Muscular System Notes by wuzhenguang

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									Muscular System
                  Muscular System
1.   The Skeleton and its joints support, protect, and provide flexibility for the body, but the
     Skeleton CANNOT Move Itself.

2.   That job is performed by the Muscle Tissue that makes up the MUSCULAR SYSTEM.

3.   A MUSCLE TISSUE IS TISSUE THAT CAN CONTRACT IN A COORDINATED FASHION
     AND INCLUDES MUSCLES TISSUE, BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES, AND CONNECTIVE
     TISSUE.

4.   Approximately 40 to 50 percent of the MASS of the Human Body is composed of Muscle
     Tissue.

5.   THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM IS COMPOSED OF MUSCLE TISSUE (MUSCLE FIBER or
     cells) THAT IS HIGHLY SPECIALIZED TO CONTRACT TO PRODUCE MOVEMENT WHEN
     STIMULATED.

6.   The Word Muscle is derived from the Latin word "MUS", meaning mouse.

7.   Muscle tissue is found everywhere within the body, not only beneath the skin but deep
     within the body, surrounding many internal organs and blood vessels.

8.   The size and location of muscle tissue helps determine the shape of our bodies and the
     way we move.
  TYPES OF MUSCLE
TISSUE (THREE TYPES)
SKELETAL MUSCLE
                  Skeletal Muscle
1. Skeletal Muscle is Responsible for moving parts of the body, such
   as the limbs, trunk, and face.

2. SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE GENERALLY ATTACHED TO BONES
    AND ARE AT WORK EVERY TIME WE MAKE A MOVE.

3. SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR VOLUNTARY
    (CONSCIOUS) MOVEMENT.

4. A Skeletal Muscle is made of Elongated Cells called MUSCLE
    FIBERS. Varying movements require Contraction of variable
    numbers of Muscles Fibers in a Muscle.

5. Skeletal Muscle fibers are grouped into dense bundles called
    FASCICLES. A group of Fascicles are bound together by
    Connective Tissue to form a MUSCLE.
                  Skeletal Muscle
• 6. When viewed under a microscope, Skeletal Muscles appear to
  have STRIATIONS (BANDS OR STRIPES). This gives Skeleton
  Muscle the name of VOLUNTARY OR STRIATED MUSCLE.

• 7. MOST SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE CONSCIOUSLY
  CONTROLLED BY THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
•
• 8. Skeleton Muscle Cells are LARGE and have MORE than ONE
  NUCLEUS. They vary in length from 1mm to 30 to 60 cm.

• 9. Because they are so long and slender, they are often called
  MUSCLE FIBERS rather than Muscle Cells.

• 10. Muscle Fiber together with the Connective Tissue, Blood
  Vessels, and Nerves form a Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscles
                      Smooth Muscle
1. SMOOTH MUSCLES ARE USUALLY NOT UNDER VOLUNTARY CONTROL.

2. SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS ARE SPINDLE-SHAPED AND HAVE A SINGLE
    NUCLEUS, ARE NOT STRIATED and Interlace to form Sheets of smooth
    Muscle Tissue.

3. SMOOTH MUSCLES ARE FOUND IN MANY INTERNAL ORGANS, STOMACH,
    INTESTINES, AND IN THE WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS.

4. Smooth muscle fibers are surrounded by connective tissue, but the connective
    tissue Does Not unite to form TENDONS as it does in Skeletal Muscles.

5. Most Smooth Muscle Cells can CONTRACT WITHOUT Nervous
    Stimulation. Because most of its movements Cannot be consciously controlled,
    Smooth Muscle is referred to as Involuntary Muscle.

6. The contractions in Smooth Muscles move food through our digestive tract,
    control the way blood flows through the circulatory system, and increases the
    size of the pupils of our eyes in bright light.
Cardiac Muscle
                     Cardiac Muscle
1. THE ONLY PLACE IN THE BODY WHERE CARDIAC MUSCLE IS FOUND
   IS IN THE HEART.

