OCCUPATIONAL by wuyunyi

VIEWS: 19 PAGES: 9

									ENVIRONMENTAL

~dEnvironmental
~tEffects of poultry and household garbage manure on the growth of
Amaranth tricolor L. and heavy metal accumulation in soils
~w2011-08-24
Excessive application of organic manure could result in potential
threat to environment. This study was conducted with pot culture on
red earth and fluvo-aquic soil received poultry and household garbage
manure with the rates of 5%, 10% and 15% of soil weight in order to
explore the effects of poultry and household garbage manure on the
growth of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and soil chemical
properties as well as soil heavy metal content. The results showed
that almost all the treatments received organic manure obviously
increased the fresh leaf yield, main root length and plant height of
amaranth as well as OM, EC, available P and exchangeable K in soils
except of soil total N. The Cu and Zn concentrations in amaranth
plants on fluvo-aquic soil increased compared with control, but the
concentrations didn't exceed National Food Standard for the
permission of Cu and Zn content in vegetables, while the
concentrations of Pb, Cr and Cd in amaranth plants decreased. The
concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in amaranth plants in the treatments
received organic manure on red earth decreased compared with control.
When the treatments received 5% organic manure on red earth and
fluvo-aquic soil no obvious heavy metal accumulation in amaranth
plants was found. On the contrary, the treatments received 10% and
15% organic manure could obviously increase the contents of available
Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb in red earth and fluvo-aquic soil, except of
available Cu in the treatment received poultry on two soils. From the
comprehensive consideration of soil fertility and environmental
quality safety, a proper application rate of organic manure is
necessary.
Authors: Wu, Qingqing; Ma, Junwei; Jiang, Lina; Ye, Jing; Wang,
Qiang; Wang, Jianmei; Yu, Qiaogang; Sun, Wanchun; Fu, Jianrong
Full Source: Nongye Huanjing Kexue Xuebao 2010, 29(7), 1302-1309 (Ch)

~dEnvironmental
~tAnalysis of several issues relating to environmental safety of
metallic mine
~w2011-08-24
During production of metallic mine, waste rock, wastewater and waste
gas are generated in huge amount. The unsuitable discharge of such
wastes may cause pollution of water bodies, atmosphere and soil or
bring geological disaster. According to actual conditions of the
mine, the measures such as improvement of technological process,
execution of clean operation, enhancing of safety monitoring and
management are adopted.
Authors: Lin, Zi-chun; Wu, Chang-fu
Full Source: Kuangye Gongcheng (Anshan, China) 2010, 8(3), 56-58 (Ch)

MEDICAL

~dMedical
~tToxicological evaluation of ionic liquids: effect of ionic liquids
on human colon carcinoma HT-29 and CaCo-2 cell lines
~w2011-08-24
This study focused on the toxicological evaluation of ionic liquids
on colon carcinoma cells. Two colon carcinoma cell lines were used:
HT-29 and CaCo-2. Tests were done on several cations:
methylimidazoliums (MIM), dimethylguanidinium (DMG), tri-nhexyl-
tetra-n-decylphosphonium (P66614), tri-n-octyl-methylammonium
(Aliquat) and choline, as well as anions: tetrafluoroborate (BF4),
hexafluorophosphate (PF6), acesulfame (ACS), saccharin (SAC),
dicyanoamide (DCA), bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2), N-
cyanobenzenesulfonamide (CBS) and N-cyanomethanesulfonamide (CMS). It
was found that MIM toxicity increased with the chain length, but
greatly decreased when a carboxylic group was added at the end of a
C10 chain. On the other hand, the change of the carboxylic group to
an ester ((CH2)10-COO-CH2-CH3) induced a high toxicity.
BDMIM did not induce cytotoxicity for CaCo-2 cells, but can be a
little toxic to HT-29 cells. There was also no cytotoxicity when C4
chain was replaced for C2OH or C5O2 chains. Many of the ILs
containing Aliquat was observed to be highly toxic for CaCo-2 cells,
and [Aliquat] [NTf2] was the only exception. DMG toxicity also
depended strongly on the anionic P66614 studied in combination with
NTf2, and it was found to be not toxic for CaCo-2 cells, however, it
decreases HT-29 viability in about 50% at the highest concentration.
Lastly, choline was analysed in combination with the anions ACS and
SAC and both combinations were not toxic for any of the tested
colonic cell lines.
Authors: Frade, Raquel F. M.; Matias, Ana; Branco, Luis C.; Lourenco,
Nuno M. T.; Rosa, Joao N.; Afonso, Carlos A. M.; Duarte, Catarina M.
M.
Full Source: ACS Symposium Series 2010, 1038(Ionic Liquid
Applications), 135-144 (Eng)

