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Licensing Certification - North Carolina Integrated Pest Management by wuzhenguang


									                          Pesticide Applicator
W. Buhler

            If you apply restricted-use pesticides to agricultural commodities, you must
            be certified or supervised by someone who is certified. And anyone who ac-
            cepts compensation for applying any pesticide on someone else’s property
            must be licensed. Here are the facts about certification and licensing for pri-
            vate and commercial pesticide applicators in North Carolina.*
            Pesticides are vital tools for managing
            pests that reduce crop yield and quality,
            spread disease, congest our waterways,
            or jeopardize our quality of life. The mis-
            use of pesticides, however, can threaten

                                                                                                           M. J. Weaver,
            our health and environment. State and
            federal pesticide laws require applicators
            to be certified by passing one or more
            examinations about pesticides and their
            safe use.
            	 Pesticides	are	classified	by	the	U.S.	
            Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
            as either general-use or restricted-use.              Certification requires knowledge of the
            Restricted-use pesticides have a greater              proper clothing, equipment, and methods to
            potential to harm humans, the environ-                use when mixing and applying pesticides.
            ment,	or	both.	Only	a	certified	pesticide	
                                                                  dealers who sell restricted-use pesticides
            applicator or someone who works under
                                                                  also must be licensed.
            his or her supervision may apply restrict-
            ed-use	pesticides.	There	are	two	classifica-          Training and Testing
            tions	of	certified	applicators:	private and
                                                                  North	Carolina	Cooperative	Extension	
            commercial.	To	become	certified	in	North	
                                                                  conducts 2-day pesticide schools to pre-
            Carolina, applicators must score 70 per-
                                                                  pare prospective applicators for the private
            cent or more on the appropriate closed-
                                                                  and	commercial	applicator	certification	
            book, multiple-choice exam or exams.
                                                                  exams.	Attendance	at	a	pesticide	school	is	
            	 The	North	Carolina	Pesticide	Law	of	
                                                                  not	required	for	certification.	Anyone	who	
            1971 further requires licensing of any
                                                                  wants	to	be	certified	as	a	pesticide	appli-
            individual who is compensated to apply
                                                                  cator must take the appropriate exam(s).
            any pesticide (whether restricted-use or
                                                                  To register for an exam only, call the
            general-use) to someone else’s property;
                                                                  NCDA&CS	(see	the	contact	information	
            any public operator; and any golf course
                                                                  on page 5). Exam dates and locations are
            operator. Pest control consultants and
                                                                  listed on the Pesticide Safety Education
                                                                  Program	and	the	NCDA&CS	Web	sites.
            *For information about certification and licensing    	 The	certification	exams	are	developed,	
            for pesticide applications in and around homes and
                                                                  administered, and graded by the Struc-
            commercial buildings, see Structural Pest Con-
            trol:	A	Certification	Manual	for	North	Caro-
            lina, available through the Pesticide Safety Educa-
            tion Program at NC State University.

