Eavesdropping 1774

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Eavesdropping is the act of secretly listening to the private conversation of others without their
consent.This is commonly thought to be unethical and there is an old adage that eavesdroppers
seldom hear anything good of themselves...eavesdroppers always try to listen to matters that
concern them.

Ancient Anglo-Saxon law punished eavesdroppers, who skulked in the eavesdrop of another's
home, with a fine; the eavesdropper was also sometimes called the eavesdrop. Eavesdrop also
means a small low visibility hole near the entrance to a building (generally under the eaves)
which would allow the occupants to listen in on the conversation of people awaiting admission to
the house. Typically this would allow the occupant to be prepared for unfriendly visitors.

Early telephone systems shared party lines which would allow the sharing subscribers to listen to
each others conversations. This was a common practice in rural America which resulted in many
incidents and feuds.[2]

"Belly-buster" hand-audio listening devices. After assembly, the base of the drill was held firmly
against the stomach while the handle was cranked manually. This kit came with several drill bits
and accessories.

Eavesdropping can also be done over telephone lines (wiretapping), email, instant messaging,
and other methods of communication considered private (If a message is publicly broadcast,
witnessing it does not count as eavesdropping.). VoIP communications software is also
vulnerable to electronic eavesdropping by via malware infections such as Trojan.

Hampton Court Palace outside London was the palace of King Henry VIII of England. In the
eaves of its Great Hall, small faces are carved into the oak beams which lean at an angle of 45
degrees to the ground. These are known as 'Eaves Droppers'. Henry was known to be a strong
ruler and often put spies in crowds of people to listen in to conversations. He wanted his staff
(who slept in the Great Hall between banquets and would lie on straw looking up at the eaves) to
know that he or his people would be listening at all times.

As long as people have engaged in private conversations, eavesdroppers have tried to
listen in. When important matters were discussed in parlors, people slipped in under the
eaves—literally within the “eavesdrop”—to hear what was being said. When
conversations moved to telephones, the wires were tapped. And now that so much
human activity takes place in cyberspace, spies have infiltrated that realm as well.

Unlike earlier, physical frontiers, cyberspace is a human construct. The rules, designs
and investments we make in cyberspace will shape the ways espionage, privacy and
security will interact. Today there is a clear movement to give intelligence activities a
privileged position, building in the capacity of authorities to intercept cyberspace
communications. The advantages of this trend for fighting crime and terrorism are
Noma (restaurant)


                   Restaurant information

  Established      2004

                   René Redzepi and Claus Meyer

  Head chef        René Redzepi

                   New Nordic Cuisine influenced by
  Food type
                   molecular gastronomy

  Dress code       None

  Rating                  Michelin Guide

  Street address   Strandgade 93

  City             Copenhagen

  Country          Denmark

  Website          Official web site

Noma is a two Michelin star restaurant run by chef René Redzepi in Copenhagen, Denmark. The
name is an acronym of the two Danish words "nordisk" (Nordic) and "mad" (food)[1], and the
restaurant is known for its reinvention and interpretation of the Nordic Cuisine. In 2010, it was
ranked as the Best Restaurant in the World by Restaurant.[2]

The restaurant is located in an old warehouse on the waterfront in the Christianshavn
neighbourhood of central Copenhagen.

The building is situated by the Greenlandic Trading Square (Danish: Grønlandske Handels
Plads), which for 200 years was a centre for trade to and from the Faroe Islands, Finnmark,
Iceland, and in particular, Greenland. Dry fish, salted herring, whale oil and skins are among the
goods that were stored in and around the warehouse before being sold off to European markets.[3]
In 2004 the warehouse was turned into North Atlantic House, a centre for the art and culture of
the North Atlantic region. Noma was opened at the same time by Redzepi and Meyer. The
restaurant's Interior design is by Signe Bindslev-Henriksen.

The cuisine of Noma is Nordic/Scandinavian; the restaurant's founders René Redzepi and Claus
Meyer have attempted to redefine this Nordic cuisine. The cuisine of Noma can be considered
more an interpretation of Nordic food than classical Nordic food itself, according to Meyer in the
book Noma - Nordic Cuisine. Famous dishes include 'radishes in edible soil'.

