Biometrics by HC121004114459


									Biometrics   Page 1


             Bio-metrics is modern security system. It uses a person’s biological features to give
             access rights. The biological features like finger print, voice print, iris pattern, face print,
             signature(dynamic), retina, hand geometry, ear form , DNA, odor, keyboard stroke,
             finger geometry, vein structure of back of hand etc. are used. So, in this any
             unauthorized person cannot trap the information or assets. Today, to prevent illegal
             operations this technique is widely used. It is a user-friendly technique, which is
             accepted by almost all fields.
             The problem of the personal identification has become a great matter in today’s world.
             Biometrics, which means biological features based identity recognition, has provided a
             convenient and reliable solution to this problem. This recognition technology is relatively
             new with many significant advantages, such as speed, accuracy, hardware, simplicity and
             Biometrics is a means of identifying a person by measuring a particular physical or

             behavioral characteristic and later comparing it to a library of characteristics belonging

             to many people. Biometric systems have two advantages over traditional ID methods.

             First, the person to be identified does not have to present anything but himself. Second,

             the critical variable for identification cannot be lost or forged. Retinal identification is

             the most accurate of the biometric methods used at this time. It will replace traditional

             ID methods such as P.I.N. numbers for accessing A.T.M.s and virtually every other

             electronic device used for conducting business where identification is a requirement

             and prerequisite.

             After the arrival of IT(Information Technology) this technique is used along with
             computer and this embedding gives the perfect result.

             Contents:-                                                                    page-no:-                                                                                               Page 2

               1) Brief on Security System                1

               2) Introduction to Bio-metrics             2

               3) A Few Defination                        3

               4) History of Bio-metrics                  4

               5) International Bio-metrics society       5
                        5.1 Purpose
                        5.2 Journal
                       5.3 Meetings
                       5.4 Biometrics Bulletin

               6) Generic model of bio-metrics            6
                       6.1 Data Acquisition:-
                       6.2 Transmission: -
                      6.3 Signal Processing:-
                      6.4 Decision Making:-
                      6.5 Data Storage:-

               7) Phases of Bio-metrics                   8
                       7.1 Input
                       7.2 Process
                       7.3 Output

               8) Bio-metrics Identification              10
                       8.1 Voice Print
                       8.2 Finger Print
                       8.3 Iris Pattern
                       8.4 Face Print
                       8.5 Hand Geometry
                       8.6 Retinal Scan
                       8.7 Keystroke Dynamics
                       8.8 Facial Recognition
                       8.9 Signature Recognition

               9) Captured Using Web Cam and Microphone   19

               10) Comparision of Bio-metrics technique   20                                              Page 3

                       10.1 Uniqueness of biometric features

               11) How well do Bio-metrics works?                            23
                       11.1 False Accept Rates
                       11.2 False Reject Rates
                       11.3 Equal Error Rates
                       11.4 Validity of Test Data

               12) Is DNA Bio-metrics ?                                      25

               12) About Bio-metrics                                         26
                       13.1 Will Bio-metrics solve all security concerns ?
                       13.2 Which is the best identification technique ?
                       13.3 Is Bio-metrics more ‘secure’ then password ?
                       13.4 Applications
                       13.5 New Opportunities
                       13.6 Future Technology
                       13.7 Benefits

               15) Conclusion                                                30

               16) Reference                                                 31

             1. WHAT SECURITY ? WHY SECURITY ?                                                                 Page 4

                   From the beginning of the human culture, people are always trying to secure their
                    properties. Because some people are always eager to snatch others properties.

                   Security refers to prohibit some unauthorized persons from some important data
                    or from some precious assets.

                   To restrict this kind of theft human beings are making special systems that can
                    prevent the thieves such systems are known as security systems.

                   We can consider the starting of these kinds of systems through lock and key.

                   A Frenchman Alexander Fish has made a strong, fire proof safe in 1844. And
                    Linas Yel –an American, has invented a Pin lock kind of lock. Both these
                    equipments are used to provide security to money, important documents and
                    jewellary. So this is the first step in the world of security system.

                   At that point of time this arrangement for security was considered the best. But as
                    time passes it was found that any unauthorized person could access these through
                    duplicate keys or using any technique. So as the world progresses, the thieves
                    become more intelligent to break the security.

                   Thus, we always need a new and strong security system to protect our assets.

                   So, security system is ever developing field.

                   Today in the world of e-commerce and Internet this thing is becoming more and
                    more important because today the world is like village, from anywhere, any time,
                    any body can harm you.

                           e.g. :-If you are purchasing something from web and because of
                           lack of security someone come to know your bank account
                           number. Then that person will have all the information of your bank
                           account, which can perhaps put you in a big trouble!

                   Now a days, there are many security systems are available. But we shall
                    concentrate on ‘BIO-METRICS’.

