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					                                                                                                                                                       THE 3I0ENING -                                OREGONIAN,                           FEIDAY,                     DECEMBER                          18,        1903.

             n virtue of the treaty or 1790 with Spain, erer of a. new country, nor yet by those
           out by that treaty the sovereignty ot Spain rights which follow in the wake ot scien-
                                                                                                                                territory. That they succeeded in a very
                                                                                                                                large degree in impressing many $1 the
                                                                                                                                prominent officials ot our Government that
                                                                                                                                                                                              award, sustaining the contention of the United nectlonl submit will anything this Govern-
                                                                                                                                                                                              States; and thus, after a period of nearly 80 ment can do, or that the people of the readily
                                                                                                                                                                                              years, dating from the discovery of the Co-                               gon Country" can do, contribute so
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            "Ore-                                                                       H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Miivufes that I
           was directly conceded; lor the only rights lully tific exploration, did the Government of tho
           recognized to Great Bratain In that treaty United States rest its claim to the Terri-                                the whole territory was a. worthless waste,                   lumbia by Captain Gray, and after a period and efficiently to this grand consummation as
           were that her subjects should not. be dis-               tory of Oregon; but added to all these is                   not worth having, much less worth contend-                    of nearly 70 years from the date of crossing wlir the proposed National, International and
           turbed in landing oa the coast in places al- that other accumulated right, which is tho                              ing for, is made clearly apparent from the                    the continent by Lewis and Clark, the whole Oriental Exposition. In the aid of which the
           ready occupied for the purpose of carrying: L result not Blroply ot occupancy, but of act
           on trade with the natives.         Second, that the
           treaty of 1790 was abrocrted by the declara- ual settlement. The law of nations rights
                                                                    nizes a wide difference between those
                                                                                                                                Congressional debates during the 28 years of
                                                                                                                                Joint occupancy, and for many years' there-
                                                                                                                                after, even as late as 1840.
                                                                                                                                                                                              question as to the ownership of the Oregon pending bill has been presented?
                                                                                                                                                                                              Country was finally determined. Not, however, port ot the statement I have Just made of
                                                                                                                                                                                              without a sacrifice of important rights, as to the                                capacity of what was once known as the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       In sup-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              make the Days, J
           tion of war by Spain agaiit Great Britain In which attach to mere occupancy and those
           1790; that by that war It fell to the ground
           and was never resurrected, and therefore every natives
                                                                    which attach to actual settlement. Tbe
                                                                                                                                    In view of tbe present status of this
                                                                                                                                mighty empire, of civilization and human
                                                                                                                                progress, it would not be uninteresting, but
                                                                                                                                                                                              the northern boundary. In the interest of com-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        "Oregon Country" to furnish homes for
                                                                                                                                                                                              The Diplomatic Controversy Between Great area, there were on public 30 last, within that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of people, I call attention to the fact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           v                   that make the
           right which Great Britain had In virtue of Its civilized of this were mere occupants, mere
           provisions vanished.
           principle of public law that war terminates                           they
                                                                                          territory in their wild, un-
                                     In their discussion, the tenants; state, arenot settlers. The Hud-
                                                                    son's Bay trappers and tracers who invaded
                                                                                                                                rather amusing, to recall some ot the decla-
                                                                                                                                rations made In the Senate of the United
                                                                                                                                States by prominent men who had been thus
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Britain and the United States Over the
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ownership of the "Oregon Country."
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   undisposed of                     lands to the number
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ot 85,409.037 acres. Of these 23.105,810 acres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        lie within the state dt Oregon. 9,485,192 acres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  J                               Years, are
           powers, was dircussed with great
           all subsisting treaties between the ability.
           was clearly shown that the only exception to spects in
                                                                    Oregon Territory, in pursuit of peltries
                                                                It furs, were mere occupants, similar in all and
                                                                                  the light of the law In regard, to
                                                                                                                                influenced      by misleading representations
                                                                                                                                and reports from these sources.         For in-
                                                                                                                                stance, Senator McDuffie, of South Carolina,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   The history of the diplomatic controversy lie in the the state Washington, while In that
                                                                                                                                                                                              between the United States and Great Britain, part ofIn the stata ot of
                                                                                                                                                                                              involving the Oregon County, is highly inter-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         state of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and 41,755,780
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Montana which was for-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        merly a part of the "Oregon Country" there                                                    v                                     k   truthfully told
            this general rule Is in cases ot a treaty rec-
           ognizing certain sovereign rights as belonging territorial rights which result from such
           to a nation, which had previously existed In-            occupancy as those which attach to the
                                                                                                                                in    discussing In the United States Senate In
                                                                                                                                 1S43 the bill of Senator Linn, of Missouri,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   One contention of Great Britain respecting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        were on June' 30 last approximately 7,S01,S13
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        acres, and in that portion of Wyoming for-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               :                        a a   e                                  by the
           dependently of any treaty engagement; tnat legal         natives; they were not settlers within the                  extending tho laws ot the United States over                   tho Oregon Territory, which was very ear- merly a part ot the "Oregon Country" 3,291.-12- 6
           is   to say. thoso rights which the treaty did not               signification of that term, nor did they             the Territory ot Oregon, and proposing                       nestly and with some degree of' facetlousness                                      acres.
            create, but simply recognized, cannot be con-     de-   attract to themselves those territorial and                  grants of the public lands to American citi-                 asserted by the British Minister, Packcnham,                                  This is an age of advancement.                            It is an                                              &
           stroyed by war between tbe governments                   sovereign      rights which international law                zens as an inducement to settlers, which                      that the different titles under which we age of development. It Is an age ot progress.                                                                                                       .
                                                                    accords to settlers. The interests of civili-                bill first passed tho Senate February 3 1843,                 claimed were conflicting and therefore                            de-                                                   very highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        It is an age inenterprise theand civilization Ideals
            stituting parties to the treaties.                                                                                                                                                 stroyed each other,             namely, discovery by of American                                                                                    are
               Th            nt nMPi    for instance, between       zation, says tho law of that civilization,                   said:                                                         Spain, cession from France, and discovery and belag promoted. A spirit of genuine .strenuos-lt- y
            this country and Great Britain In 1783. whore- - cannot permit a great empire of wild coun-                             "The whole reclon bevond the Rocky Moun                   settlement ny American citizens.
            in Great Britain acknowledged that the United           try to remain as such for tho use of wild                   tains and a vast tract between that chain and                                                                                                    and patriotic advancement pervades the
                                                                                                                                 the Mississippi is a desert, without value for                    But Mr. Calhoun, as Secretary of State, In American mind. This spirit Is being right-
            States was "free, sovereign and independent,'           men for a game life; no less could the law
                                                                                                                                agricultural purposes, and which no American                   his letter to Mr. Packenham, disposed ot the fully and patriotically led with commendablo                                                                                                                                                   Every Elgin Watch Is fully guaranteed.
            is of this exceptional character a right recog-         of that civilization permit this great for-                                                                                assertion as follows:                                                    vigor by one of the most genuinely aggressive,                                                                                                                     All Jewelers have Elgin Watches. "Time-make- rs
            nized, but not granted by treaty, and hence eign monopoly, tho Hudson's Bay Company                                  citizen should be compelled to inhabit unless                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and Timekeepers." on Illus-
            a right which cannot to destroyed by war.
                                     be                             to occupy such country for the sole purpose                  as a punishment for crime. Why, sir, of                           "It has been objected that we claim under vigorous and patriotic Presidents that has ever
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    mutually                                                                                                                                                                               trated history of tho watch, sent free
                                       the "Oregon Country."                                                                     what use will this territory be for agricul-                  various and conflicting titles which                                     occupied the Presidential chair. The President                                                                                                                     upon request to- -
                The claim of Spain                                  of accumulating and speculating on the                                                                                     destroy each other.             Such might Indeed be Is a thorough believer In the great beneflclal
            that Is. the territory lying on and extend-
                                                    the Pacific spoils of the hunter, and without any effort                     tural purposes? 1 would not for that purpose                  the fact while they were held by different par-
            Ocean north of the 42d parallel,                                                                                     give a pinch ot snuff for the whole territory.                                                                                         effects of a National and International Expo-                                                                                                                        ELGIN NATIONAL WATCH CO.
