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					INTERNAL COMBUSTION
      ENGINES




            Mr. Anil Kumar S,
               B.Tech , M.Tech (NITC),

           Assistant Professor
       Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology,
                  Hyderabad
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

             Units – 1
             Lecture-1

 • Introduction

 • Classification of I. C. Engines
               Heat Engine


Input Energy   Device        Output Energy




 Chemical                    (Mechanical Power)
 Energy/
 Heat
                 Heat Engines
Introduction
Engine is a device for converting one form of
  energy into another form.
Normally most of the engines convert Thermal
  Energy into Mechanical Energy. Hence they
  are called Heat Engines.
Heat Engines can be broadly categorized as
   1. Internal Combustion Engines
   2. External Combustion Engines
Classification of Heat Engines


              Heat Engines

       I C Engines    E C Engines
                 CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT ENGINES

                                                Heat Engines




                I.C. Engines                                                    E.C. Engines


      Rotary                    Reciprocating                  Reciprocating               Rotary



Open           Wankel          Gasoline    Diesel       Steam        Stirling       Steam           Closed
Cycle          Engine          Engine      Engine       Engine       Engine         Turbine         Cycle
Gas                                                                                                 Gas
Turbines                                                                                            Turbines
Advantages of IC Engines over EC Engines
  1. IC Engines have Higher Overall Efficiency
  2. The working fluid will be discarded.
     Hence no facility for its conservation
     (recovery) is necessary.
  3. The Engine has Low Weight to Power
     Ratio
  4. IC Engine Requires less space
  5. It has Greater Mechanical Simplicity
  6. Offers Easy and Instantaneous
           ‘Start from cold conditions’
Cross-section of Internal Combustion Engine
CLASSIFICATION OF IC ENGINES

    1. Basic Engine Design:
    2. Working Cycle:
    3. Number of Strokes:
    4. Type of Ignition
    5. Fuel used:
    6. Method of Fuel Supply:
    7. Method of Cooling:
    8. Cylinder Arrangement:
    9. Method of Charging:
    10. Applications:
    11. Engine Speed
               Classification of IC Engines
IC Engines are classified in various ways
depending on their functional characteristics

   1. Basic Engine Design:
      A. Reciprocating Engines
      B. Rotary Engines (Wankel Engine)
   2. Working Cycle:
      A. Engines working on OTTO Cycle (SI Engines)
      B. Engines working on DIESEL Cycle (CI Engines)
   3. Number of Strokes:
      A. Four Stroke Engines B. Two Stroke Engines
Reciprocating & rotary Engines
4 stroke & 2 stroke engines :-
  4. Based On Type Of Ignition


A. Spark Ignition Engines

  Spark Is Generated Through An External Source
B. Compression Ignition Engines

Air Is Heated To A Sufficiently High Temperature Because
  Of High Compression Ratio
   • The Fuel Gets Self-ignited On Injection As Finely
       Atomized Spray.
   •    Needs A Fuel Injection System
            Classification of IC Engines (Contd.

5. Fuel used *:
           1. Gasoline or Petrol Engines
           2. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Engines
           3. Diesel Engines
     6. Classification Based On Type Of Cooling
• Cooling Is Essential For The Satisfactory And
  Healthy Working Of The Engine
  (Otherwise Results In Engine Seizing)
  Two Types Of Engine Cooling In Practice
      •   Air-cooled Engine
      • Water Cooled Engine
             Classification Of IC Engines (Contd.)

7. Fuel Supply:
      a. Carbureted type- Fuel supplied through Carburetor
      b. Injection type- Fuel supplied through injector
      Fuel injected into the cylinder just before Ignition.
9. Type Of Cylinder Arrangements (Contd.)

    • In-line Engine
    • V- Engine
    • Opposed Cylinder Engine
    • Opposed Piston Engine
    • Radial Engine
    • X-type Engine
    • H-type Engine
In-line engine :-
V-Type :-
Opposite cylinder :-
Radial Engine :-
Different Cylinder Arrangements in Multi-Cylinder Engines
       10. Classification Based On
              Method Of Charging

1. Naturally Aspirated Engines
   Admission Of Fuel-air Mixture At Near Atmospheric
     Pressure
2. Super-charged Engines
   Admission Of Fuel- Air Mixture Under Pressure
     (Above Atmospheric)
11. Classification Based On Applications:


1. Motor cycle engine
2. Automobiles
3. Earth Movers
4. Locomotive engine
5. Marine engine
6. Aero engine
7. Prime movers for Electric Generators
 Classification of IC Engines (Contd.)

12. Engine Speed
  •Low Speed - up to 500 rpm
  •Medium Speed – 500 to 1000 rpm
  •High Speed - above 1000 rpm

  Note: The mean Piston speed given by
  V = 2*N*Ls gives a more representative
  indication of the Engine speed
Operation of 2-stroke Petrol Engine
Operation of 4-stroke Petrol Engine

				
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