René Redzepi has formerly worked at the restaurants such as The French Laundry, El Bulli,
Kong Hans' Kælder and Jardin des Sens. The sommelier is Swede Pontus Elofsson.

2010: Best Restaurant in the World, 2010 Restaurant magazine Top 50[4]

2009: 3rd Best Restaurant in the World and "Chefs' Choice", 2009 Restaurant magazine Top 50

2008-2009: Michelin Guide, two stars

2008: René Redzepi named International Chef of the Year at the Lo Mejor de la Gastronomia
conference in San Sebastian, Spain[5]

2008: The users of the international website TripAdvisor with 25 million users a month rated
Noma as the best restaurant in the world.[6]

2008: 10th Best Restaurant in the World, 2008 Restaurant magazine Top 50

2007: 15th Best Restaurant in the World, 2007 Restaurant magazine Top 50

There is no firm agreement among neurologists as to the number of senses because of differing
definitions of what constitutes a sense. One definition states that an exteroceptive sense is a
faculty by which outside stimuli are perceived. The human olfactory system contains about
10,000,000 olfactory receptors.[1] The traditional five senses are sight, hearing, touch, smell and
taste, a classification attributed to Aristotle.[2] Humans are considered to have at least five
additional senses that include: nociception (pain); equilibrioception (balance); proprioception
and kinaesthesia (joint motion and acceleration); sense of time; thermoception (temperature
differences); and possibly an additional weak magnetoception (direction)[3], and six more if
interoceptive senses (see other internal senses below) are also considered.

Sight or vision is the ability of the eye(s) to focus and detect images of visible light on the retina
in each eye, and determine varying colors, hues, and brightness detected by each retinal receptor.
There is some disagreement as to whether this constitutes one, two or three senses.
Neuroanatomists generally regard it as two senses, given that different receptors are responsible
for the perception of color and brightness. Some argue that stereopsis, the perception of depth
using both eyes, also constitutes a sense, but it is generally regarded as a cognitive (that is, post-
sensory) function of the visual cortex of the brain where patterns and objects in images are
recognized and interpreted based on previously learned information. The inability to see is called

Hearing or audition is the sense of sound perception. Since sound is vibrations propagating
through a medium such as air, the detection of these vibrations, that is the sense of the hearing, is
a mechanical sense because these vibrations are mechanically conducted from the eardrum
through a series of tiny bones to hair-like fibers in the inner ear which detect mechanical motion
of the fibers within a range of about 20 to 20,000 hertz, with substantial variation between
individuals. Hearing at high frequencies declines with age. Sound can also be detected as
vibrations conducted through the body by tactition. Lower frequencies than that can be heard are
detected this way. The inability to hear is called deafness.

Taste or gustation is one of the two main "chemical" senses. There are at least four types of
tastes. that "buds" (receptors) on the tongue detect, and hence there are anatomists who argue
that these constitute five or more different senses, given that each receptor conveys information
to a slightly different region of the brain. The inability to taste is called ageusia.

Smell or olfaction is the other "chemical" sense. Unlike taste, there are hundreds of olfactory
receptors, each binding to a particular molecular feature. Odor molecules possess a variety of
features and thus excite specific receptors more or less strongly. This combination of excitatory
signals from different receptors makes up what we perceive as the molecule's smell. In the brain,
olfaction is processed by the olfactory system. Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from
most other neurons in that they die and regenerate on a regular basis. The inability to smell is
called anosmia. Some neurons in the nose are specialized to detect pheromones.

Touch, also called tactition or mechanoreception, is a perception resulting from activation of
neural receptors, generally in the skin including hair follicles, but also in the tongue, throat, and
mucosa. A variety of pressure receptors respond to variations in pressure (firm, brushing,
sustained, etc.). The touch sense of itching caused by insect bites or allergies involves special
itch-specific neurons in the skin and spinal cord.[9] The loss or impairment of the ability to feel
anything touched is called tactile anesthesia. Paresthesia is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or
numbness of the skin that may result from nerve damage and may be permanent or temporary.

