Student-Centered Learning in the New Millenium

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					    Student-Centered Learning
      in the New Millennium
        26th International Conference
 Improving University Learning and Teaching
      Johannesburg, S.A., July 9, 2001

A Participatory Presentation by David G. Brown
         Wake Forest University, USA
How has the computer changed
   teaching and learning?

                  Please write down
                  two phrases and
                  share what you
                  have written with a
                  neighbor!!!
            "A computer lets you make more mistakes faster
            than any invention in human history--with the
            possible exceptions of handguns and tequila."
            --Mitch Ratliffe, "Technology Review"
       How has the computer changed
    teaching and learning? (my answer)

1. It’s caused every teacher to
   rethink & redesign.

2. By increasing student options, it has increased
   competition which has in turn compelled
   universities to pay more attention to the quality
   of teaching
        Our profession has been changed forever!
         Question for the
     New Millennium Professor

What have I always wanted to do
…that is now possible with the computer
…within my constraints of time and money?


         The Airplane Travel Metaphor
      Reasons 150 Professors Added
        Computer Enhancements

1. Communication-Interaction
2. Collaboration-Teams
3. Controversy-Debate
4. Customization-Diversity
5. Consultants-Adjuncts
               Words from Conference Session
                Titles That Match the 5 C’s
Communication-Interaction
Conversation, participatory action research, , students as true communicators,
interactive teaching,
Collaboration-Teams
Collaborative partnerships, virtual groups, old wine & new skins,
modeling collaboration
Controversy-Debate
Real and virtual discussion, creative dialogizing
Customization-Diversity
Cognitive diversity, student diversity, teaching diversity, learning
Diversity, learning and teaching styles, psychological type theory,
bridging program, bilingual, global enterprise
Consultants-Adjuncts
Parent-faculty partnerships, family history, community based learning,
tertiary teaching
        Communication-Interaction

 Computers Enhance
 Teaching & Learning Via--
Presentations
Better--20%

More Opportunities to
Practice & Analyze--35%

More Access to Source
Materials via Internet--43%

More Communication with Faculty Colleagues, Classmates,
and Between Faculty and Students--87%
                                       ICCEL -- Wake Forest University, 2001
                                       ICCEL -- Wake Forest University, 2001
     Communication-Interaction


•1247 emails
•Announcements
•One Minute Quiz
•Reaction to Talk
•Student Profiles
             Your Turn!
Here’s another way to increase
communication, a way that wasn’t available
before widespread use of the computer! other
professors would be wise to consider it.
  On your blue sheet, please write down an
  idea you have! Pass it to the left end of
  the aisle! We’ll ask 4 or 5 or the aisle-
  sitters to read their favorite idea before I
  leave the podium.
       Collaboration-Teams
•Professors Share Resource Materials
•Students Study Together
•Departments Create Shared Databases

                     Examples---
                     •2 Students Submit 1 Answer
                     •Edit Rough Draft Papers
                     •PowerPoint in Class
                     •Listserv Between Classes
                     •Public Web Page
       Controversy-Debate

•Cross-Culture Projects
•More Class Time
•Best Web Sites
•Threaded Discussion
•Chat in Class
•Double Jeopardy Quiz
   Customization-Diversity

•Cybershows (lectures, demos)
•Personal Notes (email again)
•Hierarchy of Help
•Hyperlinks
•Just In Time Teaching
      Consultants-Adjuncts

•Alumni Editors
•Globe Theatre
•Session with Expert
•Disciplinary Colleagues
•Previous Students
The 5 C’s---New Opportunities
    Through Technology

• Communication-Interaction
• Collaboration-Teams
• Controversy-Debate
• Customization-Diversity
• Consultants-Adjuncts
    Low Hanging Fruit
[within the constraints of time & money]


1. URLs
2. Email
3. Course Management System


Better 85% Some Use Vs 5% Heavy Use
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
             ---WITHOUT Computers---


•Schedule a face-to-face conference with each student
•Listen more carefully to understand student viewpoint
•Be sensitive to and accommodate differing cultural backgrounds
•Use examples that relate to students’ experience & interest
•Ask students to write a comment or question on an index card at
the end of each class. Respond during the next meeting
•Raise questions rather than lecture about the answers
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
             ---WITHOUT Computers---

•Use acting, drawing, debating as well as lecture-discussion
•Reveal professors’ passions by playing favorite tunes before class
•Maintain an open-door policy between classes
•Schedule caucus sub-groups during class
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   --Computers Could Help But Aren’t Essential---

