Biology Crash Course!! by Fzd4JI

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									Biology Crash Course!!
     What are angiosperms?
 Vascularplants, flowering, fruit, roots,
 stems, leaves
    What are gymnosperms?
 Vascular,   needle leaves, roots, stems,
 cones
    How do ferns reproduce?
 spores
           What is pathogen?
 Virus   or bacteria that can make you sick
  What does food chain show?
 Energy   flow
  What is selective pressure on a
             species?
 Something  that can influence the survival
 of the species
          Types of bacteria
 Archaebacteria—live in any type of
  environment; photosynthesis
 Eubacteria—make you sick
How does a hypothesis become a
            theory?
 When it is supported by consistent data
 from many experiments
Gametes must be haploid because
 They will unite during fertilization to create
 a diploid cell
T or F Enzymes function at a certain pH and
 temperature. Overheating or changing the
pH can lose its ability to catalyze a reaction
           or function properly
      What is phototropism?
 Plant   moves toward the sunlight
          What is geotropism
 Plant(roots) moves toward the earth (for
 nutrients, water)
     The variable being tested
   (independent variable) is the
          variable that:
 Changes   (ex: temperature, sunlight, pH)
If two populations are being tested and one
is moved to another location and a scientist
notes physical variations in the populations.
The variations were probably caused by the

 Environment
 Evidence of common ancestry:
 Fossilcomparison
 DNA/similar genes
 Embryo development similarities
 Body structure
The variable being changed by the
  scientist (ex. pH, temperature,
      amount of light) is the


 Independent   variable
   The item being tested (type of
plant, type of algae) should be held
 constant
 A good experiment should have a
         _______ group
 control
The result of the experiment is the
 Dependent   variable (height of plant
 growth)
 A student wants to view cells under the
     compound microscope at a total
  magnification of 400X. If the eyepiece
 is 10X, which of the following objective
         lenses should be used?
 40x
        Observation is what you
 see
  When seeking information go to
   what type of source? Why?
 Professionaljournal, not newspaper or
 textbook. Not biased, includes new
 discoveries
What type of instrument came first
  in the study of living things?
 Microscope   (light)
What two scientists collaborated to
   come up with DNA model?
 Watson   and Crick
 What does collaborate mean?
 Work   together
   T or F: Science requires many
      people to work together
 True
 What is the total magnification to
 view onion cells using 10X ocular
           lens and 50x.
 500x
  Why should you lay a coverslip
  down at an angle over a slide?
 Reduce   bubbles
 What discovery allowed scientists
   to view monera and protista
            kingdom?
 Electron   microscope
  A scientist designed an experiment to test the
      effect of temperature on bacterial growth.
      What was the independent variable in this
        experiment? The dependent variable?

 Temperature.   Bacteria growth
      What is a hypothesis?
 Educated   guess
    What universal system of
  measurement do scientists use?
 metric
  Pasteur’s theory using bacteria
 growth in closed container was to
        reject what theory?
 Spontaneous   generation
   At the end of an experiment a
   student would come up with a
 conclusion
If one population is more abundant
  than another, they may have an
 _______ over another population
 advantage
 A control group is the group that
  ______ receive the treatment
 Does   not
 Why is a control group important?
 Allows   for a comparison
What layer of a leaf protects it from
           drying out?
 cuticle
   What is
    this?
 Cell   membrane
 What does
  this do?