             2. INTRODUCTION
             BIO=Pertaining to biology; MATRICS=Science and art of measurement.                                                                                         Page 5

                        o The term 'biometrics' is used to refer to any and all of a variety of
                          identification techniques which are based on some physical and difficult-
                          to-alienate characteristic.

                        o Today, the science of biometric technology refers to the "automated"
                          methods used to recognize a person based upon physiological or
                          behavioral characteristics.

                        o Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array
                          of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions.

                   Biometrics is a modern technological field that focuses on identifying an
                    individual through his or her unique physical traits.

                   A biometric is a measurable, physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait
                    used to recognize the identity or verify the claimed identity of an enrolled user.

                   Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a
                    physiological or behavioral characteristic.
                    Physiological techniques include fingerprint recognition, retinal and iris
             scanning, facial recognition, hand and finger geometry and DNA analysis.
                    Behavioral techniques include handwriting recognition, voice or speech
             recognition, gait, and keystroke dynamics.

                          In all automated systems, the fundamental operational steps are:
             1. Capture: The biometric data is captured, digitized and entered into a database.
             2. Extraction: A template is created using this measurable unique data.
             3. Comparison: The template is compared with a new sample.
             4. Match/Non-Match: The existing template matches the new sample or it does not.

                          The goal of most automated biometric ID systems is one of two outcomes:
             1. Verification: Is the person who the they claim to be?
             2. Identification or recognition: Who is this? Is the person already known to the system
             under a different identity?

                             “Only biometrics can identify you as you [Not Password].”

             3. A FEW DEFINATION                                                                                        Page 6

                         Biometrics Authentication
                    Person authentication or simply authentication is a task of confirming or denying
             a person’s claimed identity. Biometrics is a measurement using a person’s behavioural or
             physiological characteristics. Examples of these characteristics are fingerprints, face,
             voice and signature. Biometric authentication is a task of confirming or denying a
             person’s claimed identity using his behavioural or physiological characteristics.

                         Biometrics, Biometric or Biometry

                    Biometry refers to a much broader field involving application from statistics to
             biology and medicine. Biometrics is a noun and biometric is an adjective.

             Note the distinction between the terms biometrics and biometry. Biometry refers to a
             much broader field involving application from statistics to biology and medicine.
             Biometrics is a noun and biometric is an adjective.

                         Authentication versus Identification

                     According to [Jain, 1999], associating an identity with an individual is called
             personal identification. This problem can be categorised into: (i) authentication and (ii)
             identification. Authentication refers to the problem of confirming or denying a person’s
             claimed identity while identification refers to the problem of establishing a subject’s
             identity. The differences between identification and authentication can be summarised in
             Table A.1.

                                   Table A.1 Identification versus authentication

             Identification                                Authentication
             It determines the identity of the person.     It determines whether the person is indeed
                                                           who he claims to be.
             There is no identity claim from the user.     The user makes an identity claim. By using
             The system has to search through its record the claim as a key, the system searches the
             to find the identity. This search is called a user’s record to compare. It is a one to one
             many-to-one mapping. The cost of              mapping. The system uses the identity as a
             computation in the identification task        key to call for the identity’s record. The
             increases in proportion to the number of      cost of computation is not dependant on
             record of users.                              the number of record of users.
             It is often assumed that a captured           The captured biometric signature comes
             biometric signature comes from a set of       from a large set of unknown users. This is
             known biometric feature stored in the         referred to as open-set verification.
             system. This is referred to as closed-set
             4. HISTORY OF BIO-METRICS                                                                                         Page 7

                        Francis Galton is one of the founders of Bio-metrics. In 1892, Galton
                        invented the first system of fingerprinting.

                       He has observed that No two persons have same finger print. Each and
                        every person has got a unique finger print pattern.

                       In 1968, Bio-metrics technique was implemented successfully when well-known bank
                        of New York has arranged the finger print scanning to access the currency walt , first
                        time in the world.

                       But after 1990, when IT (Information Technology) comes into the picture, through its
                        advancement and simplicity Bio-metrics technique becomes very popular.

                       This new technology is very easy to understand compare to its heavy label.
                        Because of user-friendly environment this technique is very well welcomed by
                        various fields.                                                                                      Page 8

                    The International Biometric Society, founded in 1947, is an international
             organization for the advancement of the subject-matter sciences through the development
             of quantitative theorgies and the development, application, and dissemination of effective
             mathematical and statistical techniques.

              5.1 Purpose
                     To this end, it welcomes to membership biologists, statisticians, and others
                     interested in applying statistical techniques to research data. The International
                     Biometric Society and its journal, Biometrics, serve as an invaluable means of
                     communication between the subject-matter specialists and the statisticians.

              5.2 Journal
                     Biometrics is published quarterly. Its general objectives are to promote and extend
                     the use of mathematical and statistical methods in the various subject-matter
                     disciplines, by describing and exemplifying developments in these methods and
                     their application in a form readily assimilable by experimenters and those
                     concerned primarily with analysis of data. The journal is a ready medium for
                     publication of papers by both the experimentalist and the statistician. The papers
                     in the journal include statistical, authoritative expository or review articles, and
                     analytical or methodological papers contributing to the planning or analysis of
                     experiments and surveys, or the interpretation of data. Many of the papers in
                     Biometricscontain actual worked examples of the statistical analyses proposed.