2. Cardiac Cells are Striated, but they are NOT under Voluntary Control.

3. Cardiac Muscle Contract Without Direct stimulation by the Nervous
    System. A bundle of specialized muscle cells in the upper part of the heart
    sends electrical signals through cardiac muscle tissue, causing the heart to
    rhythmically contract and pump blood through the body.

4. The Cardiac Muscle Cell contains ONE Nucleus located near the center,
    adjacent cells form branching fibers that allow Nerve Impulses to pass from
    cell to cell.
                Muscle Structure
1.   A Muscle Fiber is a single, Multinucleated Muscle Cell.

2. A Muscle may be made up of hundreds or even thousands of Muscle
     Fibers, depending on the Muscles Size.

3. Although Muscle Fiber makes up most of the Muscle Tissue, a large
      amount of Connective Tissue, Blood Vessels, and Nerves are
      also present.

4. Connective Tissue Covers and Supports each Muscle Fiber and
     reinforces the Muscle as a whole.

5. The health of Muscle depends on a sufficient Nerve and Blood
     Supply. Each Skeletal Muscle has a Nerve Ending that controls
     its activity.
6. Active Muscles use a lot of Energy and require a continuous supply of Oxygen
    and Nutrients, which are supplied by Arteries. Muscles produce large amounts
    of Metabolic Waste that must be removed by Veins.

7. Muscle Fibers consist of Bundles of threadlike structures called MYOFIBRILS.

8. Each Myofibril is made up of TWO Types of Protein Filaments- Thick ones and
    Thin ones.

9. The THICK FILAMENTS are made up of a PROTEIN called MYOSIN.

10. The THIN FILAMENTS are made of a PROTEIN called ACTIN.

11. Myosin and Actin Filaments are arranged to form overlapping patterns, which
   are responsible for the Light and Dark Bands that can be seen in Skeletal
   (Striated Appearance) Muscle.

12. Thin Actin Filaments are Anchored at their Midpoints to a structure called the
   Z-LINE.

13. The Region From one Z-line to the next is called a SARCOMERE the
   Functional Unit of Muscle Contractions
       MECHANISM OF MUSCLE
          CONTRACTIONS
1. The Sarcomere is the functional unit of Muscle contractions.

2. When Muscle Cells Contract, the light and dark bands contained in
   Muscle Cells get closer together.

3. This happens because when a Muscle Contracts, Myosin Filaments
   and Actin filaments interact to shorten the length of a Sarcomere.

4. When Myosin Filaments and Actin Filaments come near each other,
   many knob (heads) like projections in each Myosin Filament form
   CROSS-BRIDGES with an Actin Filament.

5. When the Muscle is Stimulated to Contract, the Cross-bridges
   MOVE, PULLING the Two Filaments past each other.
               MECHANISM OF MUSCLE
                  CONTRACTIONS
•   6. After each Cross-bridge has moved as far as it can, it releases the Actin
    Filament and returns to its original position. The Cross-bridge then attaches
    to the Actin Filament at another place and the cycle is repeated. This action
    Shortens the Length of the Sarcomere.

•   7. The synchronized shortening of Sarcomeres along the full length of a
    Muscle Fiber causes the Whole Fiber, and hence the Muscle, to Contract.

•   8. WHEN THOUSANDS OF ACTIN AND MYOSIN FILAMENTS INTERACT
    IN THIS WAY, THE ENTIRE MUSCLE CELL SHORTENS.

•   9. THIS CONCEPT IS THE SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY.

•   10. Muscle Contractions require Energy, which is supplied by ATP. This
    Energy is used to Detach the Myosin Heads from the Actin Filaments.
              MECHANISM OF MUSCLE
                 CONTRACTIONS
11. Because Myosin Heads must Attach and Detach a number of times during
   a Single Muscle Contraction, Muscle Cells must have a Continuous Supply
   of ATP.

12. Without ATP the Myosin Heads would stay Attached to the Actin Filaments,
   keeping Muscles Permanently Contracted.

13. A Muscle Contraction, like a Nerve Impulse, is an All-or-None Response-
   either Fibers Contract or they Remain Relaxed.

14. The force of a Muscle Contraction is determined by the number of Muscle
   fibers that are Stimulated. As more fibers are activated, the force of the
   contraction Increases.

