Ancient Hebrews and Greece Prose Summary to Bullet Points

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					                       Prose Summary to Bullet Points
                                     Ancient Hebrew
Judaism was the first monotheistic religion
based on the concept of one God who sets
down moral laws for humanity. Two books, the
Hebrew Bible and The Commentaries or the
Talmud, are the sources of teachings and
central beliefs of Judaism.

Origin of Judaism
The Hebrew Bible tells the history of Judaism.
It gives the account of the Israelites', or
Hebrew, relationship with God in their history
from the beginning of time until the building of
the Second Temple in Jerusalem. It was the
first religion to denounce idol worship and
believe in only one God

Central Teachings and Beliefs
The Hebrew Bible: tells the history of the
Israelites from the beginning of the world until
the building of the Second Temple. Also gives
the Ten Commandments.The Talmud (Oral
Law): a set of commentaries, or rabbinic
discussions, on Jewish law, ethics, customs,
legends, and stories. It has two parts, the
Mishnah and Gemara.

These two religious materials show the basic
beliefs and teachings in Judaism: belief in
God—belief there is only one God
(monotheism) and he is the supreme
authorityobservance of law—the Ten
Commandments and other Jewish traditions
that have been passed down (Sabbath, Yom
Kippur, Hanukkah) practice of the concepts of
righteousness and justice—belief that a person
has to be just and righteous in their life to enter
heaven in the afterlife; also belief that God is
just and righteous in his decisions. importance
of study—this means the study of Jewish
history and beliefs through the Commentaries
and the Hebrew Bible. Emphasis on each
person's individual worth and personal
responsibility. Belief that all people must
adhere to the same moral obligations, whether
ruler or ruled.

In Judaism there are many important figures.
Below are a few important figures and their
contributions to the development of Judaism.
Abraham: known as the founding father of the
Israelites through his son Isaac. A critical
figure in Judaism, he was blessed by God and
promised great things, including that people all
over the world would worship God because of
his descendants. Moses: a legendary Hebrew
liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and
historian in the Jewish faith. According to the
Hebrew Bible, Moses led the Jews out of
Egypt and received the Ten Commandments
from God during their Exodus. The Ten
Commandments are laws that tell the Jews how
to lead their lives in worship with God.

The Jewish people have gone through many
trials. The Ancient Hebrews migrated to
different areas in the Middle East. They
suffered through slavery and religious
persecution. The Hebrew people are believed
to have originally lived in Mesopotamia.
Abraham formed a covenant with God and
moved with his followers to Canaan around
1800 B.C. Many Israelites, or Hebrews, moved
to Egypt in 1600 B.C. to escape famine. They
were held in slavery in Egypt until 1200s B.C.
Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt across the
Sinai Peninsula. They returned to Canaan at
1200 B.C. and settled the land. This is known
as the Exodus, and it is important to the Jewish
faith. The capital city of the kingdom of the
Hebrews. The temples were built in Jerusalem.
Romans conquered the area and lived
peacefully for a long time. Jewish revolts
against the Roman rule in the 1st century B.C.
led to most Jewish worship being forbidden.
The Romans destroyed the Second Temple in
70 A.D., forbade Jews from entering the city of
Jerusalem, and changed the region's name from
Israel to Palestine. With the Temple destroyed,
Jewish worship was centered around rabbis
instead of the Temple. As a result of this and
the removal from Jerusalem, Jews moved
farther out of Israel. This movement is called
the Diaspora.
                      Prose Summary to Bullet Points
                                    Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece was a land of geographical
separation, independent city-states, and trade.
Two large city-states, Athens and Sparta, had
very different societies and fought each other
during the Peloponnesian War.

Geography and City-States
Ancient Greece included the areas of present-
day Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Sicily, and
southern Italy. The physical geography of
Greece is very hilly and mountainous, which
separated the main cities of ancient Greece
from each other. Because cities and their
surrounding areas were so isolated,
independent governments known as a "polis,"
or city-state, formed. Each city-state was made
up of the city and surrounding area, and each
city-state governed itself. They could trade
with other city-states by using the
Mediterranean Sea or the Aegean Sea, because
it was hard to cross over the land to get from
one city-state to another. The city-states also
traded heavily with Egypt and other
civilizations on the Mediterranean.

Athens was the largest city in ancient Greece
and served as its cultural, commercial, and
intellectual center. Many schools of philosophy
were started in Athens. Politically, it was home
to the first democracy. Athenian democracy
allowed citizens to vote directly on the bill or
law, instead of voting on representatives to
decide on the bill or law. During the Persian
War, Athens grew to an unchallenged naval
and commercial power, as it used its naval
power to drive out the Persian fleet. The
citizens of Athens also came to other cities' aid
during the Persian War.
Sparta was another ancient city-state. The
people of Sparta were believed to be the
descendants of Hercules and had the best army
in ancient Greece. They were a military city-
state; all men participated in the army, and
education was focused on strength and
obedience. It was the most powerful state
before the Persian Wars. Sparta was never
taken over by the Persians, and they went to
war with Athens in the Peloponnesian War.