              5.3 Meetings
                     Encouragment is given the subject-matter experimenter by holding symposia
                    dealing with applied statistics as a part of annual meetings of the biological,
                    chemical, engineering, and physical science societies. Such symposia afford an
                    opportunity for subject-matter specialists and statisticians to discuss problems of
                    mutual interest. At Regional meetings of the Society, a member is afforded an
                    opportunity to present technical papers. This permits the exchange of ideas and
                    information through formal presentation and informal contacts with fellow
                    statisticians and experimentalists.

              5.4 Biometric Bulletin
                    The International Biometric Society also publishes an informal newsletter
                    containing news about membership activities, letters to the editor, and membership
                    and editorial commentaries. It is a means for expressing ideas on a wide range of
                    statistical and biometrical matters and is also published quarterly.                                                                                           Page 9


             6.1 Data Acquisition:-
                 Data collection involves use of sensors to detect & measure an individual’s
             physiological or behavioral characteristics. The biometric feature must have the
             following characteristics:-
             (a) Universality, which means that every person should have the characteristic,
             (b) Uniqueness, two persons should not have the same term or measurement of
             (c) Permanence, the characteristic should be invariant with time,
             (d) Measurability, the characteristic can be quantified that is the origin of the
              Cameras used in biometric systems are generally either CCD(charge couple device) or
             CMOS(combined metal oxide semiconductor) image sensors.CCD’s are comparatively
             more costlier than CMOS. The cost of CCD is nearly 2500 Rs. And CMOS is about 800
             to 1000 Rs. Price depends on the resolution which reflects the accuracy of biometric
             system.                                                                               Page 10

             6.2 Transmission: -
                      Not all the biometric systems process and store data on the measuring device.
             Often measurement is made using relatively simple device to a computer or server for
             processing and/or storage. Depending on the system, the data may be relatively large
             and thus would need to be compressed for quick transfer. The compression algorithm
             needs to be selected carefully; otherwise it may introduce some artefacts that could
             impact the decision process.
                      In any image scanning Biometric system, JPEG compression is preferred due to
             the blockness it produces at high compression ratios. The data can also be transmitted
             to the database for storage as raw data.

             6.3 Signal Processing:-
                     The signal processing unit uses features extraction algorithms to extract true
             biometric information from the sample in presence of noise introduced during data
             collection and transmission. Additional measurements are made if any flaw or
             corruption is noted, to ensure good quality.
                     Pattern matching involves comparing the feature sample to a stored sample.
             (The biometric data can be stored locally on the biometric data can be stored locally on
             the biometric device, some central database/server, or on a smart card issued to users.)
             The result of the comparison is sent to the decision system to determine the match.

             6.4 Decision Making:-
                    The final step is the decision to accept or reject user, and is based on a security
             threshold. The threshold value is either a parameter of comparison process itself, or the
             system compares the resulting match value with the threshold value. If for example, in
             a system performing identity verification, the match value is equal to or higher than the
             threshold value, the user is accepted. In an identification system, acceptance might
             require a match value that is both higher than threshold value and higher than the
             second-best match by a specific amount.

             6.5 Data Storage:-
                     After extracting the biometric features, the system stores and maintains the new
             master template. Choosing proper discriminating characteristics for categorizing
             records can facilitate future searches. The system stores the templates in one of four
             locations: a card, a server’s central database, a workstation, or an authentication
             terminal. If privacy is a concern, a card is the only choice because sensitive biometric
             data should not be stored (and potentially misused) in a central database.                                                                                         Page 11

             7. PHASE OF BIO-METRICS
                7.1 Input
                         Using appropriate input device it will collect the data of the person’s
                        biological features. These features are known as the master key for
                        the computer.

                        Let us put in a simple manner.

             For recording and converting biometric traits to usable computer data, one needs an
             appropriate sensor (see table). Of course, costs can greatly vary for different sensors.
             However, we can't forget that many technical devices already have sensors built in, and
             therefore, offer possibilities to measure biometric features nearly free of cost.

             Biometric Trait                          Sensor
             Fingerprint (Minutia)                    capacitive, optic, thermal, acoustic, pressure
             Signature (dynamic)                      Tablet
             Facial Structure                         Camera
             Iris pattern                             Camera
             Retina                                   Camera
             Hand geometry                            Camera
             Finger geometry                          Camera
             Vein structure of the back of the        Camera
             Ear form                                 Camera
             Voice (Timbre)                           Microphone
             DNA                                      Chemical Lab
             Odor                                     Chemical sensors
             Keyboard Strokes                         Keyboard
             Comparison: Password                     Keyboard

             7.2 Process
                        Processes the input data. Here, computer takes the measurement of inputed
                         Biological features.

