French and Indian War - PowerPoint by Z1Z6njB

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									                            To be an informed citizen of the United States Government
                            and History who consistently contributes to our diverse
                            society.

                            What was one major problem with the Articles
      Objective             of Confederation?
After School Schedule:
Fri until 3:15              Jumpstart: What are some problems that
                            come with making alliances?
Today’s skill assessment:
Reading for Meaning          Agenda For Your Planner 9/27/12
                            Reading: John Hanson
Tonight’s homework for      Game: Me vs. We
your planner:               Game Debrief
                            Lecture/Discussion: Articles of Confederation

Next Due Date for your
planner:
Jumpstart
Read about the first American president –
  John Hansen
 Why don’t you think you hear much
  about John Hanson?
 What successes did he have?
 How many presidents were there before
  Washington?
  Articles of Confederation Game

2 Groups Competing
13 players per group
1 recorder per group
1 board recorder per group
2 scribes per group
Directions

   Goal #1: To be the individual that
    makes the most money
   Goal #2: Be a part of the group that
    makes the most money
   Each round make a choice on if you
    want to choose blue or red based on
    the chart
   Do not tell anyone or talk to anyone
    during the game
Score sheet
  Round   Individual Amount Group Amount
                 Made
    1     $                 $
    2     $                $
    3     $                $
    4     $                $
    5     $                $
Total from $               $
all 5 rounds
       Directions for roles
Players
  1. You may not speak during the game, if you
    speak you are removed from the game
  2. When I say “go”, you will hold up either a
    red card or blue card so no one can see
    except for group reporter
  3. Once they see your choice put it face down
  4. When I say “tally your score” look at the
    table to figure out how much you made and
    how much your group made
Directions for roles

  Group Reporter
   1. You will silently walk around the room and tally up blue
      cards and red cards (you’ll want pencil and paper)
   2. Do not make faces, laugh or give away what the person
      chose as you examine
   3. When I ask you to “report out”, you will say how many
      red and blue cards were shown
   4. You then say how much the group earned that round
Group Roles

Score keeper
  1. You will keep track of the group selection at
    each round and add the total amount of money
    the group is earning
 # in group choosing    Payoff for individual if you choose   Payoff for group
    Blue        Red           Blue               Red
13         0           $3.00               $0                           $39.00
12         1           $2.75               $4.50                        $37.50
11         2           $2.50               $4.25                        $36.00
10         3           $2.25               $4.00                        $34.50
9          4           $2.00               $3.75                        $33.00
8          5           $1.75               $3.50                        $31.50
7          6           $1.50               $3.25                        $30.00
6          7           $1.25               $3.00                        $28.50
5          8           $1.00               $2.75                        $27.00
4          9           $.75                $2.50                        $25.50
3          10          $.50                $2.25                        $24.00
2          11          $.25                $2.00                        $22.50
1          12          $0                  $1.75                        $21.00
0          13          $0                  $1.50                        $19.50
Articles Game Debrief

   What was your strategy?
   What was your group’s strategy?
   Did it work? Why or why not?
   How might this relate to the Articles of
    Confederation?
   What were the problems of the Articles
    of Confederation?
Major changes after the war

New land
              HUGE debt
             ($190 million)
     New government/leaders
Timeline



     1775                1777               1783          1787


                                                       Constitutional
 Lexington &
   Concord     Declaration of              End of Rev. Convention
               Independence                   War

                       Articles of
                  Confederation put into
                         place
How were new states governed?

 The Articles of
  Confederation: 1st
  governing document of the
  USA
   Confederation:
     An association or joining of
      several sovereign states.
      Has a central government with
      limited power.
     States have power to decide
      their own taxes.
Articles of Confederation
                                   *1 vote for
                                   every state
                        Congress   *To make
                                   changes to
                                   Articles every
                                   state had to
                                   approve

    RI        VA    GA       NY    MD        NJ      DE


         PA        NC     NH       MA      SC       CT
Articles of Confederation

Created for the states Nov. 15, 1777
Adopted by the 2nd Continental Congress
 after a year of debate
Gave Congress a power to unify all states
 during war
Could make wartime decisions together
Articles of Confederation


 Continued the structure and operation of the
  government established by the Second
  Continental Congress and established a “league
  of friendship” among the 13 independent states.

 Structure was unicameral (one house).