Balance, equilibrioception, or vestibular sense is the sense which allows an organism to sense
body movement, direction, and acceleration, and to attain and maintain postural equilibrium and
balance. The organ of equilibrioception is the vestibular labyrinthine system found in both of the
inner ears. Technically this organ is responsible for two senses of angular momentum
acceleration and linear acceleration (which also senses gravity), but they are known together as

The vestibular nerve conducts information from sensory receptors in three ampulla that sense
motion of fluid in three semicircular canals caused by three-dimensional rotation of the head.
The vestibular nerve also conducts information from the utricle and the saccule which contain
hair-like sensory receptors that bend under the weight of otoliths (which are small crystals of
calcium carbonate) that provide the inertia needed to detect head rotation, linear acceleration,
and the direction of gravitational force.

Thermoception is the sense of heat and the absence of heat (cold) by the skin and including
internal skin passages, or rather, the heat flux (the rate of heat flow) in these areas. There are
specialized receptors for cold (declining temperature) and to heat. The cold receptors play an
important part in the dog's sense of smell, telling wind direction. The heat receptors are sensitive
to infrared radiation and can occur in specialized organs for instance in pit vipers. The
thermoceptors in the skin are quite different from the homeostatic thermoceptors in the brain
(hypothalamus) which provide feedback on internal body temperature.

Proprioception, the kinesthetic sense, provides the parietal cortex of the brain with information
on the relative positions of the parts of the body. Neurologists test this sense by telling patients to
close their eyes and touch their own nose with the tip of a finger. Assuming proper
proprioceptive function, at no time will the person lose awareness of where the hand actually is,
even though it is not being detected by any of the other senses. Proprioception and touch are
related in subtle ways, and their impairment results in surprising and deep deficits in perception
and action.

Nociception (physiological pain) signals near-damage or damage to tissue. The three types of
pain receptors are cutaneous (skin), somatic (joints and bones) and visceral (body organs). It was
previously believed that pain was simply the overloading of pressure receptors, but research in
the first half of the 20th century indicated that pain is a distinct phenomenon that intertwines
with all of the other senses, including touch. Pain was once considered an entirely subjective
experience, but recent studies show that pain is registered in the anterior cingulate gyrus of the
brain. The main function of pain is to warn us about dangers. For example, humans avoid
touching a sharp needle or hot object or extending an arm beyond a safe limit because it hurts,
and thus is dangerous. Without pain, people could do many dangerous things without realizing it.

Ethology (from Greek: ἦθος, ethos, "character"; and -λογία, -logia, "the study of") is the
scientific study of animal behavior, and a sub-topic of zoology.

Although many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behavior throughout history, the
modern discipline of ethology is generally considered to have begun during the 1930s with the
work of Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl
von Frisch, joint winners of the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[1] Ethology is a
combination of laboratory and field science, with a strong relation to certain other disciplines —
e.g., neuroanatomy, ecology, evolution. Ethologists are typically interested in a behavioral
process rather than in a particular animal group and often study one type of behavior (e.g.
aggression) in a number of unrelated animals.

The desire to understand animals has made ethology a rapidly growing topic, and since the turn
of the 21st century, many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as animal
communication, personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture, learning, and
even sexual conduct long thought to be well understood, have been modified, as have new fields
such as neuroethology.