15. Some Muscles, such as the muscles that hold the body in an upright
   position and maintain posture, are nearly always at least Partially
   Contracted.
  CONTROL OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
1. Muscles are useful only if they Contract in a Controlled fashion.

2. Motor Neurons connect the CNS to Skeleton Muscle Cells
    (EFFECTORS); Impulses (ACTION POTENTIALS) from Motor Neurons
    Control the Contraction of Skeleton Muscle Cells.

3. The point of contact between a Motor Neuron and a Muscle Cell is called the
    NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. 4. Vesicles, or pockets, in the AXON
    TERMINALS of the Motor Neuron release molecules of the
    NEUROTRANSMITTER ACETYLCHOLINE.

5. These molecules Diffuse across the SYNAPSE, producing and IMPULSE in
    the Cell Membrane of the Muscle Cell.

6. The impulse causes the release of Calcium ions within the cell. The Calcium
    Ions affect regulatory proteins that allow Actin and Myosin Filaments to
    interact and form cross-bridges.
  CONTROL OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION

7. A Muscle Cell WILL remain in a state of CONTRACTION until the production
    of Acetylcholine STOPS.

8. An ENZYME called ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE, also produced at the
    Neuromuscular Junction, DESTROYS ACETYLCHOLINE, permits the
    reabsorption of Calcium Ions into the Muscle Cell, and Terminates the
    Contraction.

9. You can have a Weak or Strong Contraction depending on what you are
    trying to accomplish. The BRAIN (frontal lobes of the cerebrum) decides
    what and how many Muscles Cells need to Contract. Blinking your eye
    would be a Weak Contraction, but lifting heavy weights, the brain would
    signal most Muscle Cells to Contract.

10. MUSCLE SENSE IS THE BRAINS ABILITY TO KNOW WHERE OUR
   MUSCLES ARE AND WHAT THEY ARE DOING. Permits us to perform
   everyday activities without having to concentrate on muscle position.
HOW MUSCLES AND BONES INTERACT
1. Skeleton Muscles generate Force and produce Movement only by
   CONTRACTING or PULLING on Body Parts.

2. Individual Muscles can only PULL; they CANNOT PUSH.

3. Skeleton Muscles are joined to bone by TOUGH CONNECTIVE
    TISSUE CALLED TENDONS.

4. TENDONS ATTACH MUSCLE TO BONE; THE ORIGIN IS THE
    MORE STATIONARY BONE, THE INSERTION IS THE MORE
    MOVABLE BONE.

5. Tendons are attached in such a way that they PULL on the Bones
    and make them work like LEVERS. The movements of the
    Muscles and Joints enable the Bones to act as LEVERS.
HOW MUSCLES AND BONES INTERACT

6. The Joint functions as a FULCRUM (The fixed point
   around which the lever moves) and the Muscles provide
   the FORCE to move the Lever.

7. Usually there several Muscles surrounding each Joint
   that PULL in DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS.

8. MOST SKELETAL MUSCLES WORK IN PAIRS.

9. When one Muscle or set of Muscles CONTRACTS, the
   other RELAXES.
 HOW MUSCLES AND BONES INTERACT
10. The Muscles of the upper arm are a good example of this dual action:
    ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES. FLEXOR, A MUSCLE THAT BENDS A
    JOINT. EXTENSOR, A MUSCLE THAT STRAIGHTENS A JOINT.

  A. When the BICEPS Muscle (on the front of the upper arm, FLEXOR) CONTRACTS,
   it BENDS OR FLEXES THE ELBOW JOINT.
  B. When the TRICEPS Muscle (on the back of the upper arm, EXTENSOR)
   CONTRACTS, it opens, or extends, the elbow joint.
  C. A controlled movement requires contraction by both muscles.

11. ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES ARE OPPONENTS, MUSCLES WHICH HAVE
   OPPOSING OR OPPOSITE FUNCTIONS. A muscle pulls when it contracts, but
   exerts no force when it relaxes and CANNOT PUSH. When one muscle Pulls a bone
   in one direction, another muscle is needed to PULL the bone in the other direction.