                                                                     whatever to cither develop or increase the                  1 wish to God we did not own It. I wish                       ties, but since we have rightfully acquired                               sition. Ho believes In and has the courage                                                                                                                                          Elgin, III.
            ing to 54 degrees 40 minutes, did not rest natural productions of the country, or locate                                                                                           both those of Spain and France and concen-                                to declare In favor of National recognition
            alone on discovery and settlement, but also or promote a single settlement.                                          It was an impassable barrier to secure us                     trated the          whole In our own hands, they and Governmental aid of the proposed Lewis                                                                                                                                                              3!lTinimO!ll!t!Il!ii!iIUMIinMiIrIlfflEHH&i
            as being embraced In and a part of the ancient                                                                       from the intrusion of others.      This Is the
            Xrfsuislana. ceded by France to Spain In 1762,
                                                                       It was therefore by intra occupancy, and not              character of the country. Who .are we going                   mutually blend with each other and form one and Clark Exposition.                                                  I, Uierefore. for this
            and by a secret arrangement Teceded                 to by strengthen her claim and sought originally
                                                                         settlement, that England                                to tend there? Do you think your honest                       strong and connecting chain of title against , and other reasons, am naturally and properly
                       In 1800. then ceded by France again In the "Oregon Territory." "With tho United    to acquire rights      farmers in Pennsylvania, New York, or even                    the opposing claims of all others. Including for the President, for the Lewis and Clark
            France                                                                                                               In Ohio and Mlssourlr""will abandon their                     Great Britain."                                                           Exposition, and, above all, I am for the flag azine,                                               and reproduced by tho historian period covered by the epoch. In physical. In-
            to the United States in 1803, known as the States and the people of tbe United States                                farms to go upon any such enterprise as                           While Mr. Buchanan, as Secretary of State, and for the appropriation.                                                                                        Brown, In his political history of Oregon, pre-                          tellectual and moral development, and human-progres-       In all
             "Loulsana Purchase."                                   It was entirely different. "With the latter oc                                                                              In referring to this phase of the case, said:                                A contrast between the status ot the "Ore-                                         sents the correct solution of the question.                              that pertains to National growth and
                Whatever claim, therefore, Spain had to the cupancy was coupled with that other and                              this? God forbid, if any man is to go to                           "This is a most ingenious method of making gon Country" 100 years ago, and Its present Speaking of "Oregon Territory" Captain Gray. epoch.                                                               and the dis-                               during the period covered by the
             "Oregon Country" in "1800, prior to her cession higher attribute of development and civllza-tlo-              n,
                                                                                                                                 that country under tbe temptation ot this                      two distinct and Independent titles, held by status, presents an historical lesson of mar-                                                                      cover" of the Columbia River by
             to France, In virtue either of discovery and                                                                        bill."                                                                                                                                                                                                                         this article says: "The territory watered by                                By these expositions the rapidity ot the
            settlement on the one hand, or by cession from settlement.
                                                                           namely, scientific exploration and actual                Finally Senator McDuflle concluded his                      the same nation, worse than one of array-                                velous Importance and profound Interest.
                                                                                                                                 speech by saying: "If I had a son wno was                      ing them against each other and thus de-                                     The     displacement of the hut of the savage this river, and its tributaries has since                                                              ihat materialization, of the progress and develop-
            France as a part of the ancient Louisiana                  For Instance. Aster's project contemplated                                                                               stroying the validity of both. From the                         mo-      and the home of the barbarian by the                                                    s, since the discovery of the river                              been ment of all those essential elements which,
             on the other, vested in the United States by not merely the occupancy of this distant, ter-
                                       .                                                                                         a flt subject for Botany Bay, 1 would urge                     ment Spain transferred all her rights to the                                          the academy, seminary and university,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          school-hous- e,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                called the 'Oregon Country' from a tradi-                                constitute the highest type ot modern civil-
             the Louisiana Purchase.       That Spain, there-                                                                     him to go there."                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ization. Is clearly exemplified, while they serve
                                                           owner ritory for purposes similar were                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tion said to have prevailed among the Indians
          fore, was the real and sole sovereign against Bay Company; his purposes to theof Hudson's
                                 Oregon Territory as                                                                a much           But not only leading statesmen of the coun-
                                                                                                                                  try, but eminent historians of that time,
                                                                                                                                                                                                United States, all possible conflict between the and the Innumerable homes of civilized, edu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                two titles ended, both being united in the cated. Christianized and happy people. Illus-                                                                        near Lake Superior of the exlstenco                              of a to encourage and stimulate our people and our
            of the whole of                                         higher order; they embraced settlement, the                                                                                 same party. Two titles, which might have trates tho civilizing and Christianizing influ-                                                                        mighty river rising in that vicinity and Government to greater activities, and into the
             Great Britain, there can be no doubt, and the establishment of                                                       were laboring under the fearful delusion as
            United States fcucceeded to all the rights which velopment of the civil
                                                                                                 society, the physical de-        to the character and value of the "Oregon                     conflicted, therefore, were thus blended to- ences that naturally and necessarily followed emptying its waters Into tho Pacific, and adoption and promotion of more exalted Ideals,
                                                                                            country,        leveling of the                                                                     gether. The title now vested In the United In the way opened to them by the grand                                                                               which was supposed to be the Columbia.                                   and more forceful, persistent and determined
             Spain ever had first, by the cession from forests, the construction of the                                           Country."    Greenhow, writing in 1S44, In his                                                                                                                                                                                                                           "Thanatopsls.                 effort. In all relations ot individual and Na-
             France In 1S03, and second, by virtue of the vation ot the land, the building of homes, the
                                                                                                         houses, the culti-       "History of Oregon and California," after                     States Is Just as strong as though every act                                                 enterprise of Lewis and Clark. Bryant,                                           in his celebrated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           In 1815, refers to the Columbia River                         tional life.