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines instinct as a largely inheritable and unalterable
tendency of an organism to make a complex and specific response to environmental stimuli
without involving reason. For ethologists, instinct means a series of predictable behaviors for
fixed action patterns. Such schemes are only acted when a precise stimulating signal is present.
When such signals act as communication among members of the same species, they are known
as releasers. Notable examples of releasers are, in many bird species, the beak movements by the
newborns, which stimulates the mother's regurgitating process to feed her offspring. Another
well known case is the classic experiments by Tinbergen on the Graylag Goose. Like similar
waterfowl, it will roll a displaced egg near its nest back to the others with its beak. The sight of
the displaced egg triggers this mechanism. If the egg is taken away, the animal continues with
the behaviour, pulling its head back as if an imaginary egg is still being maneuvered by the
underside of its beak.[2] However, it will also attempt to move other egg shaped objects, such as a
giant plaster egg, door knob, or even a volleyball back into the nest. Such objects, when they
exaggerate the releasers found in natural objects, can elicit a stronger version of the behavior
than the natural object, so that the goose will ignore its own displaced egg in favor of the giant
dummy egg. These exaggerated releasers for instincts were termed supernormal stimuli by
Tinbergen).[3] Tinbergen found he could produce supernormal stimuli for most instincts in
animals, such as cardboard butterflies which male butterflies preferred to mate with if their
stripes were darker than a real female or dummy fish which a territorial male stickleback fish
would fight more violently than a real invading male if the dummy had a brighter colored
underside. Harvard psychologist Deirdre Barrett has done research pointing out how easily
humans also respond to supernormal stimuli for sexual, nurturing, feeding, and social instincts.[4]
However, a behaviour only made of fixed action patterns would be particularly rigid and
inefficient, reducing the probabilities of survival and reproduction, so the learning process has
great importance, as the ability to change the individual's responses based on its experience. It
can be said[by whom?] that the more the brain is complex and the life of the individual long, the
more its behaviour will be "intelligent" (in the sense of guided by experience rather than
stereotyped FAPs).

Learning occurs in many ways, one of the most elementary being habituation. This process
consists in ignoring persistent or useless stimuli. An example of learning by habituation is the
one observed in squirrels: when one of them feels threatened, the others hear its signal and go to
the nearest refuge. However, if the signal comes from an individual who has caused many false
alarms, its signal will be ignored.

The Chinese eat many foods that are unfamiliar to North Americans. Shark fins,
seaweed, frogs, snakes, and even dog and cat meat are eaten. However, the Chinese
follow the spiritual teaching of balance signified by yin ("cool") and yang ("hot"). This
philosophy encourages the Chinese to find a balance in their lives, including in the foods
they eat. While preparing meals, the Chinese may strive to balance the color, texture, or
types of food they choose to eat.

Rice is China's staple food. The Chinese word for rice is "fan" which also means "meal."
Rice may be served with any meal, and is eaten several times a day. Scallions, bean
sprouts, cabbage, and gingerroot are other traditional foods. Soybean curd, called tofu,
is an important source of protein for the Chinese. Although the Chinese generally do not
eat a lot of meat, pork and chicken are the most commonly eaten meats. Vegetables play
a central role in Chinese cooking, too.

There are four main regional types of Chinese cooking. The cooking of Canton province
in the south is called Cantonese cooking. It features rice and lightly seasoned stir-fried
dishes. Because many Chinese immigrants to America came from this region, it is the
type of Chinese cooking that is most widely known in the United States. Typical
Cantonese dishes are wonton soup, egg rolls, and sweet and sour pork.

The Mandarin cuisine of Mandarin province in northern China features dishes made
with wheat flour, such as noodles, dumplings, and thin pancakes. The best known dish
from this region is Peking duck, a dish made up of roast duck and strips of crispy duck
skin wrapped in thin pancakes. (Peking was the name of Beijing, the capital of China,
until after the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s. This traditional recipe is still known
in the United States as "Peking duck.") Shanghai cooking, from China's east coast,
emphasizes seafood and strong-flavored sauces. The cuisine of the Szechuan province in
inland China is known for its hot and spicy dishes made with hot peppers, garlic, onions,
and leeks. This type of cooking became popular in the United States in the 1990s.

Tea, the beverage offered at most meals, is China's national beverage. The most popular
types of tea—green, black, and oolong—are commonly drunk plain, without milk or
sugar added. Teacups have no handles or saucers.

Almond Cookies


      2½ cups flour
      1 cup sugar
      1 teaspoon baking soda
      ½ teaspoon salt
      1 cup vegetable shortening
      2 eggs, beaten
      1 Tablespoon almond extract
      About 48 whole almonds, unsalted


   1. Preheat oven to 325°F. Grease cookie sheets.
   2. Mix flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt in a bowl.
   3. With a fork, slowly add shortening, a little at a time, to the flour mixture.
   4. Add the beaten eggs and almond extract.
   5. Shape the dough into balls the size of a large cherry.
   6. Place the dough onto the cookie sheets and press an almond into the center of each
   7. Bake for 25 minutes.

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