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					Surrealism


Magritte and Dali
Surrealism
Europe 1924-1950

   Fantastical visual imagery from the
    subconscious mind
   No intention of making the work logically
    comprehensible.
   Founded by Andre Breton in 1924, it was a
    primarily European movement
   Attracted many members of the Dada
    movement.
   Surrealism was deeply influenced
            by the work of Freud and Jung.
Dada Movement

 The Dadaists focused on chaos.
 All writing and art was based on stream
  of consciousness.
 They were against beauty and art after
  the destruction of World War 1.
 They tried to create anti-art.
     In the Beginning
   Surrealism is closely related to some forms of abstract art. They
    shared similar origins, but they split on their interpretation of
    what those origins meant to the art.
   At the end of the First War World, Tristan Tzara, leader of the
    Dada movement, wanted to attack society through scandal.
   He believed that a society that creates the monstrosity of war
    does not deserve art, so he decided to give it anti-art–not
    beauty but ugliness.
   With phrases like Dada destroys everything! Tzara wanted to
    offend the new world.
 However, his intended victims were not insulted at
  all.
 Instead they thought that this rebellious new
  expression opposed, not them but the "old art" and
  the "old patrons" of art
 In fact, people embraced this "rebellious" new art so
  thoroughly that anti-art became Art, the anti-
  academy the Academy, the anti-conventionalism the
  Convention, and the rebellion through chaotic
  images, the status quo.
     Surrealism
   One group of artists did not embrace this new art that threw
    away all which centuries of artists had learned and passed on
    about the craft of art.
   The Surrealist movement gained momentum after the Dada
    movement.
   It was lead by Andre Breton, a French doctor who had fought in
    the trenches during the First World War. The artists in the
    movement researched and studied the works of Sigmund Freud
    and Carl Jung.
   Some of the artists in the group expressed themselves through
    abstract art, while others, expressed themselves using
                  symbols.
Surrealist Artists

 The Surrealist circle was made up of
  many of the great artists of the 20th
  century, including Max Earnst, Giorgio
  de Chiricho, Jean Arp,Man Ray, Joan
  Miro, and Rene Magritte.
 Salvador Dali, probably the single best-
  known Surrealist artist, eventually broke
  with the group due to his politics
    Magritte 1898-1967
 Belgian surrealist painter. He studied at the
  Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts, Brussels. His first
  one-man exhibition was in Brussels in 1927.
 At that time Magritte had already begun to paint in
  the style, closely akin to surrealism, that was
  predominant throughout his long career.
 A meticulous, skillful technician, he is noted for
  works that contain an extraordinary juxtaposition of
  ordinary objects or an unusual context that gives
  new meaning to familiar things.
 This juxtaposition is frequently termed magic
  realism,
        of which Magritte was the prime exponent.
    The Red Model
   Magritte made masterful fantasies of
    everyday objects such as an old pair of
    shoes. He made more paintings of this
    subject but this was one of his earliest
    of shoes turning into feet. He has
    meticulously painted the details of the
    pebbles on the ground, the dust covered
    toes, laces on the boots, and the grain
    of the wood fence. Magritte makes
    fantasy by painting reality carefully with
    unexpected changes.
    The Son of Man
   This painting of a green apple floating in
    front of the face of a otherwise conventional
    man. Magritte said about the painting,
    “Everything we see hides another thing, we
    always want to see what is hidden by what
    we see. There is an interest in that which is
    hidden…” Because of the title, one thinks
    it may be the apple that was handed to
    Adam by Eve that the man is being blinded
    by. Adam can’t see beyond the delicious
    apple, and we can’t see him. Magritte also
    painted a similar painting with an apple and
    called it The Great War. Here you’d think
    it was nature and many other things
    blinding the man from seeing.
Salvador Dali 1904-1989
   Spanish painter, writer, and member of the surrealist
    movement. He was born in Figueras, Catalonia, and
    educated at the School of Fine Arts, Madrid. After 1929 he
    became a surrealist, although the leaders of the movement
    later denounced Dalí as overly commercial.
   Dalí's paintings from this period depict dream imagery and
    everyday objects in unexpected forms, such as the famous
    limp watches in The Persistence of Memory. Dalí moved to
    the United States in 1940, where he remained until 1948. His
    later paintings, often on religious themes, are more
    classical in style. They include Crucifixion and The
    Sacrament of the Last Supper.
   Dalí's paintings are characterized by meticulous
     draftsmanship and realistic detail, with brilliant
      colors heightened by transparent glazes. Dalí
         designed and produced surrealist films,
       illustrated books, handcrafted jewelry, and
    created theatrical sets and costumes. Among his
     writings are ballet scenarios and several books,
    including The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (1942)
               and Diary of a Genius (1965).
Apparatus and Hand
   In this painting Dali creates a strange,
    dreamlike scene, dominated by a weird
    contraption in the foreground that is part
    human, part geometric robot, which Dali
    refers to as an apparatus. Perhaps the
    apparatus is himself, with an eye, two
    thin legs, a cane which is something he
    liked to carry, and a painter’s hand
    coming out of the top of his head. This is
    science fiction as he has made an image
    of what could be called a cyborg, part
    human, part machine and the unknown.
Persistence of Memory
   Painted in 1931, Persistence of Memory expresses the eternal theme of time and the limitation of our
    existence with the boundary of time. Perhaps this is why this painting has been reproduced more than
    any of his other work. The concern for time, how we use time, where time goes, what time means is
    eternal and feels as relevant today than ever. Insects crawling over the watch suggest death and
    decay, the never ending cycle with life. Larger than life watches melt over a tree branch, drape a
    dead man’s head, and turn the corner of a landscape within this fantastic painting. Dali paints what
    seem to be varied dimensions of
    time and space within a haunting
    landscape of geometry and desert.
    Seventy years after this was painted,
    scientists theorize that there are at
    least ten dimensions of time and
    space. Persistence of Memory is
    one of Dali’s earliest masterpieces
    and most celebrated paintings.

				
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