•Seek student feedback: what do they expect to get from the class
session (at the beginning) and what did they learn (at end)?
•Solicit regular student feedback re the progress of the course
•Solicit anonymous student feedback at the end of each unit
•Plan interactive lessons that are dialogic in nature
•Have students reflect on experiential leaning
•Collect and share pictures and self profiles of every student
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   --Computers Could Help But Aren’t Essential---
•Show new students how previous students have caused change
•Achieve faster turn-around-time on graded assignments
•Design fun games into the course, whenever possible
•Let students know they can call me, 10 AM to 10 PM 365 days
•Trade professor “talk time” for student “do time”
•Use microphone so everyone can hear
•Mentor students
•Appoint peer tutors to augment the “human touch”
•Encourage students to check & model problem solving for each
other
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   --Computers Could Help But Aren’t Essential---

•Set students up to teach one another, and the teacher
•Build cooperative essays, by asking students to elaborate upon
the beginning essays of other students
•Encourage collaborative writing
•Enhance support for educationally disadvantaged students via
mentors, student pairing, etc.
•Team teach, especially encourage professors publicly to question
each other
•Have teams of students evaluate the work of other student teams
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   --Computers Could Help But Aren’t Essential---

•Make time for more “in class” projects, especially team based
•Form team of teachers that share expertise and work
•Build in more group work
•Facilitate small group “regurgitation sessions”
•Get students to understand their personality/behavioral styles via
tests such as Myers-Briggs or Kolb in order to facilitate groups
•Have class complete a project (like build a house), using the
principles studied in the classroom
•Use feedback sheets completed by both individuals and groups
Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
  --Computers Could Help But Aren’t Essential---

•Assign the scientific preparation of a topic to one student. Have
teams debate. Include international faculty as externals in the
debate. Conclude with publishable article.
•Pursue collaborative research projects, especially across
departmental and institutional boundaries
•Share supervision of student projects with industrial partners
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   ---Assumes That Students Access Computers---

•Use email list to get messages to students quickly and announce
clarifications and changes to planned lessons
•Circulate a list of email addresses to the entire class
•Email individual students, and groups, between classes
•Ask students to email self-reflections on what they’re learning
•Provide individual commentary via email
•Respond to emails from students every day
•Motivate and remediate via multiple one-on-one emails
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   ---Assumes That Students Access Computers---
•Ask students to track, and then analyze, the emails they send and
receive over a semester’s time
•Communicate via email opportunities for employment
•Establish an email hotline
•Use chat forums and on-line discussion groups
•Require a select number of email responses by students to other
students’ positions
•Set up course-related chat rooms
•Set up discussion boards on specific topic, with timelines for
interaction
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   ---Assumes That Students Access Computers---

•Assess and grade student discussion on the Web, if you want
students to take the assignment seriously
•Engage multiple communication channels
•Create an electronic discussion board where the professor
answers student questions, and others can observe the answers as
well as the concerns of fellow students
•Use asynchronous discussion groups between classes
•Use a course management system to shorten the learning curve
re how to set up meaningful discussion groups
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   ---Assumes That Students Access Computers---
•Develop interactive courseware for students
•Explain files, opinions via the Internet
•Free up interaction time by shifting the delivery of some
traditional lecture information & course logistics to the Internet
•Post course materials (e.g., reserve readings) on the Internet
•Have students summarize readings on-line before class. Have
student ask questions about readings and then answer each other
•Establish electronic bulletin boards for the course
•Use “comment “ protocol within Microsoft Word to mark up
student papers
Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
  ---Assumes That Students Access Computers---



•Collaborate with colleagues on content and share part of that
with students
•Create a listserv among departmental alums and current students
•Send updates/announcements to colleagues
•Connect students with unexpected collaborators, including
experts on the topic under study
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   ---Assumes That Students Access Computers---

•Share teaching strategies with faculty colleagues, and exchange
chunks of electronic content
•Use on-line interaction for geographically separated students
•Pursue joint projects with students from other countries
•Accommodate various languages via special translation software
•Participate in the wide critical community, especially by emailing
comments to journal authors and writing letters to the editor
•Create a personal homepage for the instructor, and encourage
students to do the same
•Create an electronic sign up sheet for office hour appointments
 Your Ideas: Increasing Communication/Interaction
   ---Assumes That Students Access Computers---

•Use multi-media learning packages
•Create virtual tours of key experiments
•Create virtual apprenticeships
•Videotape students “doing”
•Study digital portfolios of student work to better inform course
design and planning
•Test students on-line between classes
•Focus more on human interaction when using computers
      The Millennium Context
•   Personal. Customized. Interactive.
•   Student-Centered Curriculum
•   Teams of Professionals to Support Learning
•   “Houses” instead of Disciplines
•   Hybrid Courses (80-20 and 20-80)
•   Loose-leaf Collections of Course
    Components, instead of Textbooks
        Student

                                  Teacher

•My.yahoo
                                Student-Centered
•Custom learning team
•Custom delivery                    Learning
•Custom learning resources   in the New Millennium
        David G. Brown
    Wake Forest University
Winston-Salem, NC 27109, USA
         336-758-4878
    email: brown@wfu.edu
 http//:www.wfu.edu/~brown
      fax: 336-758-4875
         ICCEL -- Wake Forest University, 2001

				
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