IT Motor Development by WV05FP

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									                                                    Head Start

                      Arizona Head Start TTA Office
                 Infant Toddler Summer Webinar Series:

                                 Motor Development
                              Mary Kramer Reinwasser, M.Ed.
                             Arizona State-Based TTA Manager



Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Agenda

 •    Uniqueness of infancy
 •    Responsibility of adults
 •    Physical characteristics
 •    Principles of development
 •    Reflexes and responses of a newborn
 •    Gross motor development
 •    Influences on motor development



 Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  2
 A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Learning Outcomes

 • Participants will be able to identify major motor
   milestones during the toddler years.
 • Participants will be able to name several influences
   on motor development.
 • Participants will be able to describe the three types
   of perception.




 Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  3
 A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
The Uniqueness of Infancy


  • The specificity of the inborn
    inclination to learn and
    develop
  • The holistic nature of
    learning
  • Rapid movement through
    three major developmental
    stages




  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  4
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Responsibility of Adults

  • Adults support learning
    respectfully and
    responsively to child’s
    lessons not create lessons
    for child
  • Adult facilitates learning in
    a holistic manner
  • Adults respond to the need
    that fit with the child’s
    developmental age


  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  5
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
General Physical Characteristics

  Infants:
  • Head: cone-shape, fontanels
  • Hair: varies, may fall out
  • Eyes: color changes
  • Skin: breakouts
  • Umbilical cord: cleaning
  • Feet: rotating in, arch



  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  6
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
General Physical Characteristics

  Toddlers:
  •    Gains 5 to 6 pounds during second year
  •    Leaner, more muscular build by third year
  •    Head is still larger proportionally
  •    High, rounded, prominent forehead resulting from rapid brain
       & cranial growth
  •    By 2 ½ years, most children have all their deciduous or “baby”
       teeth
  •    Skeletal development continues (lengthen and ossify)
  •    Adipose, or fatty, tissue decreases
  •    By age 3, visual acuity is about 20/30

  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  7
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Principles of Development



  • Cephalocaudal
  • Proximodistal
  • General to specific




  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  8
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Motor Development




 Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  9
 A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Newborn Reflexes and Response




 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyVLD0hl0XY&feature=related


 Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  10
 A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Infant Motor Milestones

  • First few weeks after birth: Controlling the head and trunk
  • Three months: Able to raise head and chest when on her
    tummy; can grasp small objects that are placed in her hand.
  • Four to Six months: Able to roll from tummy to back and back
    to tummy; able to hold objects and move them from one
    hand to another.
  • Eight to nine months: Can sit without support; May crawl or
    creep across the floor.
  • Nine to Fourteen months: Creeping and/or crawling; can pull
    up and stand; may walk with or without support.


  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  11
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
12 – 18 Months

 • crawls well                                                          • enjoys carrying small objects
 • stands alone, sits down                                                while walking, often one in
 • gestures or points to indicate                                         each hand
   wants                                                                • holds crayon and scribbles,
 • likes to push, pull, and dump                                          but with little control
   things                                                               • waves bye-bye and claps
 • pulls off hat, socks, and mittens                                      hands
 • turns pages in a book                                                • walks without help
 • stacks 2 blocks                                                      • enjoys holding spoon when
                                                                          eating, but experiences
 • likes to poke, twist, and                                              difficulty in getting spoon into
   squeeze                                                                mouth
 • enjoys flushing toilets and                                          • rolls a ball to adult on request
   closing doors
  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
                          18 – 24 Months

• walks well                                                        • bends over to pick up toy
• likes to run, but can't                                             without falling
  always stop and turn well                                         • walks up steps with help
• drinks from a straw                                               • takes steps backward
• feeds self with a spoon                                           • enjoys sitting on and
• helps wash hands                                                    moving small-wheeled
• stacks 2-4 blocks                                                   riding toys
• tosses or rolls a large ball                                      • begins to gain some
                                                                      control of bowels and
• opens cabinets, drawers,                                            bladder
  and boxes


Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
24 – 36 Months

• has almost a full set of                                             • scribbles vigorously with
  teeth                                                                  crayons or markers
• walks up and down stairs                                             • many children (but not all)
  by holding onto railing                                                will learn to use toilet
• feeds self with spoon                                                • walks without help
• experiments by touching,                                             • walks backwards
  smelling, and tasting                                                • tosses or rolls a large ball
• likes to push, pull, fill, and                                       • stoops or squats
  dump                                                                 • opens cabinets, drawers
• can turn pages of a book                                             • can bend over to pick up toy
• stacks 4-6 objects                                                     without falling

 Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
 A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Perception and Development
  Perception is the neurological process by which sensory
                      input is organized.
 • Visual perception: ability to recognize and discriminate faces,
   patterns, sizes, shapes, depth, distance, etc.
 • Auditory perception: use of auditory cues to identify people,
   objects, events, etc.
 • Tactile-kinesthetic perception: provides information relating
   to touch, texture, temperature, weight, pressure, and one’s
   own body positions, presences, or movements
 • Perceptual-motor: uses visual, auditory, tactile, and other
   sensory data to plan and carry out motor activities



 Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  15
 A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Influences on Motor Development

                                                                     Genetics
                                                                        – From central to
                                                                           peripheral
                                                                        – From head to toe
                                                                        – General to specific
                                                                        – From reflex to
                                                                           intentional
                                                                     Practice
 Environment                                                            – New skills build out of
    ⁻ Growth, strength, nutrition                                          prior abilities
    ⁻ Motivation                                                        – Motor pathways are
                                                                           refined through use.
  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                                    16
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Motor Activity Examples

  •    Rolling Over
  •    Blowing Bubbles
  •    Crossing the Midline
  •    Pat-A-Cake
  •    Splish Splash
  •    Early Manipulative Skills
   Learning by Leaps and Bounds by Rae Pica
  http://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/201007/
             LeapsNBoundsOnline.pdf



  Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  17
  A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Summary

 • There is a general, unfolding pattern of
   development.
 • Development follows certain principles.
 • There are hereditary and environmental influences
   on motor development.
 • Responsive caregiving is essential in supporting the
   development of infants and toddlers.




 Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  18
 A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
 The Arizona Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Office
 and STG International thank you for joining our webinar today!

           Please contact Mary Kramer Reinwasser at
  mary.reinwasser@stginternational.com for more information.

        This presentation, and all 2010 Summer Webinar Series
                    presentations can be accessed at
             http://www.azheadstart.org/AHSA_TTA.html


Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona                                  19
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network

								
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