~dMedical
~tActivities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in fluorosis
patients
~w2011-08-24
The objective of this paper was to investigate the relationship of
plasma catalase and glutathione S-transferase activity levels with
oxidation stress in patients with coal-burning caused fluorosis. Two
hundred and forty five villagers that use unchanged stoves in coal-
burning fluorosis area were selected as non-intervention group (group
N), two hundred and forty villagers using improved stoves in
fluorosis endemic area were chosen as intervention group (group I),
and two hundred and forty seven villagers in non-fluorosis-endemic
area were as control group (group C). The activities of catalase and
glutathione S-transferase of them were tested with spectrophotometer.
Results showed that the activities of plasma catalase and glutathione
S-transferase of group N were significantly lower than those of group
I, and the latter ones were significantly lower than those of group
C. No significant difference of the two enzymes based on sex was
found in all the 3 groups. It was concluded that excessive intake of
fluorine might cause unbalance of free radical metabolites, and
artificial intervention of fluorine intake could help to recover the
balance of oxidation.
Authors: Zhang, Ting; Shan, Keren; He, Yan; Xu, Shiqing; Wu,
Changxue; Zhou, Shuguang; Li, Yi; Wang, Chanjuan; Zhao, Yan; Guan,
Zhizhong
Full Source: Guiyang Yixueyuan Xuebao 2010, 35(4), 331-333 (Ch)

~dMedical
~tBisphenol-A can bind to human glucocorticoid receptor as an
agonist: an in silico study
~w2011-08-24
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a primary monomer in polycarbonate plastics and
epoxy resins. BPA may be released into the environment following its
formation via hydrolysis of ester bonds of the polymers. It has been
detected in human plasma, placenta, amniotic fluid, amniotic chord,
urine and saliva. BPA disrupts normal cell function by acting as an
oestrogen agonist as well as an androgen antagonist. The present
study was carried out to investigate whether BPA can bind to human
glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and elucidate its mode of interaction.
BPA has been successfully docked in silico into the ligand binding
site of GR using the program Discovery Studio 2.0. The structure has
been compared with other agonist and antagonist bound structures of
GR. It is found that the mode of interactions and binding energy of
BPA were similar to that of DEXA and cortisol, two known agonists of
GR. This reveals that BPA can bind to GR as an agonist.
Hence, BPA may produce biological effects similar to that produced by
glucocorticoids.
Authors: Prasanth, G. K.; Divya, L. M.; Sadasivan, C.
Full Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology 2010, 30(8), 769-774 (Eng)

~dMedical
~tA kinetic model for human blood concentrations of gaseous
halocarbon fire-extinguishing agents
~w2011-08-24
A simple kinetic model for calculating the blood concentration
history of humans exposed to time-varying concentrations of gaseous,
halocarbon fire-extinguishing agents is described. The kinetic model
was developed to extend experimental physiologically based
pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for arterial blood concentration of
halocarbons, obtained from constant concentration exposure of dogs to
time-varying exposure conditions for humans. In the present work, the
simplified kinetic model was calibrated using published PBPK derived
arterial concentration histories for constant concentration exposure
to several common fire-extinguishing agents. The calibrated kinetic
model was then used to predict the blood concentration histories of
humans exposed to time-varying concentrations of these fire-
extinguishing agents in ventilated compartments and the results were
compared with PBPK-derived data for the agents. It was found that the
properly calibrated kinetic model predicts human arterial blood
concentration histories for time-varying exposures as well as the
PBPK models. Consequently, the kinetic model represents an economical
methodology for calculating safe human exposure limits for time-
varying concentrations of gaseous halocarbon fire-extinguishing
agents when only PBPK-derived human arterial blood concentration
histories for constant exposure conditions are available.
Authors: Lyon, Richard E.; Speitel, Louise C.
Full Source: Inhalation Toxicology 2010, 22(14), 1151-1161 (Eng)