            Florida    treaty and cession from Spain In 1810. erection of schoolhouses and churches, the                          stating his knowledge and views as says:to tbe                of discover", exploration and settlement on We find In this century a wilderness, cover-                                                                        written
                                                                                                                                  region included In "Oregon Territory,"                        the part ot both powers had been performed ing nearly one-ha- lt                                             ot the continent, trans-                           as the Oregon: "Where rolls the Oregon, and                    ,
             ltcal Discoverer of the 'Oregon Country." making of towns and cities, the establishing                                  "Thus, on reviewing the agricultural, com-                 by Spain alone before she transferred all her formed Into a land of beauty, of promise, of hears no sound save his own dashings."-The-                                                                                                       Let us therefore have an Exposition worth'y
                "Whatever may be said as to discovery, ten-         of marts, the creation of commercial arteries,                                                                                                                                          powers
                                                                                                                                mercial and other economical advantages of rights to the United States. The two ore one. production, of elevation to a. positionhistory                                                                 of civil-                      Benefits of National and International                                   name of the illustrious men and their
                                                                    and the establishment of such civil Institu-                Oregon, there appears to be no reason, founded are one In this respect: the two titles                                                   ization second to none in all the                                              of                                                                                the
             ancy, occupation, exploration and settlement           tions as would tend to attach the new terri-                                                    which should " render and they serve to confirm and strengthen each nations                                           a country now productive In the                                                                 'Expo&itlonM.                                   grand achievements, in whose commemora-
                                            mighty west lying tory with bonds Indissoluble to the states of                     on. such considerations,
             of that vast region of the                                                                                         either of the powers claiming the possession other."                                                                                      highest degree In agriculture,                        in commerce,                       National. International and scientific expo-                           tion it Is to be held: an Exposition worthy
             north of the 42d parallel and extending to the American Union, and thus weaken and                                 of that country anxious to occupy It Imme-                          Again. Great Britain through her plenipo-                             ln manufactures.                 In fisheries. In mineral                             sitions. In commemoration of great historic                               the patriotic pioneers who established the
             the ridge of the Bocky Mountains, or what-             finally and forever sever every adverse claim,              diately, or unwilling to concede Its own pre-                   tentiaries sought to discredit the effectCaptain wealth. In fruits and berriespeaches, pears, events, such as the discovery by Columbus foundations of a mighty empire of political
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ot the                                                              ot every de-
             ever may be the character of those claims and at the same time expand and develop the                              tensions to the otner for a very moderate                       discovery of the Columbia River by                                        scriptionapples,               cherries,                                              of the Bahama GrouD In 1492. and ot the and commercial power in the Far West; an
             on the    part of any country, tho glory of the country and the commercial and political pres-                     compensation."                                                  Robert Gray, for the reason, as suggested,                               prunes, grapes and In cereals of every char-                                           continent In 1403; the landing of the Pilgrims                            Exposition worthy of tho present generation
             actual discovery and of tbe real, sclentlflc tige and power of the Nation. Irving, expec-                 in hia       Even Senator Benton, of Missouri, who sub-                                                                     a trading
                                                                                                                                                                                                that his ship, the Columbia, was contention, acter. The salmon fisherieshundreds Columbia In 1620, the first permanent English settle-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            of the                                                                                                        of intelligent, stalwart and enterprising peo-
             exploration and actual settlement belonss to "Astoria," summarizes the plans and                                   sequently became one of the great defenders and not a National vessel. This                                                               River producing annually                                      of thou-                ment In America at Jamestown,                   Virginia, by ple now occupy lne the "Oregon Country";
             America and the United States, irrespective that tations of Astor In these wards: "He consid-
                                                   and, on                                                                      of our rights in Oregon, though unfortunately however, was speedily disposed of by Mr. sands of the finest fish that ever satiated the the brave 105 colonists under Christopher New-pq- rt but. above all, an Exposition worthy the cor-
              high and unimpeachable title,                      of ered his projected establishment at the mouth               never to the full extent ot our rightful claim Buchanan with this remark:                                                                 Tn late of man: the vast lumbering establish
             all others, baa our country forever stood and of the commerce; as a emporium to an Im
                                                                               Columbia         the                             to territory in the north, but only to the 4l)ih                     "The British nlenlpotentlary            attempts to ments scattered throughout this vast domain, July in 1607; the Declarationof of Independence. dial recognition and an. Exposition that will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       4. 1776; the purchase              Louisiana Terri-                 tional Government;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               liberal aid of the Na-
              can forever stand In its claim to the territory mense                         as colony that would form           parallel, as late as 1S25 regarded Oregon as depreciate the value to tho United States Co- - turning out evry hour millions of feet of fir. tory by Thomas Jefferson In 1803; and the disclose not only to all of the people of the
    I        of Oregon. The only regrettable           thine Is the germ of a wide civilization: that would                     not worth holding. In that year In his place Gray's discover", because his ship, the                                                      pine, cedar, hemlock, maple, myrtle and other military expedition of Lewis and Clark, "are." United States, both of the mainland and
              that the United States ehould ever by com- in fact carry the American population across                           In this Senate he said:                                          lumDia, was a iraamg uuu not u. .luuuuai Kinus ot tne anrai iuuiu                                                      cici wauuiiwiuicu, aJ was so tersoly and beautifully said by tho Islands, but also to the people of the Orient
             promise have bartered away unnecessarily any the Rock' Mountains, and spread It along the                               "The ridge of the Rocky Mountains ever-lusti- vessel. As he undersigned nowill confine him- - j jta Innumerable copper productive mines of gold lute lresident McKInlev In "time-keepe- last public and of Europe, something of our present and
                                                                                                                                                                                        may                             furnishes       reason for this                                            highly                                                                                                 his
              portion of that vast territory- - The claim of shores of the Pacific as It already animated                       be named as a convenient, natural and                           distinction, the                                                          and sliver and                         and clnnlbar and coat                                                    countrymen,                                ot rapidly Increasing greatness as a people, and
              64 degrees 40 minutes, made by the Democ-              the shores of the Atlantic"                                               boundary. Along this ridge the west              self to the remark that a merchant ..                         vessel ( and asbestos; Its flocks and herds of millions address to his                             progress."          They correspond to the 'balancing the present status politically, commercially
              racy in the campaign of 1844, should, in my The Hudson's Bay Company a Powerful and
             Judgment, never have been abandoned, but
                                                                                                                                ern limits of the Republic should be drawn
                                                                                                                                and the statue of the fabled god Terminus
                                                                                                                                                                                                 UCUO liic ui ui irei .vmj              w    ..-    ...-..-           .   ut utuii:i            o...,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e,w- -        .. w..-- . ... .w-.- .,              .- -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of the books of the National treasury at tho and otherwise, of one of the most interest-
                                                                                                                                                                                                and continues under its Jurisdiction and pro- schools and colleges and Institutions of close of each fiscal year. They are. as great ing, virile and enterprising sections of the
              maintained to the bitter end.                                  Influential Agent of the British                   fchould be erected on Its highest peak, never                    tection in the same manner as though she had learning, its churches, its asylums and other historical landmarks. In a sense similar to the American Union.
                The nrst real assertion of sovereignty in all
              that vast region occurred when, oa May 1,
                                                                       That Great Britain, operating through divers
                                                                                                                                to be thrown down."                   '
                                                                                                                                    But, thanks to the brave pioneer heroes making discoveries."
                                                                                                                                                                                                 been commissioned for the express purpose of eleemosynary and charitble Institutions;                                                                 Its epochs covered by the lives of great men who
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          more than a million of happy, enterprising and tower In history here and there, along the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Flat lux.                 i.
             1702. Captain Uray, of Boston, an American              Influential channels-- , notably the Hudson's Bay          whose names and memories are rightfully for-                                                                                                                  people, and its
                                                                                                                                                                                                    In this long. Interesting interesting diplomatic progressive and expanding trade, all "bear tes- great march of human events,- - such as Wash-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and able                                                                                                                                                                                                     Killed While Saving Woman.
              citizen and navigator and naval onlcer during                                                                     ever embalmed In the affections or every true contest, one of the most                                                questions           commerce                                                                               ington, Jefferson, Jackson,               Calhoun. Clay,
              the Revolutionary "War. master of the mer- Company, reinforced as it was Northwestby Com-     ia 1621      con-
                                                                                                                                American, the western limits of the Republic                     discussed was as to what extent continuity                               timony of the highest and most Interesting                                             Webster. Lincoln, Grant and McKlnley, and                                    BERLIN. Dec.' 17. Miss "Von Rheln-uabe- n,
              chant' ship Columbia, discovered and entered solidation with the Canadian                                         were not drawn en the ridge of the Rocky of boundary furalshos a Just claim in connec-                                                    character to County" In the development of many others that might be named, whose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the marvelous                                                                                                                                       daughter of the Finance Minister,
          . the moutn of that great river of the West, pany of Montreal, exerted a most formidable                              Mountains.            The fabled god         Terminus was tion with those of discovery and occupation.                                     the "Oregon                                      last 100 years,                      names and achievements an               appreciative peo-
             lie abcended Its waters days, and of 155 miles, power against the settlement of Oregon Ter-
                                        a distance                                                                              never stationed there. Providence had willed This question grew out of the claim on tho                                                       itut hpre is not the time nor place to exploit ple delight to honor, and whose deeds will Baron von Rheinbaben, had a narrow es-
              remaining there nine                   named the ritory by Americans, and the waves of whose                      It otherwise, and a brave and courageous peo-                    part of the United States that the Louisiana at great length the character, the number and ever be held In grateful remembrance.                                                                                                          cape from serious injury or death today.
             river "Columbia." In honor of his ship, planted influence reached Washington and for a time                                                                                         Territory extended to the Pacific Ocean. This magnitude, or the value ot the present pro-                                                                         Such expositions. In commemoration of such                                    fell between two electric cars, but
              the American flag on Its shores and took threatened the loss of the whole territory, is
                                                                                                                                ple executed that will.
