and submitted through the Project Manager.
                                              ➢   Try to implement in next project or phase whenever possible.

                                          ●
                                              Convene a Change Control Board (CCB) to evaluate changes:
                                              ➢   Wide membership with any possibly affected party – core and support functions.
                                              ➢   First determine all the areas of impact – redesign, documentation, training, etc.          Risk
                                              ➢   Appoint the best person to complete the analysis after the CCB meeting.
                                              ➢   Lead prepares a WBS to finalize the scope impact.                                         Scope
                                              ➢   Prepare a network diagram and schedule to finalize the time impact.
                                              ➢   Roll-up the total costs for the scope impact, and any team retention costs for schedule impact.
                                              ➢   Submit the total change impact, with your recommendation:
                                                  ➔
                                                       Proceed, delay to next phase, or do not proceed.
                                              ➢   Whenever possible, offset the additional scope by removing existing scope.
                                              ➢   Never start implementing until approval of the additional time and cost is provided in writing!
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               4.3 Monitoring & Control – Scope




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                                                                                       Change Control




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                                          ●
                                                Example Change: Add an outdoor pool after the hotel is finished.
                                          ●
                                                First prepare a WBS to identify all the deliverables that will be impacted.
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                                                                                                                                                                                 Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
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               4.3 Monitoring & Control – Scope




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                                                                          Change Control – Schedule




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                                          ●
                                              Prepare a network diagram if complex, a Gantt Chart if simple.
                                          ●
                                              Determines the total time impact of the change.
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                                      Can be done
                                                                                                                                                       in parallel.




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               4.3 Monitoring & Control – Scope




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                                                                                     Change Control – Cost




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                                                                                                                                                                                   Scope


                                              ●
                                                  Total cost = Scope changes + Team retention costs for personnel that
                                                  cannot be redeployed for the period of the change.
                                                                    Change Impact               Time                             Cost
                                                                                                (days)         Qty         Unit Cost  Total Cost
                                                                    Architecture
                                                                    - Update design                        5          5           $1,600              $8,000
                                                                    Zoning approval
                                                                    - Legal                                8          2           $2,000              $4,000
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                                                                                                                                                                                              Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                    Site Preparation
                                                                    - Contractor                           4          1           $6,500              $6,500
                                                                    Material
                                                                    - Interior cement                      2     4800                 $5             $24,000
                                                                    - Deck                                 2     2400                 $4              $9,600
                                                                    - Ladders, drains                      2        1             $2,500              $2,500
                                                                    - Paint                                2        8               $200              $1,600
                                              Team
                                                                    Construction
                                          retention costs.
                                                                    - Contractor                           8          1         $12,000              $12,000
                                                                    Inspection
                                                                    - City inspector                    0.5          0.5          $1,000                $500
                                                                    Subtotal                                                                         $68,700
                                                                    Project Delay
                                                                    - Project Manager                 26.5        26.5            $1,000             $26,500
                                                                    - Foreman                         26.5        26.5              $800             $21,200
                                                                    Subtotal                                                                         $47,700
                                                                    Total                                                                           $116,400
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               4.3 Monitoring & Control – Scope




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                                                                             Exercise 4.1 – Change Control




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                                          ●
                                              Within your team, come up with a reasonable change in scope that
                                              could be requested by the Customer.
                                          ●
                                              Prepare a WBS to list all areas of scope impact.
                                          ●
                                              Determine the schedule impact by preparing a network diagram if
Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use




                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              complex, just a Gantt chart if simple.
                                          ●
                                              Add up the costs:
                                              ➢       The direct costs from the scope impact.
                                              ➢       Project delay costs for any personnel that cannot be redeployed during
                                                      the period of the change.

                                          ●
                                              What is your best professional recommendation to the Customer:
                                              ➢       Proceed with the change, allocate to next phase, do not proceed?


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              4.4 Monitoring & Control – Time




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                                                                                      Managing Schedule




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                                          ●
                                              On the first of each month, obtain deliverable status from leads:
                                              ➢       How much of the work is complete?
                                              ➢       What was or will be the current estimated finish date?

                                          ●
                                              The Gantt tool will compare current status against original baseline.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              The tool highlights any slips from baseline, and percent completed.


                                                                                                                                 Percent
                                                                                                                                Complete
                                                                                                                                                   Schedule slip, about
                                                                                                                                                    half of buffer used




                                                                                      New end date before buffer is drawn down.
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              4.4 Monitoring & Control – Time




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                                                                             Management of Critical Schedules




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                                                             “Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion. ”
                                                                         – C. Northcote Parkinson, Parkinson's Law, 1957.