 Each state had one vote in Congress, no matter
  size or population.
Powers under the Articles

 Make war and peace, send and receive
  ambassadors, enter into treaties, raise and
  equip navy, maintain an army by requesting
  troops from the states, appoint senior military
  officers, fix standards of weights and measures,
  regulate Indian affairs, establish post offices,
  decide certain disputes among states

 All other powers resided with states
Weaknesses
 No power to levy or collect taxes

 State collected money and turned it over to the national treasury

 No power to enforce laws

 Laws needed 9 of 13 states for approval

 Not all delegates were in congress at the same time

 5 small states could block what larger states wanted

 Needed consent of all states for amendments

 No national court system

 State courts enforced and interpreted laws
Achievements
1. Develop. of land west of the App. Mts.

2. NW Ordinance of 1787: established western
   territories and how to acquire them

3. Peace treaty with Great Britain

4. Set up Departments for Foreign Affairs, War,
   Marine, and Treasury with secretaries -
   Precedent for creation of cabinet departments
Money

Owed $190 million at end
 of war
Asked for each state’s
 approval to impose tax on
 imported goods
  RI rejected it
Need for Stronger Government

Debt from the Revolution
  Shay’s Rebellion: Led by Daniel Shays, armed
   farmers forced state courts to close to prevent
   foreclosures on their land. When pleas were
   ignored, 1200 advanced on the federal arsenal.
   They were suppressed by the Massachusetts
   militia but alarmed American leaders.
Ch. 5 Section 1

We will read Ch. 5 section 1 as a class
When we are finished you will fill in the
 chart on the front page
Articles of Confederation

Confederation: Alliance;
   2 levels of government
   (1) States (2) National
   Gov.
Articles of Confederation

What were the weaknesses?
Why did it fail?
How did they come up with the
 Constitution?
Directions

Read page 56 by by yourself
  Write down advantages for the state & national
   government
  Write down the disadvantages for the state and
   national government
When you are finished share with your
 partner & be ready to share with class
Debtors vs. Creditors
 Debtors: Borrowers of money
 Creditors: Lenders of money
  Wanted high state taxes so they
   could get repaid
 High taxes sent farmers into
  debt
  They lost land, it went to creditors
Shay’s Rebellion

How might this have looked to other
 countries?
  “What a triumph for our enemies…to find that
   we are incapable of governing ourselves” –
   George Washington
What did this mean?
Journal Write

“Those who would give up liberty for
  temporary safety deserve neither liberty
  nor safety” – Ben Franklin


      -How did this quote fit
      the Revolutionary time
      period? How does it fit
      into events taking
      place today?
 What were the causes of the
  Constitution? Explain and use
  evidence. (You must have 3 to
  be eligible for a 4 score)
 Rank and justify your causes.
Key words

American Revolution
Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
Constitutional Convention

May 25, 1787 – Sept. 1787
Meet in Penn. State House
 (Independence Hall)
Constitutional Convention

12 states send rep.
  Rhode Island did not
George Washington voted to
 lead it
  Patient & Fair
Goal: Revise the Articles of
 Confederation
Goal of the Convention
 Articles of Conf. Were not working, let’s change
  them
Privacy

Kept doors locked and windows
 shut
 middle of summer
Script of meeting kept secret til
 1840 (57 yrs)
Men at the Convention

  55 men
  8 signed Dec of Indep.
  George Washington,
   James Madison, Ben
   Franklin key figures
Goal of the Convention
 Articles of Conf. Were not working, let’s change
  them
 What were the causes of the
  Constitution? Explain and use
  evidence. (You must have 3 to
  be eligible for a 4 score)
 Rank and justify your causes.
Men at the Convention

  55 men
  8 signed Dec of Indep.
  George Washington,
   James Madison, Ben
   Franklin key figures
Key words

American Revolution
Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
Shay’s Rebellion
Who were the important
people that were involved in
the Constitution? Explain
and use evidence. (You must
have 3 to be eligible for a 4
score)
Federalism

Balancing power between a national and
 state government


     New
    Jersey
Representation at the National Level

Having trouble decide how many
 representatives each state should get
Virginia Plan

1. Three Branches for national government
   Legislative, Executive, Judicial
2. 2 houses in national legislature
   House of Rep. & Senate
   Proportional Representation???
    (representation based on state population)
Reactions to the Virginia Plan

Why would large states create this plan?
 What were the benefits to them?
Was it fair to all states? Why or why not?
How might smaller states react to this?
New Jersey Plan

Legislative Branch would only have one
 house (like Articles of Confederation)
  Increase powers:
    Levy taxes
     regulate trade
    create supreme laws over states
     several ‘presidents’ chosen by Congress
    Supreme court chosen by ‘presidents’
Reactions to NJ Plan

Why would NJ create it?
What were the benefits to them?
Was it fair to all states? Why or why not?
  The Great Compromise                        What was the
                                              Great
 Read pages 141-142                          Compromise?

