Identity Development in Adolescence by tuKkt86


									          The Self

 Samuel R. Mathews, Ph.D.
 Department of Psychology
The University of West Florida
                     The Self

• Development of identity grounded in:
  – Cognitive development
     • Emergence of self reflection on emotions and
  – Experiences with peers & family
     • Changing roles, expectations & responsibilities
  – Experiences with culture at large
     • Changing expectations in autonomy (broad
       socialization) & interdependence (narrow
              The Selves
• Ideal Self—the optimal state of the
• Actual Self—reality
• Possible Self—likely outcome
• Feared Self—worst possible
• False Self—one’s image management
              Identity and Self
• Self Concept:
  – Generalized view of self
    • Childhood—more physical
    • Adolescence—more psychological
• Social Comparison
  – Estimation based on social comparisons
  – Upward comparison: realistic comparison can
    lead to improved functioning; unrealistic
    comparison can lead to frustration
  – Downward comparison: can lead to lower
    efforts to improve
                Identity and Self
• Outcome of Social Comparison:
  – Baseline Self Esteem
     • Ambient level of evaluation
     • Stable yet malleable
  – Barometric Self Esteem—
     • Moment to moment/day to day sense of self
     • Contextually determined
                  Identity and Self
• Outcome of Social Comparison: Self Esteem
  – Harter’s work: Perceived Competence
    • Eight scales (pg. 152)
    • Scale with highest impact is physical appearance
       – Impacts females more than males
       – Peers & Families tend to relate to which domains are more

• Issues surrounding self esteem/social
  comparison tends to be more focused in USA
                 Identity and Self
• Emotionality and Identity Development:
  – Neurological Basis:
     • Amygdala more active than frontal lobes in adolescents
     • Frontal lobe more active than amygdala in adults
  – Higher reports of negative emotions (self-
    conscious; embarrassed; lonely)
     • Likely based on multiple life changes with onset of
       adolescence (e.g. school, family, peers)
     • Feminine girls reported less sense of voice than
       any other group
Identity: Key Constructs

• Autonomy
  – A sense that the individual participates
    actively and with some degree of control in
     • About self
     • In interactions with others
  – Patterns of family interactions inhibit or
    enhance this decision-making
Identity: Key Constructs

• Individuation:
  – As adolescents make decision and
    experience consequences they begin to
    define themselves as different from others
  – Adolescents begin to separate the affective
    element of an event and the intellectual
    analysis of that event
Identity: Key Constructs

• Individuation (cont’d)
  – Families impact this process
     • Allowing decision-making within boundaries
       supports the process of individuation
     • Openness of emotions within family supports this
     • Supporting exploration within boundaries can lead
       to free but cautious explorations by the adolescent
     • Positive outcomes follow from a balance of
       independence and familial closeness
Erikson’s Perspective on Identity Dev.

• Fifth stage in Erikson’s psychosocial
  theory of development
• Individual has likely acquired major tools
  of the culture
• Emphasis shifts to establishing an identity
  separate from but related to family of
Erikson’s Perspective on Identity Dev.

• Explorations beyond the family system
  increase and provide a sampling of
  alternatives to that family system

• Individuals who explore and internalize a
  set of values, beliefs, expectations, and
  norms will likely reach an identity achieved
Marcia’s Identity Status Model

• Major constructs:
  – Commitment: construction of a relatively
    stable set of values, beliefs, roles, norms, and

  – Exploration: behaviorally or vicariously
    seeking out experiences typically beyond the
    family or origin
Marcia’s Identity Status Model

• Identity Diffused
  – Neither committed nor engaged in

  – May have some explorations but more of a
    “meandering rather than intentional

  – Seem to be more of a carefree drifting than
Marcia’s Identity Status Model

• Identity Foreclosed—
  – Committed to an identity without significant
  – Focused on well defined goals
  – Behavior conforms to expectations of
  – Lack flexibility and can be defensive
  – Adopt values, beliefs, etc. of authority figures
Marcia’s Identity Status Model

• Identity Moratorium
  – Engaged in exploration of roles, values, etc.

  – Tend to move between conformity and

  – Tend to be more anxious than other statuses
Marcia’s Identity Status Model

• Identity achieved
  – Tend to have resolved questions about their
    own values, norms, etc.
  – More thoughtful and introspective
  – Can explain their explorations and choices
  – Perform well under stress
  – Tend to resolve moral dilemmas at high levels
    of moral reasoning
           Domains of Exploration

•   Gender Role/Sexual Identity
•   Ideological/Political/Theological
•   Career
•   Interpersonal (may be beyond gender role)
  Intimacy/Isolation: Emerging Adlthd
• Erikson’s 6th Stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation
   – Forming a close and committed relationship
   – Beyond sexual intimacy to emotional intimacy
   – Based on sharing with another without losing one’s
     own identity
   – Typically is observed during emerging adulthood
      Postmodernism and Identity
• One’s Achieved identity is
  – More malleable
  – Grounded in Situational and Temporal
  – Requires a longer course of time
 Ethnic Minority Identity Development

• Defining Minority Status
• Phenny’s Work
  – Stages of Ethnic Identity Development based
     • Interaction with the dominant culture
     • Interaction with one’s own culture
     • Internalization of ethnic and cultural values, beliefs,
       & traditions
 Ethnic Minority Identity Development

• Cross’s Stages (Vandiver, Cross, Worrell,
  & Fhagen-Smith, 2002):

  – Pre-encounter: Assimilation & Self-Hatred

  – Encounter: Experience of events leading to
    reexamination of ethnic perspective
Ethnic Minority Identity Development:
           Cross (cont’d)
 – Immersion-Emersion: deep immersion into
   one’s own culture and potential hatred of the

 – Internalization-Commitment: self acceptance,
   other acceptance; bi-cultural
           Evaluating the Self

• Perceived Self-Efficacy: The perception
  that some outcome can be achieved
  through current knowledge and skills or
  knowledge and skills that can be obtained
 Strategies for encouraging perceived
              self efficacy
• Mastery Experiences—opportunities to succeed
  given challenging but attainable goals

• Vicarious Learning—observing others similar to
  oneself acting and attaining goals
 Strategies for encouraging perceived
              self efficacy
• Verbal/Social persuasion—encouragement and
  instructional (not evaluative) feedback

• Positive Affective Environment—experiences of
  attempting challenging tasks with instructional
  not evaluative feedback; encouragement of
  attempting tasks, not simply succeeding;
Relationship between Self-Efficacy
           and Identity
• mood regulation, and generalized self-
  efficacy were (as expected) important
  codeterminants of late-adolescent identity
  among women, and men’s late adolescent
  identity (Lopes et al, 1992)
Relationship between Self-Efficacy
           and Identity
• It was found that identity exploration and
  commitment, self-efficacy, control, and
  responsibility were predictive of future
  orientation. For younger adolescents,
  greater perceived control and
  responsibility was related to a stronger
  future orientation. (Kerpelman & Mosher,
               The Self Alone
• Two aspects:
  – Social Loneliness: number of social contacts
  – Emotional Loneliness: quality of social

• Emotional Loneliness predictive of
  negative outcomes
  – Emerging adulthood has higher levels of
    emotional loneliness than either adolescence
    or adulthood.
          Discussion Questions
• List 4-5 terms you would use to describe
  yourself as you remember it during middle

• List 4-5 terms you would use to describe
  yourself as you are now

• Compare the two lists and describe how
  they are alike and how they are similar.

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