                                          ●
                                              Start with the basics:
                                              ➢       Ensure the goals and the schedule are constantly clear.
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                                                                                                                                                                                       Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Ensure everyone is empowered to make decisions.
                                              ➢       Ensure everyone is motivated according to their needs.

                                          ●
                                              Increase the number of checkpoints if needed:
                                              ➢       Manage down to the activity level if required.
                                              ➢       Critical schedules can require daily statusing.

                                          ●
                                              Institute a 20 minute standup meeting each morning:
                                              ➢       What are you going to do today?
                                              ➢       Is there anything preventing you from doing it?
                                              ➢       Let me know immediately if anything prevents you from doing it.

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              4.4 Monitoring & Control – Time




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                                                                              Critical Chain Management




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                                          ●
                                              Most modern and effective schedule management method – by physicist Eli Goldratt.
                                          ●
                                              Ensure you have unpadded estimates, no buffer within deliverables:
                                              ➢     If using activity breakdown, ask each lead to “make the deliverable estimate realistic, but
                                                    please scrub to ensure we don't have any padding within the deliverable – we will have an
                                                    overall project buffer to deal with anything that happens on the whole project”.
                                              ➢     If using 3-point, use the Most Likely estimate.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Add the time buffer at the end of the project, before the key Customer event:
                                              ➢     Usually use the risk management process to allocate buffer (see Planning phase).
                                              ➢     If using 3-point, accumulate the differences along the critical path between the Most Likely
                                                    estimate and the 3-point average.

                                          ●
                                              Also add some time buffer within the project before “critical resource” requirements:
                                              ➢     For any resources that if you miss the window, the schedule will be severely impacted.

                                          ●
                                              Organization must also make an important cultural change:
                                              ➢     “Please do your very best to work towards your estimate, and tell me right away if anything
                                                    will prevent you from making schedule to see if I can help.”
                                              ➢     And then understand slippage will happen, use the overall buffer to deal with schedule
                                                    delays, and do not yell at people for being late – it will be the typical situation.

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              4.4 Monitoring & Control – Time




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                                                                                Crashing & Fast-Tracking




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                                          ●
                                              Crashing and fast-tracking can be employed if the schedule is extending faster than
                                              the project buffer can absorb the slips.
                                          ●
                                              Crashing – Add people, resources, and money to the problem areas:
                                              ➢    However, adding people can actually make the problem worse (recall Chapter 0).
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢    Add the most experienced individual you can find, that has just done the exact same job.

                                          ●
                                              Fast-tracking – Overlap deliverables on the critical path:
                                              ➢    Look for maximum gain (longest deliverables) with the least risk.
                                              ➢    Look for deliverables that can start before a predecessor is completely finished.
                                              ➢    Can easily end up costing more, causing rework, and not saving any time – be careful.

                                          ●
                                              Possibilities:
                                              ➢    Only handle it once (OHIO) – visit a site once for interviews and site survey.
                                              ➢    Staggering – plumbing team on first floor, when they move to the second floor bring in
                                                   electrical on first floor, then when they move up bring in painters on first floor, etc.
                                              ➢    Documentation – get a start on any elements that don't need the final product.




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              4.4 Monitoring & Control – Time




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                                                                          Exercise 4.2 – Fast-Tracking




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                                          ●
                                              When you submit the project management plan, the Stakeholders
                                              ask you to reduce the project schedule by 15%.

                                          ●
                                              Using fast tracking alone (no crashing) determine which
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              deliverables you can overlap on the critical path to compress the
                                              schedule – starting the predecessor before the successor is
                                              finished.

                                          ●
                                              Report back on what you did:
                                                  Can you meet the 15% reduction with just fast tracking?
                                                  If not, do you need funds to crash as well, or do you need to cut
                                                   scope?
                                                  How much risk did your fast-tracking add to the project, just low,
                                                   medium, or high?



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              4.5 Monitoring & Control – Cost




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                                          ●
                                              First manage scope, schedule, and risks – they drive cost.
                                          ●
                                              All material and service costs on your project must be charged
                                              to the appropriate deliverable – the WBS ID or a cost account
                                              assigned by finance that includes several related deliverables.
                                          ●
                                              People costs are tracked through timesheets, rolled up by
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              deliverable, and reported once a month.