                        No two persons have same finger print. So, computer joins the points of that finger
                         print features and make the pattern of it and it will store that pattern into its memory.
                         Then computer compares this pattern against the master keys.

                                         e.g.: - Putting the tracing paper on Indian map, if we join Banglor,
                                          Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Nagpur, Ahmedabad, Jaipur and
                                          Lukhnow drawing a line then by chance the original map is lost. Now                                                                                        Page 12

                                        if we want to know the distance between Ahmedabad and Bhavnagar
                                        for that we require the original one, which is drawn with the same
                                        measurement. But In this case, actual map is lost so we are helpless.
                                        Similarly, the finger print used by the computer to make its pattern is
                                        deliberately hidden. Thus, the security system does not allow any
                                        unauthorized person.

                7.3 Output
                        Testing of processed data and give the access rights to the person. Here,
                        When any person scanned his/her finger print , computer will
                        store a Bio-logical featured pattern and compares it against the stored master-
                        key in its memory. And if it is matched, then permission granted else not.                                                                                         Page 13

                 1 VOICE PRINT
                 2 FINGER PRINT
                 3 IRIS PATTERN
                 4 FACE PRINT
                 5 HAND GEOMETRY
                 6 RETINAL SCAN
                 7 KEYSTROKE DYNAMICS
                 8 FACIAL RECOGNITION
                 9 SIGNATURE RECOGNITION

                    8.1 VOICE PRINT: -

                           In this world of bio-metrics the first invention is of voice print.

                           Voice recognition is very different to speech recognition. Speech
                            recognition detect words and sentences from an incoming audio signal
                            whereas voice recognition tries to detect the speaker given a voice

                           Here voice is recorded by microphones.

                           But as each & every person has got different voice pattern that’s why
                            no two voice prints are matched.

                           Voice print is determined by many different factors: size of the vocal
                            cavities (throat, oral, nasal) as well as the characteristics of the vocal
                            chords themselves.

                           Your voice is further modified by the way you speak - the way your
                            mouth, lips, tongue, jaw and teeth move (these are called articulators).
                            Therefore, the chances of two people have the same vocal
                            characteristics are minute.

                           But this technique is not 100% authentic because of the following

                                  Each and every person’s voice changes as per the mood.
                                  All microphones, which are used to fetch the voice, may not
                                   work properly.
                                  During the recording of voice if there is any background sound
                                   or noise then it will not be able to give perfect result.                                                                                    Page 14

                              The computer converts the voice pattern into 0 & 1.After taking the
                               input that input is also converted into 0 & 1.If the both code matches
                               the person is authorized.

                    8.2 FINGER PRINT: -
                             In this technique, no two persons have the same

                             finger print, Francis Galton proves this after a long observation in

                             No ID Card is as best as finger print because the possibility of
                              matching two person’s finger print is 0%.

                             Finger print is also called finger scanning.

                             To scan the finger print, a special kind of scanner that can work with
                              optical rays is used.

                             When a person put his/her finger on the transparent glass of scanner
                              ,CCD chip scans the biological features of finger.

                             It fetches the diagram of finger print & delivers it to the computer
                              where a special programme measures the distance between the special
                              features & that print.

                             Here, those special features are core, split, island, end & delta.

                             The new sophisticated software of bio metrics scans the finger as well
                              as palm.                                                                                   Page 15

                           In this case, it takes the 90 types of measurement of palm & matches
                            that new digits against the stored digits in the computer’s memory as
                            well as finger print is matched & then it gives the access rights.

                           Hand technology is similar but surprisingly uses smaller amount
                            information. Hand technology is also susceptible to injuries to hand
                            and can be fairly expensive to install.

                           Most fingerprint data takes up around 250Kb.

                           Fingerprinting is a widely used and accepted technology with very
                            good accuracy rates.

                           Thus this technique is more authentic than the voice print.

                           The computer converts the finger pattern into 0 & 1.After taking the
                            input that input is also converted into 0 & 1.If the both code matches
                            the person is authorized.

                    8.3 PATTERN OF IRIS: -
                           an iris has a mesh-like texture to it, with numerous overlays
                            and patterns. The iris is located behind the cornea of the eye, but in
                            front of the lens. Its only physiological purpose is to control the
                            amount of light that enters the eye through the pupil, but its
                            construction from elastic connective tissue gives it a complex,
                            fibrillous pattern.

                           Iris recognition is the epitome of biometric identification - the                                                                                Page 16

                       entire planet could be enrolled into an iris database and there would
                        still be a minute chance of false identification or rejection. In finger
                        print technique there are only 90 special features, but in iris pattern
                        there are 266 special features.

                       In 1998, Dr. John Daugman. -inventor of Cambridge University of
                        Britain has compared the approx 3,00,00,000 the iris but he couldn’t
                        find at least one similarity.

                       In this technique CCD camera, which looks like small camcorders,
                        scans the eye’s iris pattern.