Peloponnesian War
In 431 B.C., a war broke out between Athens
and Sparta. The cause was a dispute between
Corinth and one of its colonies that Athens
intervened in, and Athens and Sparta had
resentment towards each other. The
Peloponnesian War lasted 27 years. Because
Athens was a naval power and Sparta was a
land-based military power, they found it hard
at first to fight battles. Athens suffered a
plague during the war, and eventually Sparta
built up their naval power. Athens surrendered
in 401 B.C. and lost her city walls, fleet, and
overseas possessions. Spartan support led to
the takeover of anti-democratic power in

Politics in Ancient Greece moved from tyranny
to an oligarchy to democracy. The Greeks
developed city-states and invented the idea of
citizenship. They are the forefathers of many
modern democracies.

Tyranny: The aristocracy, who were
landowners, formed the government in each
city of Ancient Greece. They spent most of
their rule fighting inter-city wars over land.
They were replaced by merchants.

Oligarchy: The merchant class became more
powerful as money came into ancient Greek
society. They ruled as an oligarchy, meaning
the government power is with a small group of
people. They ruled until the 600s B.C.

Democracy: Early forms of democracy in
ancient Greece came out of the formation of
city-states. City-states are areas of land, usually
with one large city and some surrounding
smaller towns, who govern like a nation.
Athens was one of the first to have a
democracy. Athenian democracy allowed
citizens of Athens to vote on legislation and
bills, instead of voting on representatives to
choose for them which bills to vote for.

Alexander the Great: Alexander, and his
father, wanted dominance over all of Greece.
They were both dictators over the North, but
wanted the cities of Athens, Thebes, and
Sparta. The cities had resisted Alexander's
father, but Alexander invaded them and took
them over. These city-states lost their own
governing rights and fell under the rule of
Alexander. He ruled as dictator of Greece until
323 B.C. The empire fell apart shortly after
that, and eventually Greece came under Roman

    The idea of citizenship comes from
Athenian democracy. In Athens, only men who
were not slaves and who were from Athens had
citizenship. These men could vote and
participate in politics in Athens. This idea
spread to some of the other Greek cities before
Alexander the Great controlled all of Greece in
his empire.

Many men contributed to the ancient Greek
society. They contributed in the fields of art,
science, philosophy, and politics. Alexander
the Great even spread Greek culture into Egypt
and other lands.
Alexander the Great: one of the most
successful military commanders in world
history. He conquered ancient Greece and the
Persian Empire. His empire spread from
Greece to the south into Egypt and the east as
far as parts of India. Greek culture also spread
throughout his empire. Greek was spoken in
Egypt, Syria, Iran, and Bactria. As Greeks
traveled to new cities, they brought their
agricultural experience and their love of art,
literature, philosophy, and science.

Aristotle: an ancient Greek philosopher, he
studied with Plato and taught Alexander the
Great. He is one of the most influential of the
ancient Greek philosophers. He wrote many
texts that are still studied today and was
founder and teacher at a school known as the

Euclid: a mathematician, he lived in
Alexandria, Egypt, and is considered the father
of geometry. He developed properties of
geometrical objects and inspired the
development of the axiomatic method of
modern mathematics.

Hypatia: a female philosopher, mathematician,
and teacher who lived in Alexandria and whose
works have not survived. She is often
referenced in other works and was of the
Platonic school of thought. She is possibly the
inventor of the astrolabe, an instrument used in
locating and predicting the positions of the
Sun, Moon, planets, and stars, and the
hydrometer, an instrument that determines the
specific gravity of liquids.

Plato: one of the most influential ancient
Greek philosophers, he was a student of
Socrates. He wrote many philosophical dialogs
and founded the Academy in Athens where
Aristotle studied. He wrote on many
philosophical issues, especially politics, ethics,
metaphysics (the science that tries to describe
the world), and epistemology (the study of the
nature, origin, and scope of knowledge).

Socrates: a Greek philosopher who taught
Plato, he is known mostly through Plato's
dialogs. His contribution to philosophy and
education is the Socratic Method, which he
applied to the examination of moral concepts
like Good and Justice. In this method,
questions are posed to help a person or group
to find their underlying beliefs and extent of
their knowledge.

Thucydides: an ancient Greek historian, he
wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War,
which tells of the 5th century B.C. war
between Athens and Sparta. It is a classic and
represents the first work of its kind. It includes
the famous speech Pericles' Funeral Oration,
which is a praise of citizenship and politics.

Ancient Greek literature includes stories of
Greek mythology and epics. Mythology is a
group or collection of myths, or stories, that
belong to a certain culture and