                                                                                                                                     But still more startling Is the fact that 21 claim was denied on the part ot Great Britain. ductions otmore appropriate Country."                         tho "Oregon                                  To do great historical events, to which allusion Is She English                                                                                         Henry
              possession of the country In the name ot tflo an historical fact well established.                         That   jears after Senator Benton made the declara- It was Insisted, however,Calhoun, great ability, spectfully a but. earnestly Implore the we re- made, are mighty National inspirational
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     with                                  this in                                          'manner,                                                                         object-lesson- s,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           an                   naval constructor,
              United States. Indefatigable were the efforts Daniel Webster, as Secretary of State, was by                       tion I have Just quoted. Senator "Wlnthrop, of by Secretary of State                                             and subse-                                                                                 aid of pregnant with Instruction,                                                         In   Davidson, of Newcastle-on-Tyn- e.                        rushed
              of Great Britain to wrest this honor from the these Influences at one time convinced that                         Massachusetts, as late as 1840, quoted what quently by Secretar                                Buchanan, as follows:                                                                                       that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the General Government, to the end may In their tendency, and which unfold to the gen-                                                                          to her assistance. In pulling iliss von
              United States, and, In upiort of this effort, the whole territory was an unbroken waste of                        Benton had said in 1825, and then remarked:                          First, that the claim was valid under public the year present attoPortland, Or., not alone be eral public, to all people and all nations, the Rheinbaben out of danger he was killed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the people,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of character and degree ot progress made in the Miss von Rheinbaben was uninjured.
              all manner of claims were from time to time sandy deserts. Impassable mountains and Im-                           "This country will not be straitened for el- law; and                                                                                      able to
              set up. A suspicion had been entertained               penetrable Jungle, there can be no room for                bow room in the West for a thousand years,                           Second, that Great Britain, having asserted                           America, but also to those of Europe and
              for many years, percapa a century prior to doubt. These powerful Influences had been                              and neither the West nor the country at large the validity ot the doctrine hi retcrence to Asia, and thepeople of of the sea, and espe-                            Islands
              1792. In the minds ot Spanish and Encllsn
              navigators that a large rler emptied some-
                                                                     operating In divers ways prior to 1842 for                 has any real Interest In retaining Oregon."                      her possessions in this country going against cially ot tho Orient, thethe United Statesmade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            to war those
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      grand progress
                                                                     more than a third of a century. Their effect                    The      Hudson's Bay Company, through whose France, even to the extent of
              where into the waters of the Pacific Ocean,- on the Individual and public mind In the                             active influence this false continent                    was with that power In 1763, she was estopped In the past 100 years in pnysicai. intellectual
              and the .English navigators Means and                                                                             mainly created, was In every essential sense from denying the validity of the doctrine us and moral development In what                                                                           100 years ago
              couvcr bad been inttructed by their respec-
                                                                     Bust, and on the official mind as well in
                                                                     Washington, was marked in tho highest de                    the direct, active and                             agent of against the United States, especially Inasmuch was known as the "Oregon Country."                                                                               W                                       Nature's Gift from the Sunny South                                                             jj
              tive governments to make ever" ettort to dis-          gree. That vvebster, as Secretary of fataie,                the British government.             It held Its charter as our people had contributed sotomuch toBrit- the people otto the United exhibit, not only to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the          We desire            make an
              cover it. They spent months In the years had seriously contemplated including the whole                           and its- licences from that government.                   Its rcsulr in that contest favorable                    Great                                                                  States, but also to
              17S11 and 17U2 in this effort, but without re-                   territory In tbe Asbburton treaty, and           otficers were superintended by a governor and ain; and it was further contended by may those otcapacity and present products ot the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  our                      all nations, of the unlimited pro-
              sult. "Mears," said one historian, "failed of this     subsequently in a separate treaty, in exchange             deputy governor and a committee of directors                     diplomatists that Great Britain, whatever                                  ductive
              to And the mouth of the supposed river when to Great Britain for certain cod fisheries in                          resident In        London, while a resident governor have been her rights In "Oregon Territory," "Oregon Country." highest of those of Amer-                                In all                      elements
              he was led to explore for It in the Straits Newfoundland, is beyond question.                                     superintended and directed Its vast operations                    relinquished all to France by the seventh arti-                           that constitute the                           standard
              of Fuca, and maae permanent record of his                The Insidious and powerfully effective in-                In America.            The olflcers and members of cle of the treaty between Great Britain and ican development, human progress and civ-
              failure in the two titles he left there "Capo                             the remarkably successful                the Hudson's Bay Company were, as govern-            a rule, France at the close of that war In 17S3.                                      ilization.
         t .Disappointment" and "Deception Bay." The fluence, and the Hudson's Bay Company are
    - i cays: "Vancouver scrutinized that coast for In the face of what seemed insurmountable
             name historian, in speaking of Vancouver,
              about 250 miles, and so minutely that the obstacles. Although its original charter dates
              surf was constantly seen from tbe masthead
              to break on Its shores. Thus he failed to back to Charles
              discover the mouth ot the Columbia, mistak-
                                                                     best Illustrated by the triumphs It achieved

                                                                                            II of England. In 1070.
                                                                              It was granted certain important rights,
                                                                     40 years prior to that a similar charter had
                                                                                                                                 under the domination of the home
                                                                                                                                 ment. One grand exception, however, stands northern boundary of the Oregon Territory, the inclusion of the Hawaiian and Philippine
                                                                                                                                 out In history: Doctor John
                                                                                                                                                                                                      The controversy In regard to the correct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the 49th
                                                                                                                                 a true fr,lend of the American pioneer. Brave, upon, except along the Straits of Fuca, or enterprise. American the western and American
                                                                                                                                 generous, noble, his house, his larder. hu
                                                                                                                                                                           McLoughlln was                                    parallel, as now agreed Islands opens a new era In American states-
                                                                                                                                                                                                   54 degrees 40 minutes north, Is familiar to
                                                                                                                                 horses, nls cattle, were all at the service or all. Spain unquestionably always asserted ot rldite of the Rocky Mountains, as sug-
                                                                                                                                 the poor, travel-wor- n,         weary and discouraged                                       as the 01st parallel, but the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The extension of our National boundaries by

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              By this,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the Republic, instead ot being located along
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  boundary line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             I           d                       Wtiiiw.Wrknuimsi3urMt                                                                              J
              ing evidently the breakers on its fearful bira been granted to tho Canadian Northwest Fur                                                                                            claim as far north
                                                                                                                                 emigrant- - But for this deposition and these In ber treaty with Russia 54 degrees 40 gested to include the thousand 1825, more of the                by Thomas Benton In                           la extended
             for coast surf."                                                                                       Prior to     nobiu qualities, he was ostracised by the minutes was recognized.                                     It was claimed, so as                                                                   or
                This entry was made In his      Journal     April Company by Louis XUI of France.
                                                                                       company was in numbers, capital,          company and by the British government,                                                                                                                       Islands,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     In Philippine Terminus, and thefrom beingoferect-          statue                 the
             20. 1792. only 12 days prior to the date wnen
                                                                           1S21 this                                                                                                               however, that by the treaty, of Utrecht                                                                     so far
          Captain Gray made the discovery; and yet,                        influence and power vastly superior to, and           driven Into exile at Oregon City, there to 1713, which provided tor determining "the fabled god ridge of the Rocky Mountains, as           ed on the
          because the Kngllsh navigator Vancouver                          a most formidable rival of the Hudson's Bay           end his days, yet respected, venerated, honored limits to be fixed between the Bay of Hud-                                                                 by Benton in 1S25, as
                        sailed farther up the river than did
                                                                           Company; yet the latter, notwithstanding   all        by the pioneers of Oregon, and all who knew son and the places appertaining to the suggested of the Republic, must the western             boundary                                                 now be lo-
          Captain Gray, the latter directing him how                       this, through its superior management and             him and his history.                                              French," the boundary between Louisiana cated on the most western limits of the most
                                                                           great diplomacy, compelled the former In 1821                                                                                                                            of it was
          to hnd the entrance. Great Britain insisted                      to yield to, and accept Its own terms as to           President Polk's Administration 54 Vtg. 40 and the British territories north on latitude western island of the Philippine Archipelago,
          that he, and not Captain Gray, ' was the dis-                    union and consolidation, and from that date                                      or Fight,                              actually fixed by commissioners                                          there to stand forever and forever more, the
          coverer of the Columbia, and that all the                        the Hudson's Bay Company, thus reinforced                                                                               49 degrees.       Whether this is true or not, is ar western outpost of the American Re-
          rights which attached to such discover' be-                                                                                Pending discussions in Cabinet and Congress a matter of very serious disputation.                                               A public.