  “What was the Great
  Compromise?”          What did the
                        smaller
                        populations want?




     What was the
     conflict with
     representation
     about?             What did the larger
                        populations want?
The GREAT COMPROMISE
Bicameral legislature (Congress)
   2 houses
1. House of Representatives
  Proportional representation according to state
   population
2. Senate
  Equal representation
  Chosen by state legislatures (law makers)
Congress

Made up of two houses (1) Senate         (2)
 House of Representatives




                     House of
      Senate     +   Representatives   = Congress
Legislative Branch

Article I – Legislative Branch
Believed the Legislative Branch would
 have the most important role
   making laws
Executive Branch

Article II in the Constitution
President of U.S. head of this branch
Enforce laws
The Executive Branch

Purpose - To enforce the law
The President of the United States is the
 leader of this branch
Judicial Branch

Article III in the Constitution
Supreme Court highest level
Interpret law
 Explain the Constitution.
  Make sure to include the
  what, who, when and where.
  Explain your answer.
The Legislative Branch

Bi-Cameral - Two Houses
  Senate
    100 seats - 2 per state
  House of Representatives
    435 seats - minimum of 1 per state
       • Seats per state decided every 10 years with the census
       • The most recent reapportionment made it 689,000
         people in your state grants you 1 seat in the H.o.R.
Who works in Congress?
Senators - Serve 6 year terms
  Must be 30 years old
  Been a US citizen for 9 years
  Be a resident of the state in which you run.
Representatives - Serve 2 year terms
  Must be 25 years old
  Been a US citizen for 7 years
  Be a resident of the state in which you run.
I want to be President!
 Sorry!
 Must be 35 years old.
 Must be a Natural-born citizen
  (born on US Soil including
  airbases outside of the
  country)
 Must have lived in the US for
  14 years.
      My brother taught a lot of US
       citizens in Nigeria who have
       never lived in the US.
How long is he/she in office?
Maximum of 10 years as stated in the
 22nd Amendment
Limited to 2 terms
  If a President becomes disabled 2 years and
   one day into his term, and the VP takes over,
   this does not count as one term for the VP
  The VP can still run for 2 more terms as
   President making his total stay in office 10
   years.
Judicial Branch

Article III in the Constitution
The Judicial Branch

Purpose - To interpret the law
The Supreme Court is the primary leader
 of this branch
9 total Justices serve on the Supreme
 Court
They serve life-terms on good behavior.
  Do not get elected and the only way they lose
   their job is through impeachment
How can I be a Justice?

Just have to be picked by the President
 and approved by the Senate!
The Senate must approve all S.C.
 nominees, or Federal Judicial
 appointments by simple majority.
9 Justices are on the Supreme Court.
Checks and Balances
 This is a system in which each branch can exert
  some authority over the others
 Some examples:
      President can veto laws created in Congress
      Congress can override that veto (Only successful 4% of
       the times)
      Supreme Court Chief Justice presides in impeachment
       proceedings
      Congress approves all Presidential appointments
      Congress can declare war
      The President can appoint Judges
      Judges can determine if a President acted unlawfully
Checks and Balances Discussion

How does the Supreme Court check the
 other two branches?
How does the Legislative Branch check
 the other two branches?
How does the Executive Branch check the
 other two branches?
 Explain the Constitution.
  Make sure to include the
  what, who, when and where.
  Explain your answer.
6 Basic Principles of the
            Constitution
1. Popular Sovereignty

All Power is held by the People
The power to govern is given through the
 Constitution
Amendments protecting sovereignty:
  15th – African Americans
  17th – Senators elected directly
  19th – Women
2. Limited Government

Government can only do what the people
 give it the power to do
Constitutionalism - Those who govern
 must also obey the law
3. Separation of Powers

Legislative Branch – make the laws

Executive Branch – enforces the laws

Judicial Branch – interprets the laws
4. Checks and Balances

Each Branch is checked by the other
 branches
one branch does not have all the power
5. Judicial Review

Power of the court to determine the
 constitutionality of gov’t
Supremacy Clause – US Constitution is
 the supreme law of the land
6. Federalism