                                                                    Employee: John Smith
                                                                    Day      Hours     Project Code
                                                                    Monday        1.00           1025
                                                                                  2.25           1036
                                                                                  3.75           1048
                                                                     Tuesday      6.00           1025
                                                                                  1.75           1064
                                                                        :       :             :

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              4.5 Monitoring & Control – Cost




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                                          ●
                                              Cost reports come from the finance department by deliverable (or cost account collecting
                                              several related deliverables).
                                          ●
                                              Cost management responsibility is often usefully delegated to the deliverable lead.
                                          ●
                                              However, PM should formally review all cost reports at least monthly.
                                          ●
                                              Make appropriate adjustments where possible if spending is too high.
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                                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                           Project: ABC           Month: Jan
                                                                           Deliverable              Item                      Hours            Cost
                                                                              1025         Smith, R.                            4.00               $200
                                                                                           Anderson, B.                       148.50             $5,940
                                                                                           Brown, M.                           43.25             $1,514
                                                                                           Morton, G.                          65.33             $1,960
                                                                                           PrintsRUs                           N/A                 $625
                                                                                           Total                                                $10,239
                                                                              1036         Smith, R.                             4.00              $200
                                                                                           Crowley, D.                          12.00              $540
                                                                                           Grant, P.                            23.00              $805
                                                                                           Johnson Construction                 N/A             $12,275
                                                                                           Total                                                $13,820
                                                                              1048         C. Macintosh                          65.50           $3,275
                                                                                                       :                          :              :
                                                                       Total                                                                   $132,744
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              4.6 Monitoring & Control – Quality




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                                                                                         Managing Quality




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                                                  “No one has a greater asset for his business than a man's pride in his work. ”
                                                                                     – Hosea Ballou, 1771-1852.

                                          ●
                                              The project must be more than just compliant to the requirements –
                                              it must be “Fit For Use”:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢      This is a legal requirement in common law.
                                              ➢      Must have the features necessary for practical use – a car needs to have brakes
                                                     even if not listed on the ownership agreement.
                                              ➢      For projects, means the output must be a quality product – your responsibility is to
                                                     ensure the Customer is happy with it!

                                          ●
                                              Modern quality processes all come from Total Quality Management (TQM):
                                              ➢      Developed by Edward Deming in middle 20'th century.
                                              ➢      Key observation – “Quality must be planned in, not inspected in”.
                                              ➢      Quality parts and processes reduce costs, testing, and Customer returns.
                                              ➢      Strive for continuous incremental improvement – it adds up.
                                              ➢      Originally very influential in Japanese quality innovation in 20'th century.
                                              ➢      Now the foundation of Kaizen, Six Sigma, Lean Processing, etc…

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              4.6 Monitoring & Control – Quality




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                                                                                             Peer Reviews




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                                          ●
                                              Ask each deliverable lead – “how will you ensure it is a quality product while you
                                              are producing it?”
                                              ➢     If the answer is to inspect it at the end, necessary but insufficient, then look for a better
                                                    answer during the work on the deliverable.

                                          ●
                                              “Peer reviews” significantly help ensure quality output:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     Used to approve papers published in scientific journals since the 1700's.
                                              ➢     The telecommunications company Nortel found it reduced software bugs by 80%.
                                              ➢     Can be used for any kind of deliverable – documents, plans, designs…

                                          ●
                                              “Formal” peer reviews track all comments and their disposition:
                                              ➢     Required for health, safety, legal issues – a lot of overhead.

                                          ●
                                              Informal reviews are easier to implement for most work and better accepted:
                                              ➢     No formal records are kept other than a meeting notice to prove it happened.
                                              ➢     One hour max for each reviewer to review the work – split up deliverable if too large.
                                              ➢     One hour max to gather all reviewers for a joint review meeting.
                                              ➢     Author goes around the table, listens, records, and never wastes time defending.
                                                    ➔
                                                          Formal informal peer review process says author must say “thank you” after each comment.
                                              ➢     Then the author can accept or ignore any feedback as they see fit – they will naturally
                                                    implement the best input without costly and time-consuming followup.
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              4.6 Monitoring & Control – Quality




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                                                                                     Ensuring Fit For Use




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                                          ●
                                              Lack of user involvement is a very common cause of project failure:
                                                     “That might be what I said we wanted, but now I see it is not what we need”.
                                          ●
                                              Solution: have user reviews after every significant development – initial
                                              mockup, prototype, model, design, each draft or build….
                                                     Avoid scope creep by having users categorize the comments, then the project
                                                      categorizes the comments, and then the Sponsor makes the final decision.
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                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                     Only work in those comments absolutely essential to project success.

                                                                                                   User                Project            Sponsor
                                                                   Issue                           Priority            Priority           Decision
                                                                   Add this...                         1                   1                  1
                                                                   Remove that...                      1                   2                  1
                                                                   Change this...                      1                   1                  2
                                                                   Enhance that...                     1                   1                  1
                                                                   Add this...                         2                   2                  2
                                                                   Remove that...                      2                   2                  2
                                                                   Add that...                         2                   2                  3
                                                                   Change this...                      3                   3                  3
                                                                   Enhance that...                     3                   3                  3
                                                                              :                         :                   :                 :
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              4.7 Monitoring & Control – Risk




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                                                                                            Managing Risk




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                                          ●
                                              Review the risk register with the project leads at least once a month:
                                              ➢      Once a week for high tempo or critically important projects.