~dMedical
~tActivation of group IVC phospholipase A2 by polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons induces apoptosis of human coronary artery endothelial
cells
~w2011-08-24
Exposure to environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar mixtures and tobacco sources,
is considered a significant risk factor for the development of heart
disease in humans.
The goal of this study was to detect the influence of PAHs present at
a Superfund site on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC)
phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and apoptosis. Extremely high levels
of 12 out of 15 EPA high-priority PAHs were present in both the
streambed and floodplain sediments at a site where an urban creek and
its adjacent floodplain were extensively contaminated by PAHs and
other coal tar compounds. Nine of the 12 compounds and a coal tar
mixture (SRM 1597A) activated group IVC PLA2 in HCAECs, and
activation of this enzyme was associated with histone fragmentation
and poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Genetic silencing
of group IVC PLA2 inhibited both 3H-fatty acid release and histone
fragmentation by PAHs and SRM 1597A, indicating that individual PAHs
and a coal tar mixture induce apoptosis of HCAECs via a mechanism
that involves group IVC PLA2. Western blot analysis of aortas
isolated from feral mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting the
Superfund site showed increased PARP and caspase-3 cleavage when
compared to reference mice.
These data suggest that PAHs induce apoptosis of HCAECs via
activation of group IVC PLA2.
Authors: Tithof, Patricia K.; Richards, Sean M.; Elgayyar, Mona A.;
Menn, Fu-Minn; Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry; Sanseverino, John;
Sayler, Gary; Tucker, Dawn E.; Leslie, Christina C.; Lu, Kim P.;
Ramos, Kenneth S.
Full Source: Archives of Toxicology [online computer file] 2011,
85(6), 623-634 (Eng)

OCCUPATIONAL

~dOccupational
~tOccupational exposures as risk factors for asthma and allergic
diseases in a Turkish population
~w2011-08-17
There was no community-based epidemiological study on the relation of
occupational exposures with asthma, rhinitis, and eczema in Turkey.
In this study, the authors examined the relation between occupational
exposures and adult-onset asthma, wheezing, allergic rhinitis, and
eczema in a Turkish adult population. The data was collected from
1,047 adults, selected randomly from five distant family health
centres. Questionnaires were filled by family practitioners with the
help of interviews. The data included physician-diagnosed asthma,
allergic rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, and occupational exposures.
Wheezing in all the subjects was associated with past exposure to
irritants (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0-2.9), wood/coal smoke (OR: 2.3,
95%CI: 1.0-5.3), metal dust (OR: 2.6, 95%CI: 1.2-5.7), volatile fumes
(OR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.1-5.3), and paper dust (OR: 3.7, 95%CI: 1.5-8.9).
Past exposure to dust (OR: 4.1, 95%CI: 1.2-14.2) and to irritants
(OR: 6.5, 95%CI: 2.0-20.4) were associated with increased prevalence
of wheezing in nonsmokers, whereas current exposure to irritants was
associated with decreased prevalence of wheezing (OR: 0.1, 95%CI:
0.01-0.9) in these subjects. In subjects who were regular smokers,
exposure to metal dust (OR: 2.8, 95%CI: 1.2-6.5), volatile fumes (OR:
2.3, 95%CI: 1.0-5.3), and paper dust (OR:3.3, 95%CI: 1.3-8.6) were
the main causes for wheezing. Physician diagnosed eczema was
associated with occupational exposure to chemical fumes (OR: 3.7,
95%CI: 1.3-10.6). The authors concluded that the present study showed
that occupational exposures were associated with wheezing and eczema
prevalence in the studied population. Nonsmokers could be more
vulnerable to respiratory effects of occupational exposures due to
healthy smokers effect.
Authors: Kurt, Emel; Demir, Ahmet Ugur; Cadirci, Omer; Yildirim,
Huseyin; Ak, Guntulu; Eser, Tulin Pinar
Full Source: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental
Health [online computer file] 2011, 84(1), 45-52 (Eng)