Some powers are delegated to the
 national gov’t and some are reserved for
 the states
Study Time

 Work on study guide OR
 Come up with details for the test
  questions
Questions you’ve received already

1. Explain the Constitution. Make sure to
   include the what, who, when and where.
2. What were the causes of the
   Constitution?
3. Rank and justify your causes.
4. Who were the important people that were
   involved in the Constitution?
The First years
 What were two short term effects of the
  Constitution? Explain and use
  evidence. (You must have 2 to be
  eligible for a 4 score)
Washington

Experimenting with
 presidency
Couldn’t do it by himself
  Created a Cabinet!
The battle begins…




              VS
     TJ              Hamilton
Issue   Anti-Federalists Fear Federalists Response


The     The biggest threat to The largest threats to the people
Biggest   the people is the     is having a small government in
threat    tyranny of the        which those in the minority
   to     government. If a      will never have power. If there
The       government is too     is a large government the
people    big, it will have     diverse populations will ensure
          too much power,       that a small group of people, a
          and consolidate,      dangerous minority with
          eventually leading    radical ideas does not gain
          to the government     power.
          being ruled by a
          powerful elite
Issue
             Anti-Federalists Fear    Federalists Response

             The rights guaranteed to The checks and balances are
               the people should be     enough to keep the
Protection     included in the          government from taking
  of           Constitution or else     the rights of the people
Individual     they are not             away.
  Rights       guaranteed
              Anti-Federalists Fear   Federalists Response
Issue
Power given to The limits of the    The checks and balances
   the federal   power given to the   in the Constitution
   government    federal government   will be effective in
                 are not clear and    restraining the power
                 will result in the   of the federal
                 president becoming   government. The
                 a monarch. More      president does not
                 limits should be     have the power to
                 made through a       make laws, so he/she
                 Bill of Rights.      cannot become a
                                      monarch
What was the basis for Anti-Federalist
Opposition?
 In general, the Anti-Federalists viewed the
  Constitution as a threat to five cherished values
   Law
   Political Stability
   The Principles of the Declaration of
     Independence
   To Federalism
   Anti-Commericalism
                TJ                          Hamilton
Fear of absolute power           Fear of mob rule



Democracy of virtuous farmers    Well-educated elite run government



Economy based on farming         Economy based on manufacturing



Supporters: The “plain people”   Supporters: merchants,
farmers, tradespeople            manufacturers, landowners, lawyers
 What were two short term effects of the
  Constitution? Explain and use
  evidence. (You must have 2 to be
  eligible for a 4 score)
 What was one long term effect the
  Constitution? Explain and use
  evidence. (You must have 1 to be
  eligible for a 4 score)
Assessment
1.   Explain the Constitution. Make sure to include the
     what, who, when and where. Explain your answer.
2.   What were the causes of the Constitution? Explain
     and use evidence. (You must have 3 to be eligible
     for a 4 score)
3.   Rank and justify your causes.
4.   What were two short term effects of the Constitution?
     Explain and use evidence. (You must have 2 to be
     eligible for a 4 score)
5.   What was one long term effect the Constitution?
     Explain and use evidence. (You must have 1 to be
     eligible for a 4 score)
6.   Who were the important people that were involved in
     the Constitution? Explain and use evidence. (You
     must have 3 to be eligible for a 4 score)
Agenda

1. SSR
2. Discussion on Bill of Rights
3. Discuss test/Q&A
4. Study for test
5. Work on rough draft for Hartwell’s essay
Federalist   Anti-Federalist
Bill of Rights
First 10 changes (amendments) to the
 Constitution
                                 1st Amendment
  Protects the people's right to practice religion, to speak freely, to assemble
       (meet), to address the government and of the press to publish.


                                4th Amendment
 Protects the people from the government improperly taking property, papers,
  or people, without a valid warrant based on probably cause (good reason).

                               5th Amendment
   Protects people from being held for committing a crime unless they are
  properly charged, that they may not be tried twice for the same crime, and
            that you need not be forced to testify against yourself.
6th Amendment
Guarantees a speedy trial, an impartial jury, and that the
   accused can confront witnesses against them, and that
   the accused must be allowed to have a lawyer.

8th Amendment
Guarantees that punishments will be fair, and not cruel,
   and that extraordinarily large fines will not be set.

9th Amendment
Simply a statement that other rights aside from those listed
   may exist, and just because they are not listed doesn't
   mean they can be violated.

10th Amendment
Says that any power not granted to the federal government
  belongs to the states

								
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