                                                                           in capital, numbers and Influence, and In tho
          longed to England, and not to the United                         number and extent of Its outposts, directed           at Washington as to the supposed valueless careful examination of allto history bearing velop promote and advancecommerce,                    To                                           our trade, to de-
          States. In dltcuslng this phase of the Ore-                      all Its vast energies and Immense powers to           character of the whole "Oregon Country,"                          upon the point leads me                 the conclusion                              and Increase our                                  not only
          gon question. Professor Twits, of Oxford Uni-                    wrest from the United States and obtain               and as to the lnadvisablllty of any particular that such was not the fact.                                                                 with      our island possessions, but also with
          versity, In an elaborate paper, said: "Cap-                      eventually for Great Britain the whole of the                                                  It, Dr. Whitman              In reply to the claim of the United States Russia and and nations ot the.the far East,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (he people                                            Orient, with
          tain Uray's claim Is limited to the mouth of                                                                           effort being made to retain                                       to go to 54 degrees 40 minutes, It was as-                                                  China. and Japan in
                                                                           "Oregon Territory."                                   made his memorable ride across the continent
          the river." The historian Barrows, in com-
          menting on this character ot reasoning, very                      But, notwithstanding these superior rights                                                                             serted that whatever might have ceding the is the proud ambition of of the cities energetic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   not only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the brave,
                                                                           on the part of the United States, In virtue            In the Winter of 1842 and 1843. The fame                         right of Spain, the latter, Inconvey only Frunclsco, men, Portland, of Tacoma andof Seat-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to business                                                                     San
          pertinently says:       "Thus the discovery of a                 not only of occupancy but also of scientific           of this "Winter Journey upon the part of Dr. France In 1800. stipulated to                                                                                 of
          river Is mado a progressive work by English         exploration ami settlement, entitling this                          Whitman extended throughout                   the Nation,        as far north as the 49th parallel. To this cial but of all destinies ofcontrol wns commer-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            tle,                    who now                        the
          claimants, as if one should discover the            counry to exclusive sovereign rights in the                         and the subject of Oregon and the rights of contention the United States replied, with                                                            and trade                             what            once the
                      at New Orleans, another at Memphis.     whole of the Oregon Territory, tho fact that                        tho United States in- - respect to the "Oregon                   much force, and the contention should never "OregonExposition " which It Is their purpose
          anotnor at Cairo, another at the mouth- - of the                                                                        Country" were matters of wide discussion                                                                                                     The
                                                                                                                                                                                                            been abandoned: If this bo so. and If shall be held 'In Portland, Or., in 1905. will
           Missouri, and so on to the Falls of Saint          the Hudson's Say Company had extended Its                           in all political circles. Public sentiment was have true the right ot Spain Is good to 54
           Anthony; as If the discover' of a lost cable       operations into that region, and was en                             wrought up to the highest pitch, and, xs a it be
           were progressive as the separate links of the      gaged in trade tncre witn me inaians, in-                           result, the Democratic National Convention,                      degrees 40 minutes, then the strip between onlya domestic commerce, but will also stim-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            be        most beneflclal factor In promoting not
           chain were hauled on board. If," says the          duced our Government to make the fatal                              which met at Baltimore in 1S44. had as one the 40th parallel and 54 degrees Included In ulate and promote the National and Interna-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 minutes
           historian, "this had not been said by pleni-       mistake of entering Into a treaty with Great.                       of Its planks, "Fifty-four-For-                 or Fight." which it was Spain         alleged was not                                     tional trade and commerce. In which the
           potentiaries we should call It puerile."           Britain in 1818. providing for Joint occupan-                       and on this platform the Polk Administration                     the cession of               to France in 1800, was whole people and the Government ot the
              Mears not only did not discover the Colum- -'   cy for a period ot ten years. This stipula                          came into power. The ombarrastments, tow-eve- r, Included In the cession of Spain to the United States are eo vitally interested.                                                                                This
           bia Klver. but, on the contrary, ho emptying       tion was extended indefinitely by another
                                                      expressly                                                                               with which it was surrounded, growing United States in the treaty of Florida of Is a question that. Is not in its effect and op-
           declared there was no such river                   treaty with Great Britain in 1827, promul-                          out of the Oregon question and this particular 1819 by which Spain conveyed every right eration limited to the Interests of the people
           into the Pacific Ocean. "We can now safely         gated May 15. 1828.                                                 plank In the platform were many. President                       she had on the continent north of the 42d and states ot the Pacific Coast. New Eng-
           assert." said he In his report, "that there ia         These treaties, however, were not Intend-                       Polk found that preceding negotiations dur-                      parallel. In discussing this phase ot the land, the Southern and Central States, and
           no such liver as that of Saint Boaue. as           ed nor did they or either of them in any                            ing the administrations            of his predecessors,          question, Mr. Secretar' Buchanan, in his the distinguished representatives                                                           ot these
           laid down on the Spanish charts." And, as          manner attempt to determine the respective                          Monroe, Adams and Tyler, had not proceeded reply to Packenham, soldi                                                                       great sections of our common country will, 1
            if to emphasize the promontory his expecta-
                                      failure of
                                                   lying north
                                                              sovereign claims of the United States and                           on the tart of the United States on tho
                                                                                                                                  theory of our right to fiftv-fo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                       "It Is on historical and strikingbearing am sure, notIn hesitate the lend their cordial
                                                                                                                                                                                  forty; that which must have an Important
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 fact,                                               to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             grand Centennial
            tions, he named the                                Great Britain, or in fact those of any other                                                                                                                                                                                           aid of
            of the Inlet where ho had expected to In-J-        government, to this territory: they were in-                       the negotiations proceeded rather on the idea against the claim of Great Britain, that Exposition in behalf of the great historical
                    it "Cape Disappointment," and the et       tended only, as expressly stated In the trea-                      that tney ehould treat the respective claims the Nootka Convention which was dictated achievement of Lewis and Clark.
                 Itself "Deception Bay," names by which        ties, "To prevent disputes and differences                         ot the two countries In the Oregon territory by her to Spain, contains no provision Im-                                                       A spirit of National pride, of National
            they have been Known ever since.                   among the occupants of that territory."                            with a view to establishing                  a permanent pairing the ultimate sovereignty which that patriotism and of National desire upon the
               Gray's discover' and the purchase of Lou-          That the Government of the United States                        boundary between them west of the Rocky power had asserted for nearly three centu                                                          part of tho distinguished representatives of                                                             No matter how faithful and                                   fc,,   -                    gllgj
           isiana Territory were quickly followed by sci-     made a fearful mistake in ever consenting                           Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, and In this ries over tho wnoie nortnwestcrn siae oi all sections of this great country will, I am                                                                                                                 vour cook mav be. she is behind
           entific exploration on the part of the Gov-                                                                             compromising spirit' these administrations had North America, as far north as the 01st sure, stimulate them to Join hands with the
            ernment of the United States, as also by set-     by treaty stipulation that Great Britain
                                                               should, through its subjects, occupy "The                           proposed to iix tne tvounaary on tne jum degree of latitude, and which had never representatives of the great West and Pacific                                                                                                           the times if she uses lard or cooking butter for frying and shortening.