~dOccupational
~tCancer morbidity in Swedish dry-cleaners and laundry workers:
historically prospective cohort study
~w2011-08-17
Despite decades of experimental and observational studies, the
carcinogenic risks to humans associated with occupational exposure to
perchloroethylene (PER) remain uncertain. In this study, the authors
further examine the possible associations. Methods A national cohort
of dry-cleaning and laundry workers (n ) 10,389) assembled in 1984
was followed up for new cases of cancer by matching with the Swedish
cancer register from 1985 to 2006 (inclusive), and the results were
compared with expected frequencies derived from national reference
data. Follow-up was complete for 90.9% of the cohort (2,810 men,
6,630 women). The overall standardised cancer incidence ratio (SIR)
for all subjects was close to unity (SIR 0.96; 95% confidence
interval (CI) 0.91-1.02) with a slightly more favourable outcome in
women (SIR 0.91; 95% CI 0.85-0.98) than in men (SIR 1.10; 95% CI
0.99-1.23). Significantly elevated rates of lung cancer (SIR 1.45;
95% CI 1.03-1.98) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR 2.05; 95% CI 1.30-
3.07) were seen in men, but for both types of cancer, the point
estimates were similar in genuine laundry workers and dry-cleaners
exposed to PER, respectively. There was no significant excess of
cancer of the oesophagus, larynx, uterine cervix, liver, kidney or
urinary bladder. The authors concluded the absence of individual or
collective data on PER exposure from participating dry-cleaning shops
and laundries involved and limited information on exposure time
hampered the risk assessment related to PER. However, no clear
association between PER exposure and subsequent cancer morbidity in
the workers was evident from this historically prospective cohort.
Authors: Selden, Anders I.; Ahlborg, Gunnar, Jr.
Full Source: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental
Health [online computer file] 2011, 84(4), 435-443 (Eng)

~dOccupational
~tInducible nitric oxide synthase genetic polymorphism and risk of
asbestosis
~w2011-08-17
Asbestos, a known occupational pollutant, may upregulate the activity
of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and thus the production of
nitric oxide (NO). This study investigated whether iNOS (CCTTT)n
polymorphism is associated with an increased asbestosis risk in
exposed workers. The study cohort consisted of 262 cases with
asbestosis and 265 controls with no asbestos-related disease. For
each subject the cumulative asbestos exposure data were available.
The number of CCTTT repeats was detected following PCR amplification
of the iNOS promoter region. Logistic regression was performed to
estimate asbestosis risk. The OR of asbestosis was 1.20 (95% CI )
0.85-1.69) for the LL genotype compared to the combined SL and SS
genotypes and 1.26 (95% CI ) 0.86-1.85) for the LL genotype compared
to the SL genotype. The authors concluded that the results of this
study are borderline significant and suggest a possible role of iNOS
(CCTTT)n polymorphism in the risk of asbestosis; however, further
studies are needed.
Authors: Franko, Alenka; Dodic-Fikfak, Metoda; Arneric, Niko; Dolzan,
Vita
Full Source: Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology [online
computer file] 2011, 685870, 4 pp. (Eng)

~dOccupational
~tHygienic regulations on levels of bismuth citrate in working zone
of industrial facilities
~w2011-08-17
During an experimental study on laboratory animals (rats, mice,
guinea pigs, rabbits) a toxicological evaluation and substantiation
of maximum permissible concentration of bismuth citrate in a work
zone took place. It was detected that the compound, according to the
criterion of acute toxicity related to low hazard compounds, exhibits
a strong cumulative activity and is a strong irritant effect towards
mucous membranes. Allergenic properties were not identified. Maximum
concentration limit in the work zone is 1.0 mg/m3.
Authors: Kuz'minov, B. P.; Zazulyak, T. S.; Hektegaev, I. O.;
Grushka, O. I.; Galushka, O. I.
Full Source: Sovremennye Problemy Toksikologii 2010, (4), 48-50
(Ukrain)

