# Lecture 11 Neural Networks by h1519w

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```									Lecture 11 Neural Networks

You will be able to:

   describe the back-propagation algorithm;
   describe some applications of neural nets;

Recap on perceptrons

Network is a single perceptron – computes hardlim(wx+b). w is a fixed weight
matrix and b a fixed bias matrix. So this computes a function of x. Typical problem:
choose w and b in order to compute a specific function which is inferred from the data
values which come from some application. This is only possible for a perceptron
when data is linearly separable.

It is important that we know (at least in principle) how perceptrons are trained to learn
the data – because a similar process is used for general networks.

Picture of single perceptron                                                       x1 input

2
output = hardlim( 2x1+2x2 -1)

2
-1                                            x2 input

A Perceptron Network is a layer of perceptrons. Output is the vector function
hardlim(wx+b). Used in similar situations to above (but with vector output).

Picture of a (small) perceptron layer
A Multilayer Perceptron Network is a combination of several layers of perceptrons.

Picture of multilayer perceptron network

This network computes hardlim(w2(hardlim(w1x+b1))+b2) .

We can build multilayer perceptrons – and we can rig them to do calculations. There
is no obvious training method to use. The definitive work was
"Perrceptrons:.."Minsky and Papert (1969)

We now want to generalise from the perceptron to other kinds of neuron and we want
to be able to train them.

Inputs remain pretty much as before (input neurons, weights on links etc. Calculate
wx+b and input to the transfer function.)

We do however allow other transfer functions.

We still have input patterns x with desired output vector tx. We still define error
vector e as e =tx – net(x).
We give it lots of samples to train on, and if it works fine. If not we try altering the
hidden layer size or using other transfer functions.

Will this approach work (how do we know a Neural Network will

No matter what the mapping we can model it with such a network provided we have
enough neurons in the hidden layer. (How do we decide we have enough?).

Algorithms for training a neural network.
Recall how we trained the perceptron.
new w = old w + e x T.
new b = old b + e.

The weight update rule is sometimes called the delta rule
new w = old w +  w and in this case w=e x T.

There is a more sophisticated version of the delta rule which uses a learning rate 
(< 1) to control the "step length". Here w=  e x T. Altering the learning rate can
make your NN learn faster – or become unstable if set too high. It is one of the things
you can alter in matlab.

The basic idea behind the delta rule is that the weights are tweaked in the direction
which reduces the error. You can see this by doing a few calculations for the
perceptron. If the network output is bigger than we want then the weight is altered to
reduce the network output. If the network output is smaller than we want then the
weight changes are such as to increase the network output.

In principle the same ideas apply to the more complicated muti-layer feed forward
network – but there are some difficulties.

The first point is that the effect that a change in weight has on the transfer function
value of the neuron it's going into needs further analysis – it is linked to the formula
for the transfer function. The formulas for updating become a bit more complicated.
x1       w1

x2        w2
 wi xi  S
O  F (S )
Artificial Neuron
wn
xn
The second complicating factor is that there is no obvious choice for the error value
that we need to correct for a hidden neuron – in other words we have no obvious way
of telling how far out the middle layer is.

We are fine at the output layer – we can calculate the error exactly as before.

The solution to the problem is to use the Back-propagation algorithm in order to
change the weights in a way which we hope improves the learning. We first of all
choose a set of weights and biases randomly. The start place can affect the outcomes –
which is why we sometimes randomise and try again if a net doesn’t train well.

[Back-propagation was discovered in the late 60's but ignored until the mid-eighties
when it was rediscovered. See "Parallel and distributed processing" Rumelhart and
McClelland (1986).]

Then we proceed in a similar way to the adapt process for perceptrons:
take the first input x and feed it into the network to get the output value net(x)
[This is the forward pass];

calculate the error at the output neurons – as before e =tx – net(x);

now make an estimate of how much error we attribute to each of the neurons
in the hidden layer [this is the backward pass – we go backwards layer by
layer]; error gets taken back in bigger amounts along the edges which have
more effect.

now update all weights and biases using the appropriate rule [this will depend
on what transfer function the neuron is using];

move on and process the next input vector in the same way;
....
when all input vectors have been processed we have completed one epoch;

if the global error target is reached stop – otherwise process another epoch.

It is possible to give general formulas – but these depend on sophisticated
mathematics. We will not give the specific formulas here.

Looking at the picture will help:
The global error target is usually measured by sum of squares of the errors or the
mean square error. So we are actually just trying to find a minimum point on a graph:
(much simplified) picture

What can go wrong?? – we can find local minimum not global minimum.

Adding a momentum term can fix this.

Application to driving a car.