tural	Pest	Control	&	Pesticides	Division	of	the	N.C.	           of specialized training (category “X” training) during
Department	of	Agriculture	and	Consumer	Services	                the	three-year	recertification	period.	
(NCDA&CS).	Exam	questions	come	from	study	manuals	
that may be purchased from the Pesticide Safety Educa-
tion	Program	at	N.C.	State	University.	Order	the	study	       •	Pay	for	and	pass	the	Private	Applicator	Exam	again	
materials at least three weeks before taking an exam to         with	a	minimum	score	of	70	percent	on	a	written	
allow adequate time to read and review the information.         exam	administered	by	the	NCDA&CS.	
Some exams are available in Spanish. Fees apply to all
                                                              	 Recertification	through	earning	continuing	educa-
                                                              tion credits must be completed by September 30 of the
	 Bring	a	No.	2	pencil,	calculator,	and	valid	photo	ID	
                                                              year	in	which	certification	expires.	Private	applicators	
to the exam site. Payment can be made by check (pay-
                                                              who have not completed the 4 hours of training by Sep-
able	to	NCDA&CS)	or	money	order	at	the	exam	site.	
                                                              tember	30	must	take	the	written	exam	for	recertification.	  	
Exam	results	will	be	mailed	by	NCDA&CS	within	one	
                                                              Following	completion	of	recertification	requirements,	
to two weeks. Results are also available online through
                                                              private	pesticide	applicators	will	receive	a	Certification	
the	NCDA&CS	Web	site,	generally	within	3	to	7	busi-
                                                              Renewal	Application	from	NCDA&CS.	This	form	must	
ness	days.	If	necessary,	an	exam	may	be	taken	three	
                                                              be	signed	and	returned	to	the	NCDA&CS	with	a	$10	
times in one calendar year.
                                                              renewal fee payable by check or money order. Once the
Private Pesticide Applicators                                 application	and	fee	are	processed,	certification	will	be	
                                                              renewed	for	three	years,	and	a	new	certification	card	
Private pesticide applicators use or supervise the use
                                                              will be mailed to the applicator.
of a restricted-use pesticide to produce an agricultural
commodity on their own property, rented property, or          Specialized Training Credits
property owned by their employers. An agricultural
                                                              Specialized training credits (category “X” training) for
commodity is any plant or part of a plant, as well as any
                                                              private	pesticide	applicators	may	be	earned	by	attending	
animal or animal product, produced for sale, feed, food,
                                                              educational	meetings	approved	for	credit	by	NCDA&CS	
or other uses. Examples of private applicators include
                                                              and conducted by Cooperative Extension, commodity
farmers, nursery operators, Christmas tree growers, and
                                                              groups, private industry, or other associations. Call your
sod producers. A private applicator must be at least 16
                                                              county Extension center or visit the Pesticide Safety Edu-
years	old	before	participating	in	a	certification	program.
                                                              cation	Program	or	the	NCDA&CS	Pesticide	Section	Web	
Requirements for Initial Certification                        sites for a listing of approved classes.
•	Pass	the	50-question	multiple-choice	Private	Appli-         Single-Purchase Emergency Certification Permit
  cator Exam ($10 fee) based on the Applying Pesticides
                                                              An individual who did not anticipate the need for a re-
  Correctly manual and chapters 4 and 5 of the
                                                              stricted-use pesticide and who has not previously been
  Private Applicator (Farmers) Workbook.
                                                              certified	as	a	private	pesticide	applicator	may	obtain	a	
•	The	NCDA&CS	will	send	an	attestation	form	(Applica-         one-time, emergency-use permit from his county Exten-
  tion	for	Private	Pesticide	Certification)	to	people	who	    sion center pesticide coordinator. This permit authoriz-
  pass	the	certification	exam.	The	attestation	form	is	a	     es the purchase and use of one restricted use pesticide
  legal	document	attesting	that	the	applicant	is	involved	    for one application	to	a	crop	or	site.	It	is	made	available	
  in the production of an agricultural commodity.             at the discretion of the county pesticide coordinator. A
                                                              completed copy of the single-purchase emergency-use
•	Sign	the	attestation	form	and	return	it	with	a	$10	
                                                              permit must be turned over to the licensed pesticide
  check	or	money	order	payable	to	NCDA&CS.		
                                                              dealer when the purchase is made. Anyone who uses a
•	Upon	receipt	of	the	signed	form	and	payment,	the	           one-time	emergency-use	permit	must	become	certified	
  NCDA&CS	will	send	the	Private	Applicator	Certifica-         if he or she plans to use restricted-use pesticides again.
  tion	Card.		The	card	will	expire	on	December	31	of	the	     Pesticide	users	in	North	Carolina	can	be	issued	only	one	
  third	year	following	the	year	of	initial	certification.	    single-purchase emergency-use permit.

Recertification                                               Commercial Pesticide Applicators
Private applicators must recertify every three years by       A commercial applicator is anyone who uses or super-
completing	one	of	the	following	requirements:	                vises the use of any pesticide on someone else’s prop-
                                                              erty for compensation. Commercial applicators must
•	Earn	4	hours	of	continuing	education	credits.	Two-
                                                              be	licensed	with	the	NCDA&CS.	Applicators	must	be	
  hour pesticide safety classes (category “V” training)
                                                              certified	in	all categories in which they will operate. See
  are	offered	at	each	county	Cooperative	Extension	cen-
                                                              Table	1.1	for	a	list	of	categories	and	their	letter	designa-
  ter.		In	addition	to	this	2-hour	pesticide	safety	class,	
                                                              tions.	Study	manuals	are	available	for	all	the	certifica-
  each	private	applicator	must	attend	at	least	2	hours	
                                                              tion exams.

                                                           Table 1.1 Commercial Applicator certification (specialty area) categories and recertification
                                                           requirements. (Dealer and Aerial are considered license types, but each has a certification exam.)