~dOccupational
~tSubstantiation of maximum permissible concentration level of
cianocobalamine in the air of a work zone
~w2011-08-17
A toxicological study of maximum permissible concentration in air of
a working zone of cianocobalamine (vitamin B12) in the air of a work
zone was performed in experiments on laboratory animals (rats, mice,
guinea pigs, rabbits). It was detected that the compound is
characterised by low toxicity, is allergenic, exhibits weak
cumulative properties and is characterised by low irritating effect
on skin and mucous membranes. Sex gland toxic properties are not
identified. Maximum permissible concentration level in the air of a
work zone is 0.05 mg/m3.
Authors: Kuz'minov, B. P.; Zazulyak, T. S.; Grushka, O. I.; Galushka,
O. I.
Full Source: Sovremennye Problemy Toksikologii 2010, (2-3), 33-35
(Ukrain)

PUBLIC HEALTH

~dPublic Health
~tEffect of traffic pollution on eye and nose irritations of the
people at Durgapur City
~w2011-08-17
The vehicular emissions are one of the potential sources of air
pollution in Durgapur steel city. During this study, the authors
conducted a statistical analysis on the population of the city to
detect its effect on human health focused only on eye and nose
irritations. Two parameters, namely mode of transport and travelling
time are chosen for this analysis. The results found that on the
basis of these two parameters, there is a certain level of pollution
effect on human health.
Authors: Nandi, P. K.; Gorain, G. C.
Full Source: Indian Journal of Environmental Protection 2009, 29(7),
597-604 (Eng)

~dPublic Health
~tThe evaluation of the effect of air pollution on the health status
of children in Zonguldak City, Turkey
~w2011-08-17
Air pollution affects human health, particularly sensitive groups
such as children, pregnant women, elderly people and patients with
chronic respiratory diseases in many ways, including reduced lung
function, increased morbidity and infant mortality. Many
epidemiological studies have shown positive associations between
respiratory health and ambient air pollution. This study tries to
assess the associations between Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms
and Diseases (ORSD) and those parameters: Particulate Matter (PM),
sulphur dioxide (SO2), pollen and meteorological variables in the
mining city of Zonguldak, Turkey. The finding of the study shows
significant association between ORSD, and ambient level of PM, SO2
and pollen.
Authors: Tecer, Lokman Hakan; Tomac, Nazan; Karaca, Ferhat; Kaplan,
Ayse; Tuncer, Tunc; Aydin, Hamit
Full Source: International Journal of Environment and Pollution 2009,
39(3/4), 352-364 (Eng)

~dPublic health
~tCommuter exposure to carbon monoxide in Madurai city - measurements
of in-vehicle concentrations
~w2011-08-17
Determining human exposure to CO in micro-environments is critically
important to assess air quality, air pollution abatement, and
epidemiology. Estimated in-vehicle pollutant concentrations in India
cities are scarce; thus, this work was conducted to determine CO
concentrations in automobile cabin air within the urban limits of
Madurai. The generated database showed CO concentrations were 0.01-
0.03 ppm in city buses, 0.01-0.04 ppm in auto rickshaws and 0.02-0.09
ppm in 2-wheeled vehicles. The authors concluded that CO
concentrations in these micro-environments can supplement the
generated database of outdoor measured pollutants and the combined
database can be used for effective air pollution management and
abatement strategies with the perspective to residential and
commuting population health in Madurai.
Authors: Daniel, Tennyson; Rajasekhar, R. V. Jeba; Muthusubramanian,
P.
Full Source: Pollution Research 2010, 29(3), 497-500 (Eng)

~dPublic Health
~tShort-term association between exposure to ozone and mortality in
Oporto, Portugal
~w2011-08-17
Exposures to air pollution in developed countries have generally
decreased over the last two decades. However, many recent
epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations
between low-level exposure to air pollutants and health outcomes. In
Portugal, very few studies have analysed the acute effect of air
pollutants on health. The present study evaluates the association
between exposure to air pollution and daily mortality in the Oporto
Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Generalised additive models were used
for this analysis. Pollutants assessed were ozone, nitrogen dioxide,
and particulate matter (PM10). Models were adjusted for time trend,
seasonality, and weather. The authors found that an increase of 10
íg/m3 in the daily ozone 8-h maximum moving average corresponds to an
increase of 0.95% (95%CI: 0.30, 1.60) and 1.58% (95%CI: 0.45, 2.73)
in non-accidental mortality and cardiovascular mortality,
respectively, in the summer season. A significant effect of 0.67%
(95% CI: 0.03:1.32) was also found for the association between PM10
and non-accidental mortality in the summer season. Associations with
ozone and PM10 exposures were higher in the elderly people. No
significant effects on mortality were observed during the summer
season with nitrogen dioxide exposures. The authors conclude that
this study provide the first significant evidence in Oporto that
exposures to O3 and PM10 have adverse effects on the health of the
general population in the summer months.
Authors: Pinto de Almeida, Sofia; Casimiro, Elsa; Calheiros, Jose
Full Source: Environmental Research 2011, 111(3), 406-410 (Eng)

