Chapter 3, Section 4—The Coming of the Civil War (Outline) I. Expanding to the Pacific 1. In the 1830s and 1840s, migration to the western U.S led to the idea of the Manifest Destiny (The possession of the U.S from the Atlantic to Pacific). 2. After Texas gained independence in 1836, from Mexico the U.S annexed (to join or attach) it, but the north did not supports this. 3. In the 1843 Mexican leader Santa Ana said that annexation would be the equivalence of the declaration of war against the Mexican republic. 4. A year later James K. Polk won the presidency but before he took office annexation was approved & Texas became the 28th state. 5. The United States said Rio Grande was the American-Mexican border and Mexico said it wasn’t, so Mexico said the border was the Nueces River, which was located a few miles north of the border. 6. Polk sends a representative to Mexico City with an offer to buy New Mexico and California but the Mexican government refused to meet with him. 7. In 1846 Polk sent troops to attack Southern Texas and then later Polk pushes for a declaration of war and congress gives it to him on May 13, 1846. 8. War with Mexico, Captain John C. Fremont was taking over Mexican territory, which included California and New Mexico & after that captain Fremont moved into Mexico City and took over which ended the war. 9. In January 1848, gold was discovered in California and the word of gold spread quickly throughout the country, that’s now the California Gold Rush began. 10. The population rose up from 14,000 residents in 1848 to 200,000 by 1852 Chinese immigrants mainly labored in mines as servants. II. Slavery in the Territories 1. During the 1850’s the congress was deciding if Mexicans territories should allow slavery, they tried the Missouri compromise of 1820, but it did not help in the issue to settle slavery in western territories. 2. During the gold rush, thousands of Americans request that California should be treated as a free state, Despite the change would truly upset the balance between free slaves states in the Senate, Henry Clay proposed a plan which is called Compromise of 1850. 3. Southerners argued that the North controlled the government due to its larger population. Which gave them more representation, congress later passed the 1850 compromise. 4. In 1850’s the white northerners were prejudice against the African Americans popular anti-slavery novel was published in 1852 called Uncle Tom’s cabin, the Southerners saw the book as insulting lies the Northerners saw the evils of slavery for the first time and took no responsibility for their workers. The North and South had different points of view towards slavery and the north was more industrialized and had twice the population of the south. The North produced much more than the South and had twice the amount of technology. 5. In January 1854, Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois introduced the Kansas Nebraska Act, which allowed to form 2 new territories Kansa and Nebraska. This act also permitted for people to band against slavery if they didn’t think it was right. III. Changes in the Political Parties 1.) The continue debates over slavery, it contribute to the breakdown of the Whig party by the end of the 1815. 2.) The issue that brought down the Whigs was the rise of the American Party. 3.) 1849 fear about immigrants lead to the formation of the secret natives’ society called the order of the star spangle banner. 4.) 1854 a group of the people know as the natives for a American Party that band Irish Catholics who saw immigrants to a longer before they could become citizens. 5.) 1854 a group of anti –slavery northern loach to a new republican party know as today IV. Worsening Tensions 1. The Kansa-Nebraska act allowed voters in Kansas to decide whether they would become a free state or a slave state, the northerners sent free-soldiers and the south sent people so that they vote illegally; this events lead to riots which gave Kansas the nickname “Bleeding Kansas”. 2. The compromise of 1850 and the Kansa-Nebraska act did not bring the north and the south to a compromise over slavery; in fact the events in the mid-1850 only worsened the situation. 3. John C. Fremont declared the Kansas-Nebraska act, which made Nebraska a free state. 4. Buchanan won an election and he told the people that supported him that he was going to stop ”the agitation of the slavery issue” in the North. 5. In March 1857, the Supreme Court had to handle the most controversial decision in its history, the case Scott vs. Stanford, Dred Scott an enslaved man from Missouri filed a suit against his owner because he thought that his wife and him should be free since they once lived in the states. 6. March 1857, the Supreme Court handed down one of the most controversial decisions in its history, the case started when Dred Scott an enslaved man living in Missouri had filed a law suit against his owner. 7. In 1857 the people who supported slavery in Kansas were asked to make a constitution, but they refused thus Kansas reaming as a legal slave state. V. The Lincoln- Douglas Debates 1) Douglas was running for re-election, he was running versus a unknown republican named Abraham Lincoln who served a year in congress. 2) The debates had to important principles that were majority rules and minority rights and Lincoln did not support that people who had more power denied happiness of the people that had no power. 3) Lincoln didn’t believe that the house should fight against itself because it’s either one thing or nothing at all. 4) Lincoln lost the election but gained a reputation that helped him two years later. VI. A Nation Divided 1. “House divided” speaks about how Lincoln brought down the house. 2. On October 16, 1859 john Brown a former Kansas raider with a small group attacked Harper’s Ferry in Virginia. 3. Brown was defeated by Col. Robert E. Lee, and hung for treason. 4. John Brown was considered a tool in the South was celebrated in the North. 5. Both the North and the South could not decide on a president. 6. The South wanted to protect slavery, and the North opposed and broke up. 7. Southerners chose John C. Breckinridge, while the North chose Stephen Douglas. 8. Southern wigs and American parties met in Baltimore so they could form the Constitutional Union Party. 9. Republicans chose Lincoln. 10. Lincoln won with a 39% of the popular vote and 180 electoral votes. 11. Southerner did not like the idea of not having slavery so they separated from the U.S. and started the Confederate States of America. 12. Jefferson was the president of the Confederacy and Lincoln was the president for the Union. 13. Lincoln wanted to stop slavery but did not want to start a civil war.
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