                                                             Category and Letter Designation                 Purpose
                                                             Aquatic (A)                                     Pest control in and around water;
                                                              Subclass: Antifouling paints                   Antifouling paints protect hulls of boats
                                                                                                             Control of pests affecting human health
                                                             Public Health (B)                               (excludes bedbugs and other structural                         6
                                                             Dealer (D)                                      Sales of restricted-use pesticides                             5

                                                             Forest (G)                                      Pest control in large forest areas                             6
                                                                                                             Pest control along highways, railroads,
                                                             Right of Way (H)                                                                                               4
                                                                                                             and utilities
                                                                                                             Control of regulated pests (e.g., witchweed,
                                                             Regulatory (I)                                                                                                 6
                                                                                                             gypsy moth)
                                                             Ag. Pest-Animal (K)
                         M. J. Weaver,

                                                              Subclass: Livestock                            Control of pests affecting animals (live-
                                                              Subclass: Poultry                              stock, poultry, or pets)
                                                              Subclass: Pets
                                                                                                             Control of pests affecting ornamentals,
                                                             Ornamental & Turf (L)                                                                                         10
                                                                                                             shade trees, and turf
                                                             Seed Treatment (M)                              Control of pests affecting seeds                               3
                                                                                                             Pesticides used in field demonstration
Commercial applicators                                       Demonstration & Research (N)*                                                                                 10
                                                                                                             or research programs
must be certified in (a) at
                                                                                                             Commercial application of pesticides
least one specialty catego-                                  Ag. Pest-Plant (O)                                                                                            10
                                                                                                             in farming
ry and (b) in all categories
in which they will operate.                                  Aerial (P)*                                     Pesticide application using aircraft                          1**
                                                                                                             Use of restricted-use pesticides in/on
                                                             Wood Treatment (T)                                                                                             4
                                                           *Demonstration & Research and Aerial must be combined with another category or subclass that is appropriate for the
                                                           site(s) where pesticide(s) will be applied.
                                                           **Aerial applicators must earn 1 credit hour in aerial methods, an additional 3 credits for the first subclass, and 1 credit
                                                           for each additional subclass on their Aerial License (during a two-year certification cycle).

Requirements for Initial Certification                                                                    credits by June 30	of	the	year	in	which	certification	
Initial	certification	in	most	commercial	applicator	catego-                                               expires.
ries	requires	passing	two	exams:	the	Core	Exam	based	                                                                   OR
on the material in the Applying Pesticides Correctly and                                                •	Pay	for	and	pass	the	Core	Exam	and	specialized	cat-
North Carolina Pesticide Laws and Regulations manuals, and                                                egory area exam(s) again.
an exam for a category (50 questions). Exam fees, pay-
able	to	NCDA&CS,	are	$50	for	the	Core	and	$20	for	each	                                                 Recertification
category. Additional categories may be added by passing                                                 The	number	of	recertification	credit	hours	needed	for	
the appropriate category exam without taking the Core                                                   each category is listed in Table 1.1. Credits must be
Exam a second time (provided that the Core Exam was                                                     earned in at least two years	during	the	five-year	certi-
passed	in	2004	or	later).	NCDA&CS	will	send	a	Pesticide	                                                fication	period.		Pesticide-recertification	credits	may	be	
License	Application	to	any	person	who	passes	both	ex-                                                   earned	by	attending	educational	programs	that	have	
ams.	The	signed	form	must	be	returned	to	NCDA&CS	                                                       been	pre-approved	for	credits	by	NCDA&CS.	To	lo-
with	the	$75	licensing	fee	(this	fee	is	not	required	for	pub-                                           cate	meetings	approved	for	recertification	credits,	call	
lic	operators;	see	“License	Types”).	Licensing	is	described	                                            your county Cooperative Extension center or visit the
in greater detail in the next section.                                                                  NCDA&CS	Web	site.	Make	certain	that	the	recertifica-
	 Commercial	applicator	certification	expires	on	De-                                                    tion program is approved for the required specializa-
cember	31	of	the	fifth	year	following	initial	certification.	                                           tion category.
There	are	two	recertification	options:	                                                                 	 The	NCDA&CS	sends	periodic	reports	of	credits	
•	Earn	the	required	number	of	continuing	certification	                                                 received	and	credits	needed.	Pesticide-recertification	