                       The iris pattern of a person’s left and right eyes are different.

                       Here, CCD scan either left or right eye’s iris pattern.

                       After scanning that pattern is delivered to the computer’s processing

                       Computer only considers the data of iris and removes other data and
                        analyzes the total 266 features and assigns a particular value to each

                       The pattern of iris is converted into the total 4,096 bits of 0 & 1.

                       Then computer compares the new data of 0 & 1 to the iris print stored
                        as master key and if it is matches then gives the access rights.
                       Iris has stable and distinctive features for personal identification. That
                        is because every iris has fine and unique patterns and does not change                                                                                Page 17

                             over time since two or three years after the birth, so it might be called
                             as a kind of optical finger print
                            The Iris Code is so specialized that the chances of two irises having
                             the same code are 1 in 1052 !


                            Secure accesses to bank cash machine accounts:
                                 The banks of United, Diebold and Sensar have applied it. After
                             enrolling once (a “30 ”second process), the customers need only
                             approach the ATM, follow the instruction to look at the camera, and be
                             recognized within 2-4 seconds. The ultimate aim is to provide safe and
                             secure transactions.

                            Ticket less, document-free air travel:
                                    Passengers and airline employees will store digital images of
                             their irises on a database. After the image of your iris is on the file, a
                             video camera will be able to instantly verify your identity and clear
                             you to board the aircraft.
                            Computer login: the iris an living password.

                            National border controls: the iris as a living passport.

                            Premises access control (homes, office, laboratory).

                            Credit card authentication.

                            Secure financial transactions.

                            Internet security.

             8.4 FACE PRINT: -
                        Facial biometrics use various features of the face to recognize or verify a

                        Fourth type of biometrics identification is of face print.

                        To capture face print of any person special kind of camera is used.

                        This vide camera delivers the capture image to compute                                                                                         Page 18

                       Computer make a pattern of that image using a software .

                       To make this pattern it will use approx 50 features of face like the distance
                        between two eyes, breath of nose, cheeks, area of forehead, jaws etc.

                       These features are converted into digital form.

                       Though it is not necessary that a high –tech and sophisticated software
                        identify proper person.

                       The computer converts the face pattern into 0 & 1.After taking the input
                        that input is also converted into 0 & 1.If the both code matches the person
                        is authorized.

                       Here are some possibilities.

                              To create a pattern of a person’s face, the face of the person must
                               be within the range of 35 degrees.
                              A camera cannot recognize a person wearing goggles.
                              e.g.: During a testing at Palm Beach, America, the camera has
                               recognized simultaneously two persons as culprit. The face of one
                               of them is really stored into the computer software as culprit. For
                               that person Bio-metrics technology has been proved 100% true.
                               While according to plan other person is eating a Jellybeans candy
                               and he acts as if he is blowing. By doing this face was looking
                               quite similar to the first one. So, camera recognizes him as a culprit
                               by ringing an alarm.

                              Because of continuous movement of head camera cannot recognize
                               the face.
                              In short, in compare to finger print and iris pattern -face print is
                               less authentic. In some circumstances this is very useful like when
                               we caught the culprit and make him/her to stand against the
                              A software FaceIt can compare 6,00,00,000 photos against the
                              In this process there is no chance of any error. But we cannot relay
                               on it completely. Because of Bio-metrics the human body is
                               serving s mobile lock and key.                                                                                   Page 19

             8.5 Hand Geometry: -
                    Hand geometry is by far the most widely used
             biometric system. The ID3D Hand key system from
             Recognition Systems, Inc. is the most popular.
                    Various methods are used to measure the hand; these
             methods generally fall into one of two categories :
             1. Mechanical
             2. Image-edge detection
             Either method produces estimates of certain person.
             Key measurements of the hand (length of fingers and thumb,
             widths, etc.); this data are used to "categorize" a person.                                                          Page 20

             It works as follows:
                     The user first enters a PIN number on a keypad, and then
             positions their hand on a plate using a set of guidance pins which
             ensures that the hand will be in generally the same position for every
             measurement. Then a digital camera mounted above the plate, with
             the aid of a mirror, takes a picture of the top and side views of the
             hand. The dimensions of the hand, such as finger length, width and
             area, are extrapolated from the image and the magnification of the
             camera. This system, however, is subject to an attack using a fake
             hand modeled after that of an authorized user.

             8.6 Retinal Scan: -

                     Retinal Scan technology is based on the blood vessel pattern in the retina of the
             eye. A retinal scan can produce almost the same volume of data as a fingerprint image
             It works as follows:
                     The user positions their head against a support, and a low power infrared light is
             directed against the back of the retina. The image of the pattern of veins is reflected back
             to a camera.