 Controls movement of substances in and
 out of the cell
What allows movement
of large substances into
   and out of the cell?
 Protein   channel
        How many cells does a
         paramecium have?
 one
    This type of cell has no cell
 specialized organelles; ribosomes
 and no membrane-bound nucleus.
             What is it?
 Prokaryote   (bacteria)
     What is a flagella for?
 movement
  What makes a copy of DNA to
        make a protein?
 mRNA
What carries coded information out
 of the nucleus to the ribosome?
 mRNA
 What characteristics do all living
         things share?
 Have   DNA
  What is responsible for “rough”
    appearance of the ER?
 ribosomes
   What are the three shapes of
            bacteria?
 Rod,   sphere, spiral
This type of cell has a nucleus and
    cell organelles. What is it?
 Eukaryotic   cell
 What feature does eukaryote and
        prokaryote share?
 DNA   and ribosomes
What functions like the brain of the
              cell?
 nucleus
      What is the cell theory?
 Cells arise from cells
 Cells are the building blocks of organisms
         Plant cell contains

 Cell wall (support)
 Chloroplasts (photosynthesis)
 Central vacuole (water and nutrient
  storage)
What part of the cell transports and
  delivers substances (cell post
               office)

 Endoplasmic   reticulum
 Where does cell respiration occur
     (powerhouse of cell)?
 mitochondria
    What organelle is present in
    prokaryote and eukaryotes?
 Ribosome    (both will perform protein
 synthesis)
What process is similar in bacteria
       and animal cells?
    What organelle repackages
  substances so they can shipped
 out of the cell or used by the cell?

 Golgi   apparatus (body)
 What organelle digests (recycles
           materials)
 lysosome
   What organelle manufactures
            proteins?
 ribosome
  What are proteins made out of?
     Where are they made?
 Amino   acids; ribosome
     What are lipids made of?
 Fatty   acids
What are carbohydrates made of?
 Monosaccharides   (simple sugars)
  What nucleic acids (DNA) made
                of?
 nucleotides
What part of the bacterium allows it
to recognize different substances in
      the outside environment?
 Cell   wall
  Escherichia coli is the scientific
   name of a bacterium. What
    category of classification is
    Escherichia? What is coli?
 Genus
 species
  An important feature of modern
 classification systems is that they
 Incorporate   new discoveries
 Mollusks (clams) are what type of
              feeder?
 filter
  What animal has no specialized
              cells?
 sponge
   Animals with brains and dorsal
      nerve chords are what
          classification?
 chordates
 Vertebrates have what feature
 backbone
 What are features of arthropods?
 Jointedappendages
 External skeleton
       (2002-17) One method of determining the
        classification of an animal is by comparing the
        amino acid sequence. Which of these animals
        most closely resembles the unknown animal?
         Mouse: Met-Gly-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-His- Glu-Val-Val-
          Leu
         Dog: Met-Gly-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-His-Asp- Glu-Lys-
          Asp
         Horse: Met-Gly-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Arg-Arg- Asp-His-Glu-
          Lys-Asp
         Cat: Met-Gly-Ser-Tyr-Tyr-Arg-His-His- Arg-Cys-
          Thre-Asp
 two organisms will be related the
 more amino acid sequences they
     have in common. T or F

 true
       (2001-29) According to this chart, the insects that are most closely
        related are the —
          springtails and bristletails
          springtails and proturans
          bristletails and mayflies
          dragonflies and proturans
   Moist skin, internal skeleton,
 ectothermic, lays eggs, live in wet
        areas. What am I?
 amphibian
Lays eggs, airtight skin, live on land,
  scales, ectothermic. What am I?

 reptile
I am endothermic, have hair, nurse
 my young, give birth to live young.
           What am I?
 mammal
What is the definition of a species?
 Breed   and produce fertile offspring
 I only have a strand of DNA and
  ribosomes. What classification
               am I?
 monera
     I have a cell wall; do not carry on
    photosynthesis; decompose dead
   organisms; external digestion. I am a
         heterotroph. What am I?

 fungus
I can be single celled; reproduce sexually or
     asexually; have flagella or cillia for
movement. I can make my own food through
photosynthesis; Live in water and I can make
    you very ill. What classification am I?