credit status (number of credits earned per category)               cies. The applicator being supervised should be
can	also	be	checked	through	the	NCDA&CS	Web	site	                   trained in following the label instructions and be fa-
by clicking on the link to “Credit Status Search.” Allow            miliar with safe handling techniques and pertinent
two	to	three	weeks	for	attendance	records	to	be	posted	             laws and regulations. A licensed applicator will be
on	this	Web	site.	Credits	are	not	carried	over	from	one	            held responsible for any misuse of a pesticide by
recertification	period	to	the	next.	Taking	and	passing	the	         anyone working under his/her supervision.
appropriate	certification	exam	is	the	only	alternative	to	
                                                                2. Public Operator: Anyone who applies or supervises
recertification	via	continuing	education	credits.	
                                                                the application of pesticides for town, city, county, state,
	 Individuals	certified	in	two	or	more	categories	must	
                                                                or federal government agencies must be licensed as a
complete the total number of credits in the category
                                                                public operator. Public utility employees are also con-
carrying the highest requirement and then three credits
                                                                sidered public operators. Public operators study the
in each additional category. For example, Ornamentals
                                                                same manuals and take the same exams as commercial
and	Turf	(L)	requires	10	credits,	and	Aquatics	(A)	re-
                                                                applicators.	No	license	fee	is	required	for	government	
quires	6	credits.	A	person	certified	in	both	categories	is	
                                                                employees, but an annual licensing application must be
required	to	obtain	10	credits	for	(L)	and	3	credits	for	(A).	
                                                                submitted	to	NCDA&CS	each	year.	Public	utility	em-
Note	that	Demonstration	and	Research	always requires
                                                                ployees	must	pay	an	annual	licensing	fee	($75).	Public	
10 credits for renewal. Credits for all categories added
                                                                operator licenses can be mailed only to the address of
during	a	recertification	period	must	be	earned	prior	to	
                                                                a government agency or the utility. To apply pesticides
the	expiration	date	of	the	initial	recertification	period.
                                                                outside of regular government or utility employment
Licensing                                                       requires	a	Commercial	Applicator	License	or	Private	
                                                                Applicator	Certificate.	Contact	the	NCDA&CS	for	the	
A license	is	an	official	or	legal	document	that	gives	
                                                                proper procedures.
permission to apply or supervise the application of any
pesticide within the context of an applicator’s business        3. Pesticide Dealer: Any individual who sells restricted-
or	employment.	Only	a	certified	applicator	in	good	             use	pesticides	to	certified	or	licensed	end	users	must	
standing	can	apply	for	a	pesticide	license.	The	North	          have a pesticide dealer’s license. Each sales outlet must
Carolina	Pesticide	Law	of	1971	requires	each	business	          have	a	licensed	dealer.	Dealer	certification	requires	
location	to	have	a	licensed	pesticide	applicator	on	staff.      passing	the	Dealer	Exam	($50	fee).	No	specialty	area	is	
	 All	licenses	expire	each	year	on	December	31	and	             needed. A pesticide dealer license must be renewed an-
are renewed annually. Only an individual with valid             nually	($75	fee).	A	dealer	cannot	legally	apply	pesticides	
certification	may	renew	a	pesticide	license	by	submit-          to the property of another person without an applicator
ting	a	signed	application	with	a	licensing	fee	of	$75.	         license.
A commercial applicator must be licensed in any year
                                                                4. Aerial Applicator: An	Aerial	Applicator	License	is	re-
in which the applicator will be applying pesticides or
                                                                quired for any individual who applies pesticides by air-
supervising their use. The license also is required to
                                                                craft.	Applicants	for	aerial	licenses	(pilot,	contractor,	or	
purchase a restricted-use pesticide. An applicator must
                                                                apprentice)	must	first	meet	all	requirements	of	the	Fed-
be 18 years old by January 1 of the year in which the li-
                                                                eral Aviation Agency (FAA) to operate the equipment
cense	application	is	submitted.	
                                                                described in an application. A contractor must have an
	 Each	category	of	certification	is	printed	on	the	pesti-
                                                                operating	certificate	issued	by	the	FAA,	and	all	pilots	
cide	license	(by	letter	designation).	The	five	license	cat-
                                                                must have a commercial-type license issued by the FAA.
egories are described below.
                                                                    Pilots must have completed at least 125 hours and
License Types                                                   have	one	year’s	flying	experience	in	aerial	pesticide	ap-
1. Commercial Applicator: Anyone who, for compensa-             plication. A pilot with less than 125 hours and one year’s
tion, uses or supervises the use of any pesticide on the        experience will be licensed as an apprentice and must
property of another. This category may be referred to           operate under the direct supervision of a licensed pilot.
as commercial ground applicator to distinguish it from              The aerial applicator is required to pass the Core
pesticides	applied	by	aircraft	(aerial	applicator).             Exam	($50	fee),	an	exam	in	aerial	methods	($50	fee),	and	
                                                                an exam in the specialty area(s). Specialty area exam
    A note about supervision: The	North	Carolina	Pes-           fees	are	$20	each.	An	aerial	applicator	can	be	certified	in	
    ticide	Law	of	1971	permits	an	unlicensed	pesticide	         any specialty area listed in Table 1.1 except Seed Treat-
    user to apply pesticides under the direct supervi-          ment,	Wood	Treatment,	or	Ag	Pest-Animal.	
    sion	of	a	licensed	applicator.	Unless	stated	other-         	 Aerial	applicator	certification	expires	on	December	
    wise on the pesticide label, the supervisor does not        31	of	the	second	year	following	initial	certification.	Re-
    have to be physically present at the treatment site,        certification	by	training	requires	4	hours	of	approved	
    but must maintain reasonable communication (such            credits:	3	hours	for	the	first	specialty	category,	and	1	
    as phone or radio contact) with the supervised ap-          hour in “aerial methods.” Credits must be obtained by
    plicator and must be able to respond to emergen-            June	30	of	the	second	year	following	certification.	Aerial	