             8.7 Keystroke Dynamics: -
                     This method analyzes the way in which a user types at a computer keyboard. The
             input is monitored thousands of times a second, and the durations of keystrokes and the
             latencies between them are recorded.
                     The goal for keyboard dynamics is continual authentication of the user while at a
             computer; so that if an intruder user had access to the users session while they were
             away, the machine would eventually be able to recognize the discrepancy. Even though
             typing patterns are behavioral characteristics, they are very hard to mimic.                                                                                       Page 21

             8.8 Facial Recognition: -
                    Facial recognition technology has recently developed into two areas of study:

             1. Facial metrics
             2. Eigenfaces.

                      Facial metrics technology relies on the measurement of specific facial features
             (e.g., the distance between the inside corners of the eyes, the distance between the outside
             corners of the eyes and the outside corners of the mouth, etc.) and the relationship
             between these measurements. Within the past two years, an investigation has been made
             into categorizing faces according to the degree of fit with a set of "eigenfaces". It has
             been postulated that every face can be assigned a "degree of fit" to each of 150
             eigenfaces; further, only the template eigenfaces with the 40 highest "degree of fit" scores
             are necessary to reconstruct a face with over 99% accuracy. The difference between the
             eigenface method of facial categorization and the police artist method of building a face
             from template parts is that the eigenface method is based upon an actual photo of the
             individual and the "eigenface" information is derived from a computer-based analysis of
             the digital image of the photo. Eigenfaces are (reportedly) highly repeatable and are not
             affected by human subjectivity.         Eigenface technology has some promise, but it is a
             technique that is just in the infancy stage of development. Very little data regarding
             eigenface error rates (false negative, false positive) exists at this point.

             8.9 Signature Recognition: -
                     Signature recognition is based on the dynamics of making the signature, i.e.,
             acceleration rates, directions, pressure, stroke length, etc., rather than a direct comparison
             of the signature after it has been written.    The problems with signature recognition lie
             in the means of obtaining the measurements used in the recognition process and the
             repeatability of the signature. The instrumentation cannot consistently measure the
             dynamics of the signature. Also, a person does not make a signature in a fixed manner;
             therefore, the data obtained from any one signature from an individual has to allow for a
             range of possibilities. Signature recognition has the same problem with match
             discrimination (i.e., finding a match in a large database) as does hand geometry.                                                                                         Page 22

             9.Biometrics Captured Using Web Cam and Microphone
                     Figure 1 is made up of images of 320240 pixels. Figure 1(a) is the typical
             upright front image that we captured before processing it. At 50mm, the shortest depth-
             of-field, we can capture eye at a resolution of 320240, as shown in Figure 1(b). By
             visual judgement, this is quite promising for the authentication purpose, when lighting
             and reflection can be controlled. Since all eyes are round, colour analysis becomes an
             important property for extraction.

                                          (a)                          (b)

                            (c)                          (d)                          (e)

                        Figure 1 : Biometrics captured by the WebCam in this project

                     Figure 1(c) shows an ear. An ear has more structure thus creates different shading.
             Segmenting ear can be very challenging. However, if ear can be segmented reliably and
             represented in a canonical image space, it is possible to extract ear shape information.
             The same goes to fist as shown in Figure 1(d). We tried to capture thumb too in the hope
             that fingerprints might be observed. However, at such resolution, fingerprints are partially
             captured and is not clear.

                    By visual judgement, we have decided to use face biometrics, over eye
             biometrics, ear and fist in decreasing order of priority.                                                                                       Page 23


             10.1 Uniqueness of biometric features

                    Table shows the cross accuracy of different biometrics.

                    Table : Comparison of Biometrics Techniques [Ruggles, 1998]

                                   Biometrics               Crossover Accuracy
                                   Retinal Scan             1:10,000,000+
                                   Iris Scan                1:131,000
                                   Fingerprints             1:500
                                   Hand Geometry            1:500
                                   Signature Dynamics       1:50
                                   Voice Dynamics           1:50

                     Crossover accuracy is the ratio of the crossover frequency as compared to the
             whole population of test data. The smaller the crossover accuracy, the more unique the
             biometrics is. It should be noted that comparison across biometrics is by no means
             measurable. Even the quality of same biometrics is difficult to judge unless the results are
             tested on the same data set. [O’Gorman, 1999]. Therefore, sufficient bias is expected
             from the readers as well.

                    From Table 2, Retinal scan, after [Daugman, 1995], appears to have the highest
             crossover accuracy. Even though Iris scan has high cross over accuracy, its user
             acceptability is low. Fingerprints and hand geometries are equally “unique”.

                    Signature dynamics and voice dynamics have the lowest accuracy rates according
             to [Ruggles, 1998]. In addition, these two techniques rely on behavioural measurements
             as opposed to physical measurements. In general, behavioural biometrics is less reliable
             than physical biometrics.

                     Retinal scan has high accuracy but also has a high data collection error rate and
             low user acceptability. For this reason, retinal scan exists only in science fiction movies
             but not in real life applications!