                                          ●
                                              Look for early warning signs, triggers that risk is coming true:
                                              ➢      Travel to the location of risk whenever possible to confirm the status and
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                     manage the solution.
                                              ➢      Use funds from the risk budget to proactively reduce the probability and/or
                                                     impact of the risk.
                                              ➢      Develop a backup / contingency plan in case the risk happens.

                                          ●
                                              Update the risk register:
                                              ➢      Decrease or increase probability and impact of risks as appropriate.
                                              ➢      Add significant new risks, quantify, and plan responses.
                                              ➢      Remove risks that are gone – very cautiously, never too early!

                                          ●
                                              Extrapolate risk reserve usage based on current rate of use:
                                              ➢      If being used faster than the project progress, ask for Stakeholder assistance,
                                                     and obtain direction on what is most important – scope, schedule, or cost.
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              4.8 Monitoring & Control – EVM




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                                                                                  Earned Value Overview




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                                          ●
                                              Sophisticated technique that measures Cost and Schedule based
                                              on the underlying work completed.

                                          ●
                                              Start by assigning every deliverable a Planned Value (PV) = the
                                              original estimated cost in the project plan:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Best measure we have of the value of the deliverable to the project.

                                          ●
                                              When a deliverable is completed, the project gets to claim the PV
                                              as Earned Value (EV):
                                              ➢       By the end of the project, the entire planned budget will be earned.

                                          ●
                                              The Actual Cost (AC) is simply the expenditure at the point in time
                                              the earned value measurements are taken.

                                          ●
                                              Rule of thumb: Use on projects > $5M & 1 year.

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               4.8 Monitoring & Control – EVM




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                                                                                 Cost & Schedule Metrics




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                                          ●
                                              Measure the project status each month and calculate the following metrics.
                                          ●
                                              Schedule status:
                                              ➢      The Schedule Variance (SV) is the difference between the earned value at this
                                                     point and the work that had planned to be completed at this point:
                                                            SV = EV – PV
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                     ➔




                                              ➢      The Schedule Performance Index (SPI) is the ratio between the earned value at
                                                     this point and the work that had planned to be completed at this point:
                                                     ➔
                                                            SPI = EV / PV
                                                                                             Changed minus to divide.
                                          ●
                                              Cost status:
                                              ➢      The Cost Variance (CV) is the difference between the earned value for the work
                                                     completed at this point and the actual costs for the work completed:
                                                     ➔
                                                            CV = EV – AC

                                              ➢      The Cost Performance Index (CPI) is the ratio of the earned value for the work
                                                     completed at t his point and the actual costs for the work completed:
                                                     ➔
                                                            CPI = EV / AC
                                                                                             Changed minus to divide.

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               4.8 Monitoring & Control – EVM




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                                                                                   Earned Value Meaning




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                                          ●
                                              A Cost Variance or Schedule Variance > 0 means ahead of plan,
                                              if < 0 means behind plan.

                                          ●
                                              CPI or SPI > 1 means ahead of plan, < 1 means behind plan.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Rules of thumb for CPI and SPI:
                                                     0.95 to 1.05 is a green project.
                                                     0.90 to 0.95 is a yellow project.
                                                     Less than 0.90 or more than 1.10 is a red project.

                                          ●
                                              A CPI or SPI > 1.05 requires investigation to ensure the team is not
                                              cutting corners or jeopardizing quality:
                                              ➢       If everything is fine, then “it turns out the team is performing better than
                                                      originally estimated”.


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               4.8 Monitoring & Control – EVM




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                                                                                       Project Projections




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                                          ●
                                              Start with:
                                              ➢       Budget At Completion (BAC) = original total planned project cost.

                                          ●
                                              Calculate Estimate To Completion (ETC):
                                              ➢       How much the project will cost from here to the end.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       EAC = ( BAC – EV ) / CPI

                                          ●
                                              Calculate Estimate At Completion (EAC):
                                              ➢       How much the project will cost in total.
                                              ➢       EAC = BAC / CPI

                                          ●
                                              Calculate Variance At Completion (VAC):
                                              ➢       What will be the difference in cost from the original plan.
                                              ➢       VAC = BAC – EAC

                                          ●
                                              Together with CPI and SPI, these provide the most objective
                                              measurements you can provide of the project performance.
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              4.9 Monitoring & Control – Problem Resolution




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                                                                                   Resolution Options