 protist
       (2005-46) This key can be used to distinguish four species of frogs found in ponds
        in eastern Virginia. To which species does the frog shown belong?
           Rana virgatipes
           Rana sphenocephala
           Rana clamitans
           Rana catesbeiana
  Photosynthesis converts light
 energy into what type of energy?
 Chemical   energy
 Photosynthesis is important for all
  life forms because is produces
 oxygen
Scientists hypothesize that oxygen
 began to accumulate in Earth’s
atmosphere after the appearance
 of living things with the ability to
 Photosynthesize   (photosynthetic bacteria)
  Maintaining an internal balance
regardless of external conditions is
               called
 homeostasis
    The processes of photosynthesis
    and respiration can be thought of
          as a cycle because

    the products of one are used as the
     raw materials of the other
What of these processes is carried
out in the same way in both plants
            and animals
 Cell   respiration
   Sugar is broken down into an
     energy molecule called
 ATP
  What does fungus lack does not
allow them to make their own food?
 Chlorophyll
 An organism that cannot make its
        own food is called
 heterotroph
 An organism such as a plant that
  can make its own food is called
 autotroph
       In the diagram, which organism provides nutrients for
        the largest number of other organisms?
         Bluefish
         Seal
         Snapper
         Herring
   In the food pyramid, what organism is the producer?
   Algae
   What is the top consumer?
   Bass
   What has the most energy?
   Algae
   What has the most biomass?
   Algae
   What is the producer?
   algae
    What is required by all living
              things?
 energy
  Insects can stand on the top of
       water because why?
        tension from adhesion and
 Surface
 cohesion
 Water evaporating from leaves is
             called
 transpiration
 Water evaporating from lakes and
          rivers is called
 evaporation
    What will happen to a salty
  organism placed in fresh water
 Gain   water
 What will happen to a fresh water
  organism placed in salt water
 Lose   water
    What is the most abundant
   substance in the human body
              (cells)
 water
What is a unique property of water
 Holds heat
 Dissolves substances
   Diffusion of water is called
 osmosis
 Bacteria are tremendously successful unicellular
      organisms, yet all large organisms are
 multicellular. Unicellular organisms cannot grow
              very large because the

 Diffusion   would be too slow
 What molecule makes up the cell
 membrane; insulates to maintain
    heat and stores energy?
 lipids
     What do enzymes do?
 Enzymes act as catalysts to drive
 chemical reactions forward
What part of an enzyme is involved
       in catalytic activity?
 Active   site
What does the enzyme bind to?
 substrate
 Enzymes only work with specific
substrates because each substrate
 Enzymes   have a specific active site
     Most cellular activities are
 processes regulated by the action
                 of
 enzymes
  What do carbohydrates do?
 Make   energy
     A relationship where both
     organisms benefit is called
 mutualism
A relationship where one organism
    is harmed and the other is
         benefited is called
 parasitism
  The relationship between plants
        and fungus is called
 mycorrhizae
 In which biome do the evaporation
rates exceed the precipitation rates
 desert
   Which of these is the greatest
 limiting factor for plants that grow
     on the floor of a rain forest
 sunlight
Organisms of one species make up
               a
 population
  Many different organisms living
       together is called a
 community
All different living (biotic) and non-
living (abiotic) factors make up an
 ecosystem
       Primary succession
 rocks→soil→small   plants→shrubs→trees
      Secondary succession
 soil→small   plants→shrubs→trees
 Birth and death rate are the same
             is called a
 Climax   community
       What is the main cause of fish kills in
        rivers polluted by fertilizers?
         Decreased oxygen levels
         Increased water temperatures
         Decreased mineral sources
         Increased water levels
 Decreased genetic diversity leads
               to
 Decreased   disease resistance
  Animals that are the least specialized
generally stand the best chance of survival
when the environment suddenly and drastically
      changes because they are able to:


 Adapt   to different conditions
     Same species can become
 different species when they live in
    different areas. This is called
 Geographic   isolation
     Same species can become
different species when they mate at
    different times. This is called
 Reproductive   isolation
Adapting to a new habitat is called
 Adaptive   radiation
 An important difference between
  viruses and living cells is that
             viruses
 cannot   reproduce outside of host cells
       Which of these could be successfully
        treated with antibiotics?
         Strep throat
         Common cold
         HIV
         Influenza
    Being exposed to excessive
   radiation can cause mutations
          which can lead to
 cancer
  Which characteristic do viruses
possess in common with living cells
 DNA   or RNA
What characteristic about bacteria
 leads it to become resistant to
             antibiotics
 Reproduces   quickly
 What does meiosis produce?
 gametes
   Where does meiosis occur
 Ovary   or testis
 What phase is
    this?
 prophase
What phase is
   this?
 metaphase
What phase is
   this?
 anaphase
  What phase is
     this?
 telophase
 The reduction of the chromosome
  number during meiosis is most
           important for
 Maintaining   the chromosome number
    What is the phase when the
       cytoplasm divides?
 cytokinesis
   Mitosis occurs in what type of
               cells?
 Body   cells (somatic)
       If a body cell has 46
 chromosomes, how many will an
egg cell have? What is this number
              called?

 23
 haploid
     DNA must replicate during
interphase before a cell does what?
 divides
What are the four steps of mitosis?
 Prophase
 Metaphase
 Anaphase
 telephase
 What part of the flower
 does fertilization take
        place?




 Ovary   of the pistil
Cones (gymnosperms) and flowers
(angiosperms) are specialized for
 Sexual   reproduction
   The ability/characteristic of a
species to best be suited to survive
    its environment is called an
 adaptation
    Why did mammals have an
    advantage to dinosaurs that
   allowed them to survive even
 though dinosaurs became extinct
 Endothermic   body temperature
  What type of
 skull would this
   belong to—
  herbivore or
   carnivore?

 herbivore
   What was the human genome
     project designed to do?
 findthe genes responsible for many
  diseases
 Over many generations, unrelated
  or distantly related species may
 come to resemble each other due
                   to

 Similar   environments
       ) In rabbits, short fur (F) is dominant to long fur
        (f). According to the Punnett square, what is
        the chance of two heterozygous short-haired
        rabbits having offspring with short fur?
         One in four
         Three in four
         Two in four
         Four in four
    Individuals survive that have
   inherited traits adapted to their
        environment is called
 Natural   selection
Lamarcks theory of how organisms
change over time (use it or lose it)
 Acquired   characteristics
 DNA that is derived from the DNA
 of two or more different species is
               called

 Recombinant   DNA
 A genetic pedigree showing only
 males are effected is a ____ trait
 Sex-linked
           Homozygous trait
 Same   alleles (TT or tt)
          Heterozygous trait
 Different   alleles (Tt)
    DNA can fit inside a nucleus
          because it is
 Coiled   tightly around proteins
 The shape of DNA is called a
 Double   helix
       According to this table, a codon AGC is the code for which amino
        acid?
          Cysteine (Cys)
          Leucine (Leu)
          Serine (Ser)
       Tyrosine (Tyr
A  chart of human chromosome pairs is
  called a karyotype. What information is
  revealed in the karyotype above
 The sex. What sex is it?
 female
             GCTA
  The code representing RNA is
 CGAU
 The code representing DNA is
 ATGC
       (2005-35) This chart compares the base sequences of
        homologous segments of DNA from three primates. Based on this
        information, how many differences in the resulting amino acid
        sequences would you expect to find between humans and
        chimpanzees?
          2
          3
          4
          6
What is this x ray of?
 Double   helix
 What condition is
      this?
 Trisomy   21
   What type of respiration uses
            oxygen?
 aerobic
What are the parts of the DNA that
 provide the codes for proteins?
 Nitrogenous   bases
What is the mRNA strand matched
   to the DNA strand TGCA?
 TCGU
  Inversion is when a chromosome
    does what? Example ABCDE
              →CBADE
 flips
  Deletion is when a chromosome
  segment ____ ex: ABCDE→DE
 deletes
   What will complete the DNA
      molecule: TCGATA
 AGCTAT

								
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