                      The fingerprint biometric has a low data collection error rate and high user
             acceptability. Further, fingerprint technology has had the most research and development
             money applied to both identification and authentication problem. Finally, fingerprint
             biometrics has the highest acceptance in the identification community and virtually every
             large biometrics system in operation today uses fingerprint biometrics. Notwithstanding
             it's association with "criminal" applications, fingerprint biometrics is generally accepted
             by clients.                                                                                       Page 24

                    The chosen biometrics in this project, i.e., face and voice, are based on user
             acceptability and another important factor, the availability of resources in the laboratory.
             Once the system is established, moving into other biometrics would be easier.

             Table 3 : Comparison of biometrics technologies based on perception of three biometrics
             experts according to [Jain, 1999]                                                                                       Page 25


                    11.1 FALSE ACCEPT RATES
                    11.2 FALSE REJECT RATES
                    11.3 EQUAL ERROR RATES
                    11.4 VALIDITY OF TEST DATA

                    Biometric devices can be adjusted to favor security or user convenience. How
                    well do Biometrics work? Is depending on four points.

               11.1 False Accept Rates

                             The probability that a biometric device will                 allow   an
                              unauthorized person is called the "False Accept Rate”.

                             False Accept Rates claimed for today's biometric access systems range
                              from 0.0001% to 0.1%.

                             It's important to remember that the only way an unauthorized person
                              can get access is if a unauthorized person tries. Thus, the False Accept                                                                                    Page 26

                           Rate must be multiplied by the number of attempts by unauthorized
                           person to determine the number of possible occurrences.

               11.2 False Reject Rates

                          The probability that a biometric device won't recognize an authorized
                           person is called the "False Reject Rate”.

                          The False Reject Rates quoted for current biometric systems range
                           from 0.00066% to 1.0%.

                          A low False Reject Rate is very important for most applications, since
                           users will become extremely frustrated if they're denied access by a
                           device that has previously recognized them.

               11.3 Equal Error Rates
                          The point where false accept and false reject curves cross is called the
                           "Equal Error Rate”.

                          Error curves give a patternical representation of a biometric device's

                          The Equal Error Rate provides a good indicator of the unit's
                           performance. The smaller the Equal Error Rate, the better.

               11.4 Validity of Test Data
                          Here, it checks for validity of the processed data and decides whether
                           the person is authorized or not.

                          Testing biometrics is difficult, because of the extremely low error rates
                           involved. To attain any confidence in the statistical results, thousands
                           of transactions must be examined.

                          It's important to remember that error rates are statistical: they are
                           derived from a series of transactions by a population of users.

                          In general, the larger the population and the greater the number of
                           transactions, the greater the confidence level in the accuracy of the
                           results.                                                                                  Page 27

                              If the reported error rate is 1:10, then a sample of 100 transactions may
                               provide a sufficient confidence level. Conversely, a 100-transaction
                               sample would be too small if the error rate was reported as 1:100,000.

             Biometric devices are extremely secure, thanks to the combination of low False Accept
             Rates at moderate sensitivity settings, combined with a short user keypad code.

             At the same time, biometrics are extremely convenient and error-free, thanks to low False
             Reject Rates.                                                                                      Page 28

             12.IS DNA A BIOMETRIC?

                    DNA differs from standard biometrics in several ways:
                    DNA requires a tangible physical.
                    DNA matching is not done in real-time, and currently not all stages of
                    comparison are automated.
                    DNA matching does not employ templates or feature extraction, but rather
                    represents the comparison of actual samples.
                    Regardless of these basic differences, DNA is a type of biometric inasmuch as it
                    is the use of a physiological characteristic to verify or determine identity.                                                                                  Page 29

             13.ABOUT BIO-METRICS

             13.4 APPLICATION
             13.5 NEW OPPORTUNITIES
             13.6 FUTURE TECHNOLOGY
             13.7 BENEFITS

             13.1 Will Biometric Solve All Security Concerns?

                   No System Can be 100% Safe

                   Biometric Measures Can be Very Successful in Fighting Today's Security

                   Major Drawback in Adopting Biometric Systems is that Concerned person
                    Need to be Physically Present

             13.2 Which is the best technique among above ?
                      Accordingly, the pattern of iris is the best one to recognize a person. Because the
             possibility of two persons having the same iris pattern is 1 per 1000 million , the
             population of earth is 6 million so eyes are 12 million and that is why probability is not
             at least 1%.

             13.3 Is Bio-metrics more "secure" than passwords?
             This question at least poses two problems: biometrics is not equal to biometrics, and the
             term "secure" is in fact commonly used, but it is not exactly defined. However, we can try
             to collect pros and cons in order to find at least an intuitive answer.