            tlement on the part of its citizens. The ex-
            pedition of Lewis and Clark organized before       Oregon Territory" Jointly with our citizens                         parallel       To add to the embarrassment, many been seriously questioned by an European Northwest, in enabling them to exhibit in an
                                                                                                                                   leading Democratic Senators, including Ben-                                                                                               appropriate manner what they and their pred-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The great medical and cooking authorities of the country say so ; they
            and went out Immediately after the Louisiana       for a period ot 28 years. Instead of standing                       ton of Missouri, scouted at the Idea that our nation."                                                                                    ecessors have done In the Interest ot human                                                    endorse Gottolene as the most palatable, healthful and economical cook-
            Purchase was one of the most daring, difficult,    In 1817 on our rights as sovereign, and In-                        rights extended to fifty-fo-           forty, and Insisted           Subsequently,      In ISIS, and down to tho progress and American civilization In tho past                                                                           ing fat on the market.' Tho following names of Cqttolene endorsers
            dangerous and at the same time successful          sisting that they should be respected. Is                           that we had no rights extending northward                        final settlement of the          boundary question 100 years.
            of all expeditions of which history of this        now, I think, pretty generally conceded.                            farther than tbe 49th           parallel.    To   add still In 1S46, the only material difference in the                                     The United States Government has in the                                                     are household words:
            or of any other country gives record. There        The value of the furs of which that 'Corn-pa- y
                                                                                                        coun-                                                                                                                               and diplomat-
                                                                                                                                   further to the embarrassment of the situa- viewswas American statesmen rightful claim last 41 years aided 11 home expositions and
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of                                                                                                                                                                       Mrs. Sarah Tyson Rorer, Mrs. Emma P. Evring, Marion Harland,
            seems to be some difference In the statements      try was stripped by the Hudson's Bay                                tion. Great Britain, through ber Minister, on ists                             as to whether the                                          10 foreign expositions, and has appropriated                                                   Mrs. Eliza R. Parker, Lida Ames Willis, Mrs. Janet M. Hill, Dr. Mary E.
            of historians as to the number composing that             In that time was immense, amounting                          June 0, 1840. before the Administration ot                       of the United States extended to 54 degrees in the aggregate for this purpose the sum of
            expedition.      According to Barrows, it con-     to many millions of dollars. In the four                            Mr. Polk was clearly launched, submitted a 40 minutes, or only to the 49th parallel. All                                                    21,107,852.15.        The Congress ot the United                                             Green, Miss Margaret Wister, Mrs. Elizabeth 0. Hiller, Mrs. Helen Arm-
            sisted of 28 persons In all Lewis and Clark,       years, 1834 to 1837. the Hudson's Baji Com-                         proposition, the same that was finally agreed                    concurred In the opinion that our claim was f tales has since 1875 extended aid in behalf                                                                               strong, Christine Terhune Herrick, Mrs. F. A. Benson, R. Ogden Doremis,
            nine young Kentucklans,         14 United States   pany alone, according to reliable statistics,                       on, of the 40th parallel, and coupled with it beyond question good at least as far north Of expositions held In the United States at
            soldiers, two Canadian voyageurs and one           killed In that region (the Oregon Country)                          the suggestion that it must be accepted at as the latter, while many of our ablest the following places and In the following                                                                                                             M. D., LL. D., J. Hobart Egbert, A. M., M. D., Ph. D., and hundreds of
            negro, the body servant of Captain Clark.          over 3,500,000                animals, includ-                      once and without delay If at all. In this statesmen and diplomatists, strengthened and amounts:                                                                                                                                          others, prominent in household economy and the medical profession.
            According, however, to the probably accurate       ing beaver, marten, otter, fox, rauskrat,                           great political dilemma President Polk re-                       supported by a powerful sentiment among
                                                                                                                                   sorted to a course which, though adoDted a the people, insisted that our claim extended Philadelphia. Pa.
            notes of Dr. Coues to his new edition of the       bear, ermine, fitchew, lynx, mink, wolf,                                                                                                                                                                      New Orleans, La.                             18S4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.650.000.00                                    USE 5$ LESS. Cottolene being richer than either lard or cooking
            history of that expedition. It consisted of 45     badger and raccoon.        The American fur                         few times In the early years of our Govern-                      to 54 degrees 40 minutes.                                                Louisville. Ky.                       ....1884               10,000.00                         butter, one-thi- rd         less is required.
            men from Missouri to the Mandan country,           traders could not compete with the Hud-                             ment, had not been resorted to tor nearly                                                                                                                   0
            and of 32, including Lewis and Clark, there-       son's Bay Company, as all the supplies of                           one-ha- lt     a century, that is, of asking the FinancialAgainst Heretofore No Argument Cincinnati, III.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Failures                                                   Chicago,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5,840,329.04                          "rnocTjv Snd us a 2c stamp to pay Dostaffe and well mall you a copy of our book
            after across the continent, the others return,     the latter came In freo of duty.                                    advice ot the Senate of the United States In                                            Future   Expositions.                             Atlanta, Go.                                 1894          200.000.00
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      -'       ''Home Helps," edited by Mrs. Rorer. which contains 300 choice recipes:
            lng from that point, as was the original pro-         But the fact that by the Joint occupancy                         advance of action on tho part of the Exec-                           The fact that some expositions in the past Nashville. Tenn                                                        1S9S           130.000.00
            gramme.                                                                                                                utive. Consequently, on June 1, 1840, Presi-                                                                                                                                                                                                          Mode only by THE N. K. FAIRPANK COMPANY. Dept 303                                           Chicago
               The authority under which Captains Lewis         this great monopoly was enabled to strip                           dent Polk transmitted to the Senate the pro-                     havo been financial failures, is no valid ar-                            Omaha, Neb                                  J897            240.0OO.OO
            and Clark acted, as stated In thecommlsslon         the country of its wealth, was as nothing                          posal. In the form of a convention Dresented gument In opposition to the promotion of Buffalo. N. Y. C.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1902        1,015.000.00
            Issued to them by President JcTferson, was
             "to explore the river Missouri and its prin-
                                                                compared with the powerfully hostile influ-
                                                               ence it constantly exerted against the set-                         to the Secretary of State on the 0th of that expositions.
                                                                                                                                   month by the British Envoy, for its advice.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The basic principle upon which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Charleston, S.                              1902
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                And for the St. Louis Exposition next year,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         250.000.00                                               mmmMmmsmmmmmmmmwtBw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fiufElrn iTnllMlJflillililllrli
            cipal branches to their sources, and then to        tlement of the country by Americans, and                                                                                            the advocates of the propriety, the feasibil-
        ' seek to trace to its termination in the Pacific       the foothold It afforded 'Great Britain, en-
                                                                                                                                   Mr. Polk's message transmitting this con-
                                                                                                                                   vention concluded as follows:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ity and advisability of expositions rely as a $0,478,000. since the year 1861 the Congress of
            some river, whether the Columbia, tho Oregon,      abling that power successfully to postpone                               "Should the Senate, by the constitutional                   conclusive argument In their favor, and In the United States has aided 10 foreign ex
                                                                                                                                                                                                              of their recognition
                                                                                                                                   majority required for the ratification ot favorGeneral Government, andnot by any positions as follows:         support by
            the Colorado or any other, 'which mlrht offer
            the most direct, practicable water communi
            cation across the continent for tho purposes
            of commerce."