12. SYNERGISTIC MUSCLES ARE THOSE WITH THE SAME FUNCTION, OR THOSE
    THAT WORK TOGETHER TO PERFORM A PARTICULAR FUNCTION. They also
    stabilize a joint to make a more precise movement possible.
 HOW MUSCLES AND BONES INTERACT

13. A normal characteristic of all Skeleton Muscles is that they remain
   in a state of PARTIAL CONTRACTION.

14. At any given time, some Muscles are being Stimulated while other
   are not. This causes a TIGHTENED, or FIRMED, Muscle and is
   known as MUSCLE TONE.

15. Muscle Tone is responsible for keeping the back and legs straight
   and the head upright even when you are relaxed.

16. EXERCISE IS THE KEY TO MAINTAINING GOOD MUSCLE
   TONE WITHIN YOUR BODY.

17. MUSCLES THAT ARE EXERCISED REGULARLY STAY FIRM
   AND INCREASE IN SIZE BY ADDING MORE MATERIALS TO THE
   INSIDE OF MUSCLE FIBERS.
 HOW MUSCLES AND BONES INTERACT

• 18. MUSCLE FATIGUE is a Physiological Inability of a muscle to
  contract. Muscle fatigue is a result of a relative depletion of
  ATP. When ATP is absent, a state of continuous contraction
  occurs. This causes severe muscle cramps.

• 19. OXYGEN DEBT is a temporary Lack of Oxygen. When this
  occurs Muscles will switch from the normal Aerobic Respiration to a
  form of Anaerobic Respiration called Lactic Acid Fermentation. As
  the oxygen becomes Depleted, the muscle cells begin to
  switch. Oxygen debt leads to the accumulation of Metabolic Waste
  (Lactic Acid) in the muscle fibers, resulting in muscle fatigue, pain,
  and even cramps. Eventually, the lactic acid diffuses into the blood
  and is transported to the Liver. So if you ever experienced
  Soreness after prolong exercise, it may have been caused by
  Oxygen Debt - Your body could not provide your Muscles the
  Oxygen they needed to function properly.
http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/
muscle/mustut.htm
                                 Muscle dysmorphia or bigorexia
• a disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with the idea that he
  or she is not muscular enough
• hold delusions that they are "skinny" or "too small" but are often above
  average in musculature
• Muscle dysmorphia can cause people to:
    –   Constantly examine themselves in a mirror

    –   Frequently compare themselves with others

    –   Hate their reflections

    –   Become distressed if they miss a workout session or one of their many meals a day

    –   Become distressed if they do not receive enough protein per day in their diet

    –   Take potentially dangerous anabolic steroids

    –   Neglect jobs, relationships, or family because of excessive exercising

    –   Have delusions of being underweight or below average in musculature.

    –   In extreme cases, inject appendages with fluid (e.g. synthol--A site enhancement oil (SEO) used by some bodybuilders
        to increase the apparent size of some muscles. The effects of SEOs are purely cosmetic and there is no increase in
        muscular performance.
                Effects of SEO
• Many doctors advise that the use of SEOs is extremely
  dangerous, if not potentially fatal, as injection into a
  major blood vessel can cause embolism, leading to heart
  attacks, strokes, pulmonary embolism and/or permanent
  brain damage if SEO traces find their way into cerebral
  vessels.
• In some individuals, the use of SEOs can lead to chronic
  inflation of the treated muscle, which over time can result
  in deformation of the muscle.
      Anabolic steroid illegal!!!
• Between 1 million and 3 million people (1% of the population) are
  thought to have misused AAS in the United States

• drugs which mimic the effects of the male sex hormones
  testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

• increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup
  of cellular tissue (anabolism), especially in muscles

• Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties,
  including the development and maintenance of masculine
  characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair.
• Anabolic steroids were first
  – to stimulate bone growth
  – To stimulate appetite
  – induce male puberty
  – treat chronic wasting conditions, such as
    cancer and AIDS
• These effects include harmful changes in:
  –     cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased
      high-density lipoprotein),
  –   acne,
  –   high blood pressure,
  –   liver damage (mainly with oral steroids),
  –   dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart.
  –   can accelerate the rate of premature baldness for males who are
      genetically predisposed, but testosterone itself can produce baldness in
      females
– sex-specific side effects of anabolic steroids
   • Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called
      gynecomastia
   • Reduced sexual function and temporary infertility can also occur in
      males
   • testicular atrophy