~dPublic Health
~tRadionuclide contents and radiological risk to the population due
to raw minerals and soil samples from the mining sites of quality
ceramic and pottery industries in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria
~w2011-08-17
Samples of domestically produced industrial raw minerals and soil
samples from three mining sites of quality ceramic/smelting and
pottery industries in Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, were collected and analysed
for their 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents using gamma-ray spectroscopy.
The range of activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the
industrial raw minerals were 17.55 ( 1.63 to 80.99 (2.61 Bqákg-1 for
226Ra, 7.64 ( 0.77 to 23.94 ( 0.92 Bqákg-1 for 232Th and 63.22 ( 3.43
to 503.90 ( 5.69 Bqákg-1 for 40K, while in the soil samples they
varied from 2.87 to 34.78 Bqákg-1, 7.02 to 24.47 Bqákg-1 and 7.05 to
162.81 Bqákg-1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. These results,
along with the estimated absorbed dose rates, annual ED rates, radium
equivalency (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard
index (Hin) and representative of the gamma index (Içr) are
presented. The results obtained were below the internationally
accepted safe limits. Therefore, the analysed samples could be used
in the local industries in the area as component raw materials and/or
as building materials. In addition, the mining activities of these
minerals in the area have not significantly affected the natural
radiation dose levels in the area, hence the resulting dose to the
population is therefore considered generally low.
Authors: Jibiri, N. N.; Esen, N. U.
Full Source: Radioprotection 2011, 46(1), 75-88 (Eng)

SAFETY

~dSafety
~tApparatus for preventing flue gas inlet corrosion and improving
flow field in wet flue gas desulfurisation tower
~w2011-08-24
The title apparatus comprises: a boiler, a coal saver, a
denitrification reactor, an air preheater, a deduster, a wet flue gas
desulfurisation tower, a chimney, a flue gas inlet, an absorbent
spray layer, a slurry pool, and an internal component. The apparatus
has the advantages of no flue gas inlet corrosion, uniform flow field
distribution, high desulfurisation efficiency, and no pollution.
Authors: Zhang, Yongxin; Li, Mingbo; Mao, Gengren; Zhong, Yi; Lin,
Gaoqian; Wu, Weihong; Mao, Chengqi; Wen, Wen; Gao, Xiang; Luo,
Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa
Full Source: Shiyong Xinxing Zhuanli Shuomingshu CN 201,799,210 (Cl.
B01D53/78), 20 Apr 2011, Appl. 20,220,763, 8 Jun 2010; 6pp. (Ch)

~dSafety
~tLoss prevention and safety promotion in industry
~w2011-08-24
The issue of major accident prevention is detailed by first proposing
possible approaches to quantify risk assessment, and then by focusing
on systems of risk management in industrial establishments. The aim
of major risk prevention is to operate process installations at an
acceptable societal level. Risk acceptability limits can differ
depending on the maturity of the state, the size of establishments,
and a number of other factors which must be included into any
analysis and assessment of risk.
Author: Bernatik, Ales
Full Source: Handbook of Combustion 2010, 1, 441-458 (Eng)

~dSafety
~tFire safety
~w2011-08-24
The need for data required to evaluate the components of fire safety
engineering to ensure that building fire safety is reliable, and that
costs are reasonable is illustrated. It is fortunate that the
availability of several barriers to mitigate the frequencies and
consequences of fire, although making fire safety a complicated
science, allows for an efficient fire safety environment based on the
tremendous progress over the past thirty years. This development
provides a freedom of design while simultaneously advancing levels of
safety.
Author: Delichatsios, Michael A.
Full Source: Handbook of Combustion 2010, 1, 459-476 (Eng)

								
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