               The time occupied by these courageous
                                                                for nearly a century the final settlement 'of
                                                                the question as to our rights, and which in
                                                                tho end compelled us to compromise, and
                                                               deprived us of that vast extent of territory
                                                                lying between tho 49th parallel and 54 de-
                                                                                                                                   treaties, advise the acceptance of these prop-
                                                                                                                                   ositions, or advise It with such modifications
                                                                                                                                    proper, I shall conform my action to their If this
                                                                                                                                                                                                    means that of financial benefit to the pro- Vienna, Austria
                                                                                                                                   as the' may, upon full deliberation, deem moters were managers of such Government Sidney, New South Wales.. 1879
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       so, tho claim for
                                                                                                                                                                                                     recognition and aid would. I concede, rest Melbourne, Australia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             London, England                              1S02
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           PERFECT HEALTH
             men In consummating the important and              grees 40 minutes, the Rocky Mountains and                          advice. Should the Senate, however, decline                                                                                                Berlin. Germany                             1880            20,000.00                                                                                                      Perfect health, a most de-
             hazardous duty assigned them by their Gov-         tho Pacific Ocean. Thomas H. Benton and                            by such constitutional majority to give such                     on a most unsubstantial and flimsy basis.                                 Barcelona, Spain                            1888            28.3S0.20
             ernment was two years, four months and             many other leading men denounced this                              advice, or to express an opinion upon the Considerations of a vastly higher nature, Brussels. Belgium                                                                            ....1888               35.000.00                                                                                               sirable physical condition,
             nine days, during which time they traveled        policy of Joint occupation.    Senator Benton                       subject, I will consider it my duty to reject and ot Infinitely more importance than the Madrid, Spain                                                                                  1892            25.000.00
             more than 8000 miles through an unbroken           in 1845. referring to the treaty of Joint                           the offer."                                                     mere question of Immediate financial gain Bergen, Norway .                                                             lbUS            20.000.00                                                                                               free from all indications of
             and trackless wilderness.                         occupation, said: "I have been clear against                            In other words. President Polk, encompassed In dollars and cents are Involved. They are
               Tho start was made May 14. 1804, from           Joint occupation for 2S years, as a treaty of                       on the one hand by the plank in the platform                      those which relate to the Individual and tions                             While aid has been extended to three exposi-                                                                                                                       NERVOUS DEBILITY, is
             their camp on the Mississippi near the                                                                                on which he was elected of "Fifty-fou- r              Forty general welfare in a physical. Intellectual                                             In Paris. France as follows: That                                   of
                                                                unmixed mischief to the United Slates."                            or Fight," and on the other hand by the and moral sense; to National growth and 1867. 5212.703; a1678, $100,000; of 1900. exposi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              $1,722.-504.6- 6,                                                                                    prized above all other earth-
             mouth of the Missouri, and returning they         Historians agree that this company stripped                                                                                                                                                                               making           total in aid              Paris
             reached St. Louis September 23, 180C. They         the "Oregon Country" of furs of the value                          action of preceding administrations in conflict patriotism, and to civilization itself.
                                                                                                                                   with the proposition, his party leaders divided President Roosevelt's Cordial Indorsement of $21,107,852.15.                               tions of $2,125,207.06.               making a grand total                                                                                                           ly attainments. And yet
             discovered the headwaters of the Missouri          of over $1,000,000 annually, amounting to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          there are thousands of men,
             and the Columbia, and followed tho waters         perhaps $30,000 000 in the 23 years of Joint                        on the question, and tho issue brought directly                                                                                              And yet, notwithstanding all this magnificent
             of tho latter until they landed at Cape Dis-       occupancy.                                                         to the front by Great Britain, concluded to                                 and Earnest Recommendation.                                    aid In favor of expositions. National and in-                                                                                                                        so called, out of respect and
             appointment, at the mouth of the Columbia            It was the entirely too ready disposition                        and did throw the whole responsibility on the                        It Is gratifying that the present Chief Ex- ternational, not one dollar has been appro-
             River, In Oregon, November 15, 1805. They         on the part of our Government at the outset                         Senate of tho United States. Two days sub-                        ecutive of the Nation finds in these                      .expo-         priated In aid of any such enterprise west ot                                                                                                                         according to custom, who, if
                                                                                                                                   sequently. June 12. 1S40, the Senate adopted
             remained there in camp until March 23,
             1800, a period of more than four months,
                                                                in 1824. 1820 and 1820, to compromise our
                                                                rights in the Oregon Territory, which re-                          a resolution advising tho President to accept sitions Justification and warrant for substan- the the aid Mountains, to and, Omaha Exposition,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              extended              the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with the exception                                                                                                      their dreadful secrets were
                                                                                                                                   the proposal of the British Government, and tial Governmental recognition and aid. In not                                                                                                                                                                                                                       knqyvn, are but poor speci-
             when they commenced their ascent of the
             Columbia River in their canoes on their re-
                                                                sulted eventually In a loss to this country
                                                                of territory the value of which cannot be
                                                                                                                                   as a result the convention was finally agreed President Roosevelt's recent message he any a dollar has been appropriated In aid of                exposition west of the Missouri River.
              turn trip.                                        estimated. Both Presidents Tyler and Polk
                                                                                                                                   to June 15, 1840. So. although this memorable                     says:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         mens of true, robust, vigor-
                The hardships experienced by these brave were handicapped by the offer of settlement
                                                                                                                                   controversy had remained unsettled for nearly                        "I trust that tho Congress will continue to                                                Climate Scenery.                                                                                                                                 ous health.
                                                                                                                                   half       a century. It is a remarkable historical favor in alL proper ways the Louisiana Pur-                                              Tho City of Portland, Or., has one' 'decided
              men and by the courageous pioneers, men made to Great Britain under former admin-                                    fact that but nine days elapsed between the chase Exposition. This Exposition commem- and most Important advantage over the City                                                                                                                                                                                      Such miserable                        mortals
              and women, who In the next            half-centu- istrations, in which the Government had                            submission of tho final proposition to com-
              followed in their footsteps and braved the consented from time to time to a compro-                                  promise by Great Britain, and the signing of orates the LouislandIn Purchase, whichwhich of St, Louis as a place for an exhibition.. In
                                                                                                                                                                                                     the first great step           the expansion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   was                                                                                                                                                                              need not continue on the
              innumerable hardships and dangers ot the mise on the 40th parallel. This, then, was                                  the treaty.                                                                us a continental nation. The expedi-                            no part of the United States can there be
              far "West, havoby pen been,tongue.can they be the status of tho Oregon Country from the
                                             nor                                                                                       Notwithstanding the fact that 111 years have madeof                                   Clark across the continent found a more superbly delightful Summer cli-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    downward road, that much-travel- ed
              fully depicted            or          To them data of our treaty with Great Britain in                                elapsed since the discovery of the Columbia followed Lewis and and. marked the beginning mate than in Portland. Or. The atmosphere
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  thereon,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                thoroughfare             that
              arc tho people of America greatly indebted, 1818 until our treaty of 1846, a period of                               River by Captain Gray. 100 years since the of the process of exploration, and coloniza-
              for they have hewn out with willing hands,, 28 years. It was one of Joint occupancy in                               cession of Louisiana, and 84 years since our tion which thrust our National boundary to is clear, cool, invigorating, and such a thing                                                                                                                                                                           leads to either a SEA OF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The acquisition of the Oregon as
              borno on stalwart shoulders, and set with virtue of treaty stipulations between the                                  cession from Spain, the settlement ot our title the Pacific.                                                                                      oppressive Summer heat is unknown.
              stability In its everlasting resting place, tho two countries, and It was Juring these 28                             to a certain portion of Oregon was held in Country, Including                                                                                       city is clean                  and      healthful,                                                                                                          PHYSICAL WRECKS, the
                                                                                                                                   abeyance until October 21. 1872. only 31 years                                                the present States of The                    supplied with the very best cold water from
              foundation stone of one of the grandest pil- years that the great battle as to tho ulti-                                                                                               Oregon and Washington, was a fact of im-                                 a mountain stream. The scenery In and                                                      MADHOUSE, or the DISGRACEFUL GRAVE OF THE SUICIDE.
              lars upon which in part rests today the su-       mate Ownership of Oregon was fought and                            ago: that was the Island of San Juan. The
                                                                                                                                    treaty of June 15. 1840. between the United mense Importance In our history; first giv-
              perb superstructure of American develop--me-      won. It was not wholly, though in part, a                                                                                                                                                                     around Portland is unequaled by any other                                                              The time-trie- d,      competent and trustworthy physicians of DR. W.