    • Female-specific side effects include
        – increases in body hair,
        – deepening of the voice,
        – enlarged clitoris,
        – temporary decreases in menstrual cycles.
        – When taken during pregnancy, anabolic steroids can affect fetal
          development by causing the development of male features in
          the female fetus and female features in the male fetus.
•   A number of severe side effects can occur if adolescents use anabolic
    steroids.

     –   the steroids may prematurely stop the lengthening of bones resulting in stunted
         growth.


     –   accelerated bone maturation,


     –   increased frequency and duration of erections, and premature sexual development.


     –   Anabolic steroid use in adolescence is also correlated with poorer attitudes related to
         health.


     –   alterations in the structure of the heart, such as enlargement and thickening of the left
         ventricle, which impairs its contraction and relaxation.Possible effects of these
         alterations in the heart are hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure,
         heart attacks, and sudden cardiac death.
• significant psychiatric symptoms including
  aggression and violence, mania, and less
  frequently psychosis and suicide have
  been associated with steroid abuse

• "roid rage”
           Muscular Dystrophy
• Muscular Dystrophy (MD) is a group of genetic diseases that cause
  the muscle fibers to become easily damaged.

• There are over one dozen different types, but the most common
  general symptoms are muscle weakness, lack of coordination and
  loss of mobility.

• The most severe type, Duchenne's muscular dystrophy, can cause
  mental retardation and primarily affects young boys. Often fatal

• MD is diagnosed through genetic tests, muscle biopsies, blood tests
  that measure for high levels of creatine kinase and ultrasounds.

• There is no cure for MD but it can be treated to reduce the severity
  with physical therapy, medication, surgery and special braces.
                  Dermatomyositis
•   This uncommon autoimmune disease causes muscle weakness
    accompanied by a skin rash.

•   It can affect anyone but is most commonly seen in adults ages 40 to 60 and
    children ages five to 15.

•   Symptoms include a light purple or red rash on the face, hands, knees,
    chest and back and progressive muscle weakness. It may also cause
    difficulty swallowing, muscle pain, ulcers, fever, fatigue and weight loss.

•   Doctors are uncertain of the cause but believe it may be genetic.

•   Treatment includes pain management, corticosteroids and
    immunosuppressive drugs. Although dermatomyositis has no cure, it can go
    into remission.
       Compartment Syndrome
• Compartment syndrome occurs when too much pressure builds up
  in and around the muscles.

• It can result from crushing injuries, extended pressure on a blood
  vessel, swelling inside a cast or complications from surgery.

• Symptoms include severe pain, a feeling of fullness or tightness in
  the muscle and a tingling sensation. Numbness indicates cellular
  death and it may be difficult to restore full function once it reaches
  that point. Surgery to relieve the pressure is usually required.
                  Rhabdomyolysis
•   Rhabdomylosis damages both the muscles and the kidneys by causing the
    muscle fibers to breakdown and be released into the blood stream.

•   The fibers erode into a substance called myoglobin, which blocks the kidney
    structures and can lead to kidney failure.

•   Alcoholism, heatstroke, cocaine and heroin overdoses, seizures and severe
    exertion are possible causes.

•   If caught early, intravenous fluids are given to restore hydration. Once
    kidney damage occurs, treatment focuses on restoring renal functions and
    preventing further damage.

•   Signs of rhabdomyolysis include weakness, muscle stiffness and pain, joint
    pain and weight gain.
      Fibrodysplasia Ossificans
            Progressiva
•   Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a rare congenital disease
    that affects approximately one in two million people worldwide and causes
    muscles, tendons and ligaments to be replaced with bone tissue.

•   Since it is a congenital disease, it begins before birth but is generally
    diagnosed in childhood.

•   The earliest sign is malformed big toes at birth.