             It is a matter of fact that the security of password protected values in particular depends
             on the user. If the user has to memorize too many passwords, he will to use the same                                                                                          Page 30

             passwords for as many applications as possible. If this is not possible, he will go to
             construct very simple passwords. If this will also fail (e.g., if the construction rules are
             too complex), the next fall-back stage is to notify the password on paper. This would
             transform "secret knowledge" into "personal possession". Of course, not every user will
             react this way. Rather the personal motivation plays an important role: is he aware of the
             potential loss caused by careless handling of the password? It is easy if the user is the
             owner. But often foreign possession (e.g., that of the employer) has to be guarded, whose
             value one often can hardly estimate. If motivation is missing, any password primarily
             tends to be felt bothersome. In this case, and that seems to be the normal case, it is
             assumed that biometrics has considerable advantages.

             Contrariwise, passwords feature an unbeatable theoretic protection ability: an eight-digit
             password which is allowed to contain any symbol from an 8-bit alphabet offers 1020
             possible combinations! This is a real challenge for any biometric feature. The
             requirements are obvious: such a password is maximally difficult to learn, it must not be
             written down, it must not be passed to anyone, the input must take place absolutely
             secret, it must not be extorted, and the technical implementations must be perfect. This
             leads us to the practical aspects: the implementation must be protected against replay
             attacks, keyboard dummies (e.g., false ATMs), wiretapping etc. Even biometric features
             have to cope with such problems. However, it can be assumed that the protection of
             biometric feature acquisition is not easier than the acquisition of the password, provided
             the implementation expense is comparable!

             13.4 Where BIO-METRICS is used?

                     For Security

                           Protect Sensitive Data
                           High degree of identity certainty in transactions
                           Create databases with singular identities

                     For Accountability

                           Improve auditing / reporting / record keeping
                           Time keeping

                     For Efficiency

                           Reduce password-related problems

                            It is also used in following areas.

                           Enterprise-wide network security infrastructures
                           Secure electronic banking, investing and other financial transactions
                           Retail sales                                                                                         Page 31

                              Law enforcement
                              Health & Social services

             13.5 The New Opportunities For Biometrics

                        The unfortunate events of September 11,2001 have placed the recent focus on
                         creating new systems and installations employing biometrics.

                        Examples include facial recognition at airports and fingerprint and iris scanning
                         solutions at new government facilities.

                            Combination of Biometrics with smart cards

                       Smart cards, when combined with biometrics, offer a number of benefits.

                           o smart cards provide a portable storage mechanism for the biometric
                             template. This means template management is eliminated across the
                             biometric reader network. Enrolled users present their smart card to the
                             biometric reader at any location where the card is valid. The biometric
                             template stored on the card (which is usually encrypted) is compared to
                             the live biometric. If the two match, the system grants the user access.

                           o Another benefit of combining biometrics with smart cards pertains to dual-
                             technology cards that are embedded with a smart chip. These combination
                             cards function as both smart cards and proximity cards. This grouping
                             permits organizations currently using proximity-based access control to
                             incorporate biometric security and limit card issuance to users who are
                             permitted access to the biometrically secured area.

                           o Lastly, since the biometric templates are stored on individual cards, the
                             number of users for any particular biometric reader is unlimited. This
                             scenario differs from biometric readers that store the template, thereby
                             limiting the template capacity to the reader's storage capacity.

             13.6 Near Future Technologies

                       In near future every person having a Bio-chip in the body.

                       This Bio-chip concept is recently used in an African Safaris to trap the activities
                        and diseases of animals. For this every animal has a Bio-chip in its body.

                       For Bio-chip in human we will store identification information.                                                                                         Page 32

                       So, in future it may not require to ask “What is your name?” just make a shake
                        hand and allow the Bio-chips to interact and will know the person’s

                       We don’t know, But Bio-metrics identification may include brain Chemistry
                        because every one has got different brain chemistries.

                        Nowadays, a ‘Bio-Processor-chip’ is available which can recognize the bacteria
                         that can cause diseases- spread through blood, saliva
                        and urine in few minutes instead of hours.

             13.7 Benefits of Adopting Biometrics

                         No Need to Remember Passwords:
                                   As it uses our biometry we are not supposed to give any password.
                          Because where ever we go our finger print, iris pattern, our face, voice
                          definitely with us!

                         Unauthorized Access to Personal Data Can be Prevented:
                                  It is a one type of security system that no one can hack it because they
                          do not have our fingerprint, iris,voice,face etc. So, it prevents the data from an
                          unauthorized person.

                         Fraudulent Use of ATMs, Credit Cards Can be Prevented:
                                  None can use our ATM just by knowing our PIN. Because no number
                          or password is there.                                                                                          Page 33

             14. CONCLUSION :-
             We conclde that for biometrics is better technique for any security. This technique is
             improve then unauthorized person can not access any thing our assets. It depends on
             physical behavior. This technique is possible only on the man identification not its
             document needed for it.                                                                                 Page 34


                    1. SAFARI [June 2003 {Issue No.114}]: - The Monthly Magazine


             CONCLUSION :-

             We conclde that for biometrics is better technique for any security. This technique is
             improve then unauthorized person can not access any thing our assets. It depends on
             physical behavior. This technique is possible only on the man identification not its
             document needed for it.                                                                                 Page 35

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