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                                                        Some common project problems and potential resolutions.
                                          Problem                          Resolution
                                          Cost or Schedule                 Crashing: Add resources, ideally the most highly skilled person
                                                                           possible that has just done the same job.
                                          Cost or Schedule                 De-scope: Move non-essential scope to a later project or phase.
                                          Quality                          Reviews: Add Customer reviews, and disposition feedback into
                                                                           Essential, Later, Noted, then only work in the Essential items.
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                                                                                                                                                                                 Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          Quality                          Peer Reviews: Ask 3 to 5 colleagues to review work prior to delivery
                                                                           for any issues the author is too close to see.
                                          Schedule                         Fast Tracking: Start some deliverables early based on partial
                                                                           completely of preceding work.
                                          Schedule                         Stand Ups: Meet each morning for 20 minutes: “What did you do
                                                                           yesterday, what are you going to do today, and is there anything
                                                                           preventing you from doing it?”
                                          Scope Creep                      Requirements Trading: Trade out requirements at least equal to the
                                                                           new scope being added.
                                          Scope Difficulty                 Subcontract: Transfer the work to an organization that is expert in
                                                                           the type of work required.
                                          User Acceptance                  Pilot & Phase: Deploy parts of the solution to parts of the
                                                                           organization to obtain an interim success to build on.
                                          Vendor Management                Onsite Status: Visit the site where the vendor is doing the work to
                                                                           obtain status updates, at least monthly and as much as weekly.
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               4.9 Monitoring & Control – Problem Resolution




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                                                                                  Persuasion Techniques




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                                          ●
                                              Sometimes it is difficult to persuade people to move to a needed position.
                                          ●
                                              Start by finding the issues of most importance to them:
                                              ➢     Simply ask them.
                                              ➢     Then investigate how your proposal supports those issues.

                                              Find a third party person or organization they respect that supports your position.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●



                                          ●
                                              When required, establish they are standing on a “burning platform”:
                                              ➢     Most human beings are twice as motivated to avoid failure as to obtain more success.
                                              ➢     Find real large downsides to their current position – health, legal, etc.
                                              ➢     Show that movement from their current position is therefore urgently important.

                                          ●
                                              Always put your position on one piece of paper:
                                              ➢     A disagreement between people is inherently subjective and can continue forever.
                                              ➢     A piece of paper summarizing the best presentation of your position depersonalizes
                                                    and vastly simplifies the discussion.
                                              ➢     Document any hard numbers and objective information.

                                          ●
                                              Unless it is a make or break issue, look for a win-win compromise by using
                                              negotiating techniques (see Overview chapter).
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              4.10 Monitoring & Control – Reporting




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                                                                                         Project Reporting




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                                          ●
                                              Hold regular review meetings with the Sponsor, Customer,
                                              Stakeholders, Steering Committee, or similar group:
                                              ➢       Formal status typically once a month.

                                          ●
                                              Agree up front a one-page standard report format:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Scope – Status of milestone deliverables.
                                              ➢       Schedule – Gantt chart showing progress.
                                              ➢       Cost – Expenditure compared to the plan.
                                              ➢       Risks – Status and actions being taken.
                                              ➢       Customer – Any requests, issues, or concerns.
                                              ➢       One page is manageable work, and helps prevent the meeting from getting
                                                      bogged down in unimportant issues.

                                          ●
                                              Let Stakeholders know any major problems before the meeting.
                                          ●
                                              This is your main opportunity to publicly ask for help with anything you
                                              cannot solve yourself:
                                              ➢       One of the main reasons your bosses are there.
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               4.10 Monitoring & Control – Reporting




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                                                                                One Page Reporting Template




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                                                     Example used for up to $B projects by global aerospace company.

                                                                   Schedule                                           Milestone                             CPI         SPI

                                                                                        Today                         Milestone 1                          0.96         0.98
                                                                                                                      Milestone 2                          0.95         1.02
                                                                                                                      Milestone 3                          1.01         0.97
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                                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                         :
                                                                                                                         :                    Or just cost status
                                                                                                                         :                    if not using EVM.
                                                                                                                         :

                                          | Sep            | Oct             | Nov         | Dec                      Total                                0.98         0.94

                                                                       Issues                                                              Customer Status
                                          • . . . . . . . .
                                          • . . . . . . . . .                                                           • . . . . . . . .
                                          • . . . . . . . . .
                                                                        Risks                                           • . . . . . . . .
                                          • . . . . . . . . .
                                          • . . . . . . . . .                                                           • . . . . . . . .
                                          • . . . . . . . . .
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              4.11 Monitoring & Control – Summary




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                                                                                        Process Flowchart




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                                          ●
                                              Formally status monthly, meet with project leads weekly.
                                          ●
                                              Fix any divergences from the plan if possible.
                                          ●
                                              Use the risk budget if enough remaining.
                                          ●
                                              Or ask the Stakeholders for assistance and/or direction.
                                                                                                                                          Do this and your project will be
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                                                                                                                                                                                              Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                                                                                       successful in the Stakeholder's eyes,
                                                                                                                                         even if scope, schedule, and/or
                                                                          Y                 Can PM                      N                cost is not achieved as planned.
                                                                                             Fix It?


