Diligence and Thrift

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					    Diligence and Thrift

Efforts at moral suasion in public life
German inspiration for pro-active
    Japanese bureaucracy
1880s Bismark: combat revolutionary
  socialism with state socialism
  – Workers given health insurance, disability and
    old age pensions
  – Regulation of labor conditions
  Younger Historical School of
 Economics (1872 Verein für Sozialpolitik)
• Reaction against        • Emphasis on:
                             – Historical basis of social
  classic liberalism:          conditions
   – Universalist            – Ethical interest in whole
     rationalism               society, social harmony,
                               national greatness, cultural
   – Abstract reasoning        creativity
   – Individualism           – Intervention by state as the
                               highest institution of
   – Internationalism          morality; socially conscious
                               monarch and bureaucracy
• Against socialism          – Unabashed nationalism
   Influences on Japanese theorists
• “Social Monarchy: Hermann Roesler 1887 memo
  on constitution, “To overcome class conflict and
  to maintain an ethical political attitude that places
  the welfare of the whole above class interests, the
  institution of hereditary monarchy is of
  inestimable value.”
• In Japan’s case, Japanese bureaucrats advocated
  preventive action. E.g., 1891 Kanai Noboru (1865-
  1933), “If workers are treated like beasts, then
  after several decades unions and socialism will
  appear. If now we concentrate on protection we
  can prevent unions and the spread of
  socialism.”[Kenneth Pyle, “Advantages of Followership,” JJS 1 (1974): 127-64.]
  Concrete policy measures advocated
         (Kuwata Kumazô, 1868-1932)

• Factory regulations inre hours/conditions,
  women and child labor
• Tenancy regulations
• Poor relief laws
• Compulsory worker’s insurance
• Credit cooperatives
• Progressive tax policies
• Local Improvement Movement
• Home Ministry
• 1900-1918
• Many policies, including a Central
  Hôtokukai in 1906
• “thought guidance” (shisô zendô)
Ninomiya Sontoku (1787-1856)
  Industrial Welfare Association

• 1930s blue collar family ideal?
• 1932; 1930; 1936
  Industrial Welfare Association

• Women as productive factory workers
• 1934; 1934
  Industrial Welfare Association

• Women as productive in the home and
  neighborhood: 1929; 1931
  Japanese postal service posters

• 1933: “Gather round, Calesthenics for Health: Radio
  Taiso, 5 years”
• 1936: “March 10: Day for Diligence and Thrift Savings”
         British WWI posters
         (Roger N. Mohovich Collection, Georgetown University)

• 1917, 1919 war posters

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