ALVINN (Autonomous Land Vehicle In a Neural Network) is a perception system
which learns to control the NAVLAB vehicles by watching a person drive.
[Pomerleau, 1993 Neural Network Perception for Mobile Robot Guidance, Kluwer]

ALVINN's architecture consists of a single hidden layer back-propagation network.
The input layer of the network is a 30x32 unit two dimensional "retina" which
receives input from the vehicles video camera. Each input unit is fully connected to a
layer of five hidden units which are in turn fully connected to a layer of 30 output
units. The output layer is a linear representation of the direction the vehicle should
travel in order to keep the vehicle on the road. [Very limited driving situation – very
simple and no negotiation with traffic]

5 minutes training gives enough data to train the net.

Training glitch
Necessary to "bodge" the training data to cope with error situations. This was done by
"rotating the view" to simulate off line situations.
MANIAC [Jochem, Pomerleau and Thorpe, Maniac: a next generation neurally based
autonomous road follower, Proc of Int. Conf on Intelligent Autonomous Systems:
IAS-3] The use of artificial neural networks in the domain of autonomous vehicle
navigation has produced promising results. ALVINN [Pomerleau, 1993] has shown
that a neural system can drive a vehicle reliably and safely on many different types of
roads, ranging from paved paths to interstate highways.

ALVINN could be applied to many different road types – but each version could only
deal with one type of road. Maniac uses ALVINN subnets and combines them to be
able to cope with multiple road types.

Handwriting recognition

[Le Cun 1989 Handwritten digit recognition, IEEE Communications Magazine 27
(11):41-46 ]

Identifies digit via 16x16 input, 3 hidden layers and distributed output covering 10
digits.
Hidden layers have 768,192,30 neurons respectively.

Not all edges used – training impossible if they were (idea of feature extraction)
Ignored confusing outputs i.e output confusing if two outputs fire.
This meant 12% of test data rejected – but what was left was 99% correct .
Acceptable to the client.

Implemented in hardware and put into use by client.

Machine Printed Character Recognition

This is one of the applications found on a database of commercial applications held by
The Pacific Northwest National Lab in USA
at http://www.emsl.pnl.gov:2080/proj/neuron/neural/products/

Here is the entry for Machine Printed Character Recognition

   Audre Recognition Systems
o Application: optical character recognition
o Product: Audre Neural Network
   Caere Corporation
o Application: optical character recognition
o Product: OmniPage 6.0 and 7.0 Pro for Windows
o Product: OmniPage 6.0 Pro for MacOS
o Product: AnyFax OCR engine
o Product: FaxMaster
o Product: WinFax Pro 3.0 (from Delrina Technology Inc.)
   Electronic Data Publishing, Inc
o Application: optical character recognition
   Synaptics
o Product: VeriFone Oynx

NETtalk

A discussion about NETtalk can be found at:

http://psy.uq.oz.au/CogPsych/acnn96/case7.html

The NETtalk network was part of a larger system for mapping English words as text
into the corresponding speech sounds. NETtalk was configured and trained in a
number of different ways. This study considers only the network that was trained on
"continuous informal speech".

[Interesting project – appealed to people possibly for other than academic value.
(Authors played tape where the learning net sounded pretty baby-like!)]

The NETtalk network was a feedforward multi-layer perceptron (MLP) with three
layers of units and two
layers of weighted connections, trained using the back-propagation algorithm. No
feedback mechanism
was used.

There were 203 units in the input layer, 80 hidden units, and 26 output units (203-80-
26 MLP). Input to the network represented a sequence of seven consecutive
characters from a sample of English text. The task of the network was to map these to
a representation of a single phoneme corresponding to the fourth character in the
sequence. Phonemes corresponding to a complete sample of text were produced by
mapping each of the consecutive sequences of seven characters in the sample to a
phoneme. Clearly this
requires a few filler characters at the beginning and the end of the text sample.

The network learned a training sequence until it was deemed to have generalized
sufficiently, after which the connection weights were fixed.

[A lot of domain knowledge is needed to be able to set this network up – and was it
successful?]

Network input encoding

Network inputs were required to represent a sequence of seven characters selected
from a set of 29, comprising the letters of the Roman alphabet plus three punctuation
marks. These were encoded as seven sets of 29 input units, where for each set of 29
units a character was represented as a pattern with one unit "on" and each of the
others "off".

Network output encoding
Network outputs consist of 26 units to represent a single phoneme. Each output unit
was used to represent an "articulatory feature" of which most phonemes had about
three. The articulatory features correspond to actions or positions

Portfolio Exercise

Draw a pixel representation of what Alvin might see if the decision is to go straight
ahead and represent the output pattern expected.

Repeat for the situation where the output is telling Alvin to turn to the right.

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