                                                                             The Aerial Applicator License must
                                                                             be renewed annually.

                                                                             rocal licenses are not available for pesti-
                                                                             cide dealers or pest control consultants.
                                                                              Aerial applicator reciprocal licenses are
                                                                             issued in the subclass of public health
                                                                             only and are granted only upon the dec-
                                                                             laration of a public health emergency
                                                                             by	an	authorized	government	official.	
                                                                             Aerial applicator reciprocity is limited
                                                                             to Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia and
                                                                             Mississippi.	This	reciprocal	license	costs	
                                                                             $75	per	year.	
                                                                                Applicators who are licensed in
 USDA-ARS                                                                    North	Carolina	may	qualify	for	a	similar	
                                                                             license in another state. Contact the ap-
applicators	certified	in	more	than	one	category	must	        propriate state agency for details. A list of state regula-
complete 1 extra hour of training for each additional        tory	agencies	can	be	found	at
specialty	area.	The	Aerial	Applicator	License	must	be	       npic/state1.htm.
renewed	annually	($75).	Annual	inspections	of	aircraft	
by	NCDA&CS	cost	$25.                                         Recertification Course Approval
                                                             All	educational	programs	for	pesticide	recertification	
5. Pest Control Consultant: Anyone who, for a fee, of-
                                                             credit (private and commercial) must be pre-approved
fers or supplies technical advice, supervision, or aid,
                                                             by	the	NCDA&CS.	Course	sponsors	may	apply	for	pes-
or	recommends	the	use	of	specific	pesticides	for	the	
                                                             ticide	continuing	education	(recertification)	credits	on-
purpose of controlling insects, plant disease, weeds,
                                                             line	at
or other pests must obtain a Pest Control Consultant
License	($75	annual	fee).	Individuals	applying	for	this	
                                                                 Credit will be given only for pesticide-related topics.
license	must	submit	to	NCDA&CS	a	transcript	show-
                                                             The number of credit hours equates to the number of
ing completion of a four-year degree in an agricultural
                                                             hours of pesticide training scheduled. Approval is sent
or biological science from an accredited college or uni-
                                                             to	the	training	sponsor	via	E-mail.	Recertification	classes	
versity.	A	minimum	of	30	semester	hours	or	45	quarter	
                                                             for the Private Applicator “V” category (safety training)
hours of credit must be documented in subject areas
                                                             may be conducted only by Cooperative Extension.
pertinent to the specialty area(s) in which the individual
wishes	to	consult.	If	the	above	educational	requirements	    Resources
are	met,	a	consultant	must	take	a	written	consultant’s	
                                                             For information on pesticide training manuals
exam	($50	fee)	and	purchase	the	license	($75	fee)	to	be-
                                                             and schools:
come licensed as a pest control consultant. Passing a cat-
egory-specific	exam	in	the	area	of	consultation	(such	as	      Pesticide Safety Education Program
agriculture, forestry, or ornamental and turf) is required     Department	of	Horticultural	Science
as well. A pest control consultant cannot legally apply        North	Carolina	State	University
pesticides to the property of another unless licensed as       Campus	Box	7609,	Raleigh,	NC	27695-7609
an applicator.                                                 919.515.3113	
Reciprocal Licenses
                                                             For information on pesticide laws, certification
Reciprocal pesticide-applicator licenses for commercial      exams, and licensing:
ground applicators are available to nonresidents who
                                                               North	Carolina	Department	of	Agriculture	&	Con-
hold	valid	certification/license	cards	from	Virginia,	
                                                               sumer	Services	(NCDA&CS)
South Carolina, Georgia, or Florida and who expect to
                                                               Structural	Pest	Control	and	Pesticides	Division
make	pesticide	applications	in	North	Carolina.	Eligibil-
                                                               Pesticide Section
ity	for	a	reciprocal	license	requires	passing	a	written	
                                                               1090	Mail	Service	Center
pesticide-certification	exam	in	Virginia,	South	Carolina,	
                                                               Raleigh,	NC	27699-1090
Georgia, or Florida. The annual cost of a reciprocal li-
cense	is	$75.	Pesticide	recertification	can	be	maintained	
through the applicator’s home state or by earning the
appropriate	number	of	credits	in	North	Carolina.	Recip-