                                                                                                                                    States and Great Britain, which was Intended ing us our place on the Pacificour

                     and American civilization.                                                                                                                                                                                                           seaboard, on the continent.                           Five stalwart mountain
                                                                warfare of men on the field of carnage. It
                How strangely Interesting and pathetic is was a mighty, a prolonged            In one senso a                       to settle all questions relating to our northern                  and making ready the way for                           ascend-          peaks, covered with perpetual snow, stand                                                  NORTON DAVIS & CO.'S MEDICAL INSTITUTE cure and restore
              the history, and how peculiar the vicissi-       physical and In another sense a diplomatic                           boundary. Inadvertently left the question as ency In the commerce of tbe greatest of In Imperial grandeur at its very gates; these                                                                                                   the most complicated ailments of men. They are all graduates of the
              tudes surrounding the lives of some men! contest between tho vanguards of two civ-                                    to the title to this island an open one. The the oceans.                            The centennial of our estab- are Tacoma or Rainier. St, Helens, Adams.
              Both of these intrepid explorers subsequent-      ilizations and of two mighty nations, each                          treaty, in defining the northern boundary-o- f
                                                                                                                                    the United States, from a point In the Rocky
                                                                                                                                                                                                      lishment upon the "Western coast by the ex-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     pedition of Lewis and Clark is to be cele-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hood and Jefferson.                  These are the Joy and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              adoration of Its own people and the wonder
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         best MEDICAL COLLEGES in EUROPE AND AMERICA. They
              ly became Governor, at different periods, of contending with tho other for the suprem-
              Missouri Territory. Captain "William Clark,       acy, and each also with tbo uncivilized,                            Mountains on the 40th parallel (from which brated at Portland, Oregon, by an exposi-                                                      and admiration of the thousands of tourists                                                have all had years of experience in HOSPITAL and PRIVATE
              seven years after his return from the great bloodthirsty savages, whose country was be-                               point cast the boundary line had been fixed tion In the Summer of 1902, and this event who annually visit the Pacific Coast,                                                                                          No             PRACTICE before they began their successful career as SPECIAL-
              exploring expedition that has rendered the ing Invaded, though for their civilization                                 by the second article of the treaty of "Wash-                    should receive recognition and support from Summer any part                            watering        place of seaside or moun-
              names of Meriwether Lewis and "William and ultimate good. Such was the political                                      ington in 1842). reads as follows:                                the National Government,"                                               tain in                        of the United States fur-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              nishes any greater or better advantages for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ISTS. Theft are too honorable in their business dealings to DECEIVE
              Clark immortal, become Governor of Mis- status, emphasized by treat stipulation, as                                       "Shall     be continued westward along said
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         A SUFFERER, and have a reputation to maintain.
                                                                                                                                    49th parallel of north latitude to the middle                                                                                             rest and enjoyment than does the climate and
              souri Territory, serving in that capacity to Induce the belief on the part of Great                                   of the channel which separates the continent                                 THE OREGON COUNTRY."                                         scenery of Portland. Or.                                                                               They are conscientious, careful and painstaking doctors, and are
                                   and as Superintendent of Britain that the ultimate right to the whole
              from 1813 to 1S21, St-                                                                                                from Vancouver's Island, and then southerly                                                                                                  Tho name "Oregon."                    It has been a subject
              Indian Affairs at - Louis from 1822 until territory would bo determined, not so much                                  through the middle of said channel and                           The States of Oregon, Washington, Idaho among writers of and interesting to speculation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              of considerable                                                                            PERMANENTLY LOCATED IN PORTLAND. Any one who is the
              his death; while Captain Meriwether Lewis, by the question of priority of discovery                                              Straits to the Pacific Ocean."                                                                                                                               distinction as              the origin
              after passing through all the untold hard- exploration and settlement, hut rather by                                      This island Is located in the "channel" men-                    and Parts of Montana and Wyoming Can                                  of the name "Oregon."                      Some ot these havo                              least doubtful about their ability may deposit fee and PAY WHEN
              ships and perils of that memorable expedi-        the character and extent of settlement in                           tioned in this treaty, and the question at once                            Furnish Homes for 50,000,000.                                  declared with some degree of posltlveness that                                             CURED. They treat all PRIVATE, NERVOUS and CHRONIC DIS-
              tion, returned to servo a brief time as Gov- the years that should Intervene during the                               arose, and for a period of 25 years was a.                          An   exhibit of what the "Oregon Country"                             it is derived from the Spanish, signifying
              ernor of the Missouri Territory from 1807 period of Joint occupancy and before the                                    source of aggravating controversy between this is today, tho character, diversity and extent' "Wild Thyme." so called on account ot the                                                                                              EASES, and cure in a shorter time and for a smaller fee than any
              to 1800, and then, at a comparatively early final decision should be mado by arbitration                              country and Great Britain, at one time very of Its products, will Illustrate not only the abundance of that herb found by early ex-
              ago, to find a lonely grave in tho forests of or otherwise.                                                           nearly Involving the two nations In war, as present productive capacity, but the possl-bllit-                                             plorers.       Others Insist that it is an Indian                                          other doctor or institute in the NORTHWEST. Call if possible for
              Tennessee, cither as a felo de so, or as a          During this period two processes seemed                           to which was the "channel" referred to In
                                                                                                                                    the treaty. Great Britain, true to a national
                                                                                                                                                                                                                of that vast empire and Its capacity word in use about the headwaters of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                     to homes for 50,000.000 people. Even Columbia to designate the water of that river,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         free consultation and examination, or write. We treat successfully
              victim at tbe hand, ot an assassin, Just to inspire the Government ot Great Britain                                                                                                                                                                                                                        River of the West,"                              and confidentially by mail.
              which history has never yet definitely deter-     as a means of ultimately securing to her-                           tendency. Insisted that the "channel" referred                   then the density of the population will be and meaning the "Great by
              mined.    But whero, or when, or how they self the absolute ownership of the whole of                                 to In the treaty was on the south side of the considerably, less than that ot many European                                               and obtained from them                          Jonathan Carver,                                       Office Hours 9 to 12, 1:30 to 5, and 7 to 8. Sunday and Holi-
              died, they can each exclaim with the blind the vast "Oregon Country." One was to                                      Island, while the United States contended that countries.                       And is it not a fact that any a native of Connecticut in 1766-8-                                                    who spent
              poet of old, "Exegl monumentum aere               impress on our public men and the Govern-                           Haro Channel, on the north side of the island, enterprise that tends to facilitate the speedy two years among the Indians on the waters                                                                                               days 10 to 12.
                                                          ,     ment at "Washington In every possible man-                         was the main channel within the moaalng occupation and settlement of this prolific sec- of the Upper Mississippi, now the State ot
                                                                                                                                    of the treaty.                                                                                                                                                Carver's accounts, however. In
                Not only by succession to every right ner the alleged worthlessness of the terri-
              which both Franco and Spain had to the tory; the other was to push forward unre-
              "Oregon Country," cither In virtue of occu-       mittingly through tho instrumentality of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                     tion of the American domain will contribute
                                                                                                                                       This minor boundary controversy was finally not only vastly to the general welfare, pros-
                                                                                                                                   adjusted by the provision in our treaty with perity and happiness ot the people of this and unreliable, though In reference to this It
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              reference to many matters are contradictory                                               DR. W. NORTON DAVIS & CO.
              pation or otherwise, not only by the right great uovcrnmental organ, the Hudson's                                     Great Britain of May C. 1S71. submitting the country, but to the promotion of the best Is very probable that he was right. It is                                                                                                                        145V2 Sixth St., Corner Alder. PORTLAND, OR.
                                                                                                                                   question to the arbitration of the German and most exalted Interests of the Govern-                                                         more than probable that an article published
              of sovereignty which attaches to tbe dlscov- - I Bay Company, actual settlements la the                              Emperor, who on October 21, 1872, made his ment of tbe United States? And in this con-- about 01 years ago, in 1S42, in Hunt's Mag

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