                                                                                                                            Enough
                                                                                                               Y                                      N
                                                 Solutions:                                                                  Risk
                                                 ● Add experience.                                                          Budget?
                                                 ● Crashing.
                                                 ● Fast-tracking.                                                                                  Ask stakeholders:
                                                 ● Trade scope.                               Draw down                                            ● For assistance.
                                                      :                                      risk schedule                                         ● Which is most
                                                      :                                     and/or $ budget.                                       important – scope,
                                                                                                                                                   schedule, or cost?


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2
               4.11 Monitoring & Control – Summary




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                                                                          Exercise 4.3 – Monitoring & Control




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                                          Class discussion about work experience:

                                          ●
                                              How is regular project monitoring and control performed on your
                                              projects?
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Scope, cost, time, risk?
                                                  Any use of earned value management?
                                                  Could it be improved?

                                          ●
                                              How are project evaluations and reporting performed on your work
                                              projects?
                                                  Who does the Project Manager report to?
                                                  How often are they held?
                                                  What is communicated?
                                                  Could they be improved?


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              4. Monitoring & Control – Summary




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                                                                                        Chapter Summary




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                                          ●
                                              Status the triple constraint (scope, time, cost), and burn rate of the risk budgets at
                                              least monthly and more often for shorter and critical projects.
                                          ●
                                              If the risk budget is being consumed too fast, project the impact, and ask the
                                              Stakeholders for feedback on what is most important to them – scope, time, or cost.
                                          ●
                                              Take the time to communicate regularly with all Stakeholders and manage their
                                              expectations.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Hold a weekly meeting with the project leads, and status and update the project level
                                              issues list – never cancel this meeting.
                                          ●
                                              Solve Scope Creep, the second most common cause of project failure, by instituting a
                                              rigorous change control process, and try very hard to either implement in the next
                                              project, or trade out scope equivalent in impact to that added.
                                          ●
                                              Hold a stand-up 20 minute meeting each morning for schedule critical projects, ask
                                              what each lead what they did yesterday, what they will do today, and if there is
                                              anything preventing them from accomplishing it.
                                          ●
                                              Critical chain management is the most effect method of schedule management:
                                              ➢    Use unpadded estimates within the schedule.
                                              ➢    Add one overall time buffer at the end of the project before the key Customer event.
                                              ➢    Add some time buffer before critical resources that if missed will blow up schedule.
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              4. Monitoring & Control – Summary




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                                                                              Chapter Summary (Cont'd)




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                                          ●
                                              Catch up schedule by crashing and fast tracking, on the critical path, in areas of least
                                              risk.
                                          ●
                                              Track all costs, material, services, and personnel time – with cost account codes that
                                              map to one or more deliverables.
                                          ●
                                              The best way to manage cost is to manage scope, schedule, and risks.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Edward Deming - “Quality must be planned in, not inspected in.”
                                              ➢    Use informal peer reviews for every deliverable where possible.
                                              ➢    Conduct frequent user reviews, however only work in essential items.

                                          ●
                                              Status the risk register at least monthly, look for triggers, use budget to help manage if
                                              needed, and add, adjust, or remove (careful!) risks as appropriate.
                                          ●
                                              Earned Value Management provides an easy way to measure cost and schedule
                                              performance that is directly related to the amount of work accomplished, and enables
                                              objective extrapolations of future performance.
                                          ●
                                              Look for common issues and consider previously successful solutions (see chart).
                                          ●
                                              Hold a formal project evaluation at least monthly:
                                              ➢    Use a one page report format – easy and helps prevent being sidetracked.
                                              ➢    Ask for help from the Stakeholders whenever needed.