•   The disease generally affects the neck and shoulders during childhood and
    continues downward throughout adolescence and adulthood.

•   Any type of trauma, including falls and medical procedures, can trigger an
    episode. There are no effective treatments for FOP. Medication is usually
    given to treat the pain associated with the new bone formation.
                  Myasthenia gravis
•   a neuromuscular disorder characterized by variable weakness of voluntary
    muscles, which often improves with rest and worsens with activity.

•   The condition is caused by an abnormal immune response-immune cells
    target and attack the body's own cells (an autoimmune response). This
    immune response produces antibodies that attach to affected areas,
    preventing muscle cells from receiving chemical messages
    (neurotransmitters) from the nerve cell.

•   Cause is unknown--may be associated with tumors of the thymus (an organ
    of the immune system).

•   affects about 3 of every 10,000 people and can affect people at any age. It
    is most common in young women and older men.
•   Symptoms
     Muscle weakness, including:
     –   Swallowing difficulty, frequent gagging, or choking
     –   Paralysis
     –   Muscles that function best after rest
     –   Drooping head
     –   Difficulty climbing stairs
     –   Difficulty lifting objects
     –   Need to use hands to rise from sitting positions
     –   Difficulty talking
     –   Difficulty chewing
•   Vision problems:
     – Double vision
     – Difficulty maintaining steady gaze
     – Eyelid drooping
•   Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease:
     –   Hoarseness or changing voice
     –   Fatigue
     –   Facial paralysis
     –   Drooling
     –   Breathing difficulty
                   Multiple Sclerosis
•   Multiple sclerosis (or MS) is a chronic, often disabling disease that attacks
    the central nervous system (CNS)

•   Symptoms may be mild, such as numbness in the limbs, or severe, such as
    paralysis or loss of vision.

•   the cause (etiology) of MS is still not known, scientists believe that a
    combination of several factors may be involved

•   MS occurs in most ethnic groups, including African-Americans, Asians and
    Hispanics/Latinos, but is more common in Caucasians of northern
    European ancestry
•   Symptoms (most common)
•   Fatigue
•   Numbness
     – Numbness of the face, body, or extremities (arms and legs) is one of the most
        common symptoms of MS, and is often the first symptom experienced by those
        eventually diagnosed as having MS.

•   Walking (Gait), Balance, & Coordination Problems
•   Bladder Dysfunction
•   Bowel Dysfunction
     –   Constipation is a particular concern among people living with MS, as is loss of control of the bowels.
         Diarrhea and other problems of the stomach and bowels also can occur.


•   Vision Problems
•   The sudden onset of double vision, poor contrast, eye pain, or heavy blurring
•   Dizziness and Vertigo
•
•   Sexual Dysfunction
     –   Sexual arousal begins in the central nervous system, as the brain sends messages to the sexual organs
         along nerves running through the spinal cord. If MS damages these nerve pathways, sexual respons can
         be directly affected.
•   Pain

•   Cognitive Function
     –   Cognition refers to a range of high-level brain functions, including the ability to learn and remember
         information: organize, plan, and problem-solve; focus, maintain, and shift attention as necessary;
         understand and use language; accurately perceive the environment, and perform calculations.


•   Emotional Changes
     –   Bouts of severe depression (which is different from the healthy grieving that needs to occur in the face of
         losses and changes caused by MS), mood swings, irritability, and episodes of uncontrollable laughing
         and crying (called pseudobulbar affect)


•   Depression

•   Spasticity: the involuntary movement (jerking) of muscles
•
                               Tetanus
    infection of the nervous system with the potentially deadly bacteria Clostridium
    tetani (C. tetani).

•   begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles (lockjaw). The spasms can also
    affect the chest, neck, back, and abdominal muscles. Back muscle spasms
    often cause arching, called opisthotonos.

•   prolonged muscular action causes sudden, powerful, and painful contractions
    of muscle groups. This is called tetany. These episodes can cause fractures
    and muscle tears.

•   Other symptoms include:
     – Drooling
     – Excessive sweating
     – Fever
     – Hand or foot spasms
     – Irritability
     – Swallowing difficulty
     – Uncontrolled urination or defecation

								
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