   Table 1.2. Summary of Certification and Licensing Requirements

   Certification Type                  Initial Certification Process                      Expiration                        Recertification Process                               Fee

                                    1. Pass the 50-question multiple-
                                    choice Private Applicator Exam
                                    ($10).                                                              Option 1. By Sept.
                                                                                       December 31 30 of the 3rd year,                        Option 2.
   Private applicator               2. Sign the attestation form and                   of the 3rd year. earn 4 credit hours                   Pass the Private                $10 per 3
   (minimum age 16)                 return it to NCDA&CS. This form                                     (2 hours of pesticide                 Applicator Exam                   years
                                    is a legal document attesting to                                    safety and 2 hours of                 again.
                                    the applicant’s involvement in                                      specialized training)
                                    the production of an agricultural

                                   1. Pass two exams: the Core Exam
                                   on the “core” material and pesti-
                                   cide laws (100 questions) and the
                                   exam for the specialized category.                                                                                                           $50 for
                                                                                                        Option 1. By June
   Commercial                      Additional categories may be add-                                                                          Option 2. Pass the                 Core
                                                                                                        30 of the 5th year,
   applicator                      ed by passing the category exam                                                                            Core Exam and the                 Exam;
                                                                                       December 31 earn the required
   (minimum age 18                 without taking the Core Exam a                                                                             category exam(s)                  $20 for
                                                                                       of the 5th year. number of continu-
   by Jan. 1 of licens-            second time if the Core Exam was                                                                           again.                             each
                                                                                                        ing certification
   ing year)                       passed after August 2004.                                                                                                                   category
                                   2. NCDA&CS will send a Pesticide
                                   License Application to people who
                                   pass both exams.

   License                         Commercial applicators must                         December 31 annually.
                                   have a current license to apply                     Only individuals with valid certification may renew a
                                   pesticides.                                         pesticide license.
                                                                                                                                                                               $75 per
   Reciprocal Licenses                                                                                                                                                          year
   For holders of valid certification/license cards from Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, or Florida who expect to make pesti-
   cide applications in North Carolina. Eligibility for a reciprocal license requires passing a written pesticide-certification exam
   in one of those states.

*The number of recertification credit hours needed for each category is listed in Table 1.1. Credits must be earned in at least two calendar years during the
five-year certification period.
Acknowledgement: Table 1.2 prepared by Lynn Padgett Publications, Rutherfordton, NC

                                                                      Prepared by
                                                  Wayne Buhler, Department of Horticultural Science
                               in collaboration with the Structural Pest Control and Pesticides Division of the NCDA&CS

                                                                       Published by
                                                          NORTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION

Distributed in furtherance of the acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University commit themselves to positive action
to secure equal opportunity regardless of race, color, creed, national origin, religion, sex, age, veteran status or disability. In addition, the two Universities welcome all persons without
regard to sexual orientation. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.

11-CALS-2114                                                                                                                                                                     AG-714W

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