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                                                                                               Phase 5




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                                                                          Project Closure
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                                                                                                                                                                                 Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                         Finalize Everything

                                                “The discipline you learn and character you build from setting and
                                          achieving a goal can be more valuable than the achievement of the goal itself.”
                                                                                      – Bo Bennett, 1933 -




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                                                                       Phase 5 – Project Closure




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                                                                               5.1 – Introduction
                                                                         226. Project Manager Role

                                                                                5.2 – Contracts
                                                                         227. Contract Closure

                                                                                       5.3 – Delivery
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                                                                                                                                                                             Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                                         228.     Delivery Key Points
                                                                         229.     Transition to Operations
                                                                         230.     Project Handover
                                                                         231.     I.T. System Delivery

                                                                             5.4 – Lessons Learned
                                                                         232. Lessons Learned Capture

                                                                              5.5 – Team Transition
                                                                         233. People Transition

                                                                                5.6 – Final Report
                                                                         234. Final Report

                                                                              5.7 – Team Closeout
                                                                         235. Team Closeout

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              5.1 Closing – Introduction




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                                                                                 Project Manager Role




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                                          ●
                                              PM is responsible – everyone else may scatter to their next job.

                                          ●
                                              Work with contracting department to ensure contracts are closed.
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Ensure a smooth transition to any project maintenance personnel.

                                          ●
                                              Ensure lessons learned are documented.

                                          ●
                                              Help team members transition to other projects or back to their
                                              functional organization.

                                          ●
                                              Prepare a final report for Stakeholders.

                                          ●
                                              Have some kind of a celebration to bring team closure.

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              5.2 Closing – Contracts




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                                          ●
                                              You are the Customer for any project contracts.

                                          ●
                                              Hold a scope verification meeting:
                                                  Are all deliverables received?
                                                  Are all documents received?
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  Are all tests / demonstrations satisfactory?
                                                  Is all requested training complete?
                                                  Are all facilities built to specification?

                                          ●
                                              Ask your contracts lead to send a written closure notification to all
                                              contractors – formally prevents any further work.

                                          ●
                                              Authorize payment of any remaining invoices – the Project Manager
                                              knows best if the work was done.

                                          ●
                                              Look to your contracts department for assistance with this stage.

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              5.3 Closing – Delivery




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                                                                           Project Delivery Key Points




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                                          ●
                                              Use a team approach to delivery – more people rather than less:
                                              ➢ Ensure all personnel know their role and are ready to respond.

                                              ➢ Distribute a single card with everyone's cell numbers.
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Ensure there is an expert on logistics whenever there is delivery
                                              complexity:
                                                  Manage travel, insurance, proper packing, border issues…

                                          ●
                                              Ensure any sites are prepared before arrival:
                                                  Enough room, furniture, power, air-conditioning, bandwidth…

                                          ●
                                              Provide just-in-time training (JIT):
                                                  Train users immediately before the project delivery or use.
                                                  Never “double-up” people on training aids (books, computers).

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              5.3 Closing – Delivery




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                                                                                 Transition to Operations




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                                          ●
                                              Most completed projects need to be sustained by a different group than
                                              the project team, sometimes called “operations”:
                                                   Facilities are insured, cleaned, repaired.
                                                   Software is patched, maintained, enhanced.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                   Documentation is regularly updated to reflect new information.

                                          ●
                                              Ensure the operations group can do their job:
                                                   The appropriate budget has been identified and approved.
                                                   The required people are in place with the right skills.
                                                   The appropriate training and documentation has been provided.
                                                   Some project personnel are kept available for a defined support period to
                                                    bridge the handover.




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              5.3 Closing – Delivery




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                                                                                          Project Handover




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                                                             Project Team
                                                                             Docm &                  Defined
                                                                             Training               Handover
                                                                                                     Period                            Operations Team
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                                                                                                                                                                                      Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Some projects are complex enough that handover cannot always
                                              practically wait for 100% perfection:
                                              ➢       Construction of a building – minor issues are resolved after move in.
                                              ➢       Development of a software application – minor issues are fixed after
                                                      rollout.

                                          ●
                                              Common handover criteria:
                                              ➢       There must be no Category 1 issues – affect main objective.
                                              ➢       There must be less than “n” Category 2 issues – a workaround exists.
                                              ➢       There must be less than “m” Category 3 issues – minor usability issues.
                                              ➢       The handover criteria should be agreed up-front during planning.
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              5.3 Closing – Delivery




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                                          ●
                                              Big bang:
                                              ➢     Switch over to the new system over a weekend.
                                              ➢     High risk – need backout plan.

                                          ●
                                              Parallel:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢     Run both systems in parallel for some period of time.
                                              ➢     Low risk, high cost.

                                          ●
                                              Pilot:
                                              ➢     Implement for a small group first to build success.
                                              ➢     Low risk – can fix issues before full roll-out.
                                              ➢     Needs an internal champion to sell the pilot organization.
                                                                                                                                                           Can combine.
                                          ●
                                              Phased:
                                              ➢     Implement the system in a serious of smaller releases.
                                              ➢     Low risk, however needs careful update management.

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              5.4 Closing – Lessons Learned




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                                                                              “Experience is not what happens to a man.
                                                                         It is what a man does with what happens to him.”
                                                                             – Aldous Huxley, Texts and Pretexts, 1932.

                                          ●
                                              Collect during the project if at all possible:
                                              ➢   Use a lessons learned Wiki with one page per project area, accessible to the team during the project
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                                                                                                                                                                                        Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                  – will need to edit once a month to collect related lessons learned together.
                                              ➢   Provide a lessons learned section on any regular report templates.

                                          ●
                                              Alternatively conduct a post-project lessons learned review:
                                              ➢   Invite all available project personnel.
                                              ➢   Walk through the project from beginning to end – use the network diagram.
                                              ➢   Review the risk register for all risks encountered on the project.
                                              ➢   Project the lessons learned document on a screen for maximum productivity.
                                              ➢   Record the lessons, write them up, and distribute to the team for any final comments.

                                          ●
                                              Focus on what went well that you want to repeat, and what did not go well to be improved.
                                              ➢   Never focus on the people who made the mistakes – “no names, no blame”.

                                          ●
                                              Make the lessons learned available to other projects:
                                              ➢   Place in a known online repository – e.g. document management lessons learned folder.
                                              ➢   Provide to the organization librarian or document management group.

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              5.5 Closing – Team Transition




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                                          ●
                                              Watch for team morale issues as you get close to the end:
                                              ➢       Maintain the team identity.
                                              ➢       Keep regular meetings going – they can get shorter but don't cancel.
                                              ➢       Emphasize the project is not finished yet.
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                          ●
                                              Provide performance feedback for direct reports:
                                              ➢       To their functional manager if they are matrix personnel.
                                              ➢       Offer to serve as a reference for any external resources.
                                              ➢       Ask your direct reports to do the same for their teams.
                                              ➢       Provide references if asked for later career moves.

                                          ●
                                              Bring good personnel onto your next project where possible.



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              5.6 Closing – Final Report




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                                                                                               Final Report




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                                          ●
                                              Generate a final report on the project for Stakeholders:
                                              ➢       Your opportunity to formally wrap up the project.

                                          ●
                                              Contents:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Introduction – Usual background information on the project.
                                              ➢       Scope, Schedule, Budget – What happened compared to the plan.
                                              ➢       Business Case – Whatever you can tell at this point about whether it was
                                                      realized or not.
                                              ➢       Major Lessons Learned – Stakeholder level information.
                                              ➢       Recommendations – For next steps, future projects.

                                          ●
                                              Send the report to all Stakeholders.

                                          ●
                                              Sometimes hold a meeting to review the report for important projects.

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              5.7 Closing – Team Closeout




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                                          ●
                                              Provide an agreed closure point for the team:
                                              ➢       A finish line for the race.

                                          ●
                                              Have some kind of party or celebration:
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                              ➢       Ensure all project personnel are invited.
                                              ➢       Have some food available, even if just pizza or muffins.
                                              ➢       Give a very brief speech – under 60 seconds:
                                                      ➔
                                                              “We did it, good job, it was a great team effort, thank you, love to work with
                                                              you again, see you next time.”


                                          ●
                                              A small, short celebration is much better than none:
                                              ➢       It is never too late to hold the event – could be well after project ends.
                                              ➢       If there are remote sites, hold a telecon, and ask them to bring muffins.


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              5. Closing – Summary




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                                                                                     Chapter Summary




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                                          ●
                                              PM is responsible for closeout activities – everyone else may
                                              scatter.
                                          ●
                                              Close all contracts, verify all deliveries, provide written legal
                                              notifications.
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                                          ●
                                              Use more people than you need for delivery, and ensure cell
                                              numbers are distributed to all.
                                          ●
                                              Transition to operations, with a good handover, and sufficient
                                              documentation.
                                          ●
                                              Document lessons learned, and make them available to others.
                                          ●
                                              Transition team members, and provide feedback for all project
                                              leads / direct reports.
                                          ●
                                              Write a final report and distribute to the Stakeholders.
                                          ●
                                              Hold a celebration to bring the project to a close for the team.
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              Fin




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                                                                                                      FIN




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                                                                “All success is rooted in either luck or failure.
                                                           If you begin with luck, you learn nothing but arrogance.
                                                          However, if you begin with failure and learn to evaluate it,
                                                           you also learn to succeed. Failure begets knowledge.
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                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal Single-User Non-Commercial Use
                                                          Out of knowledge you gain wisdom, and it is with wisdom
                                                                    that you can become truly successful.”
                                                                         – Standish Group, Chaos Report, 1995,
                                                                        First major review of project performance.




                                                                     “Or you can take a training course and learn from
                                                                          the experience of thousands of others.”
                                                                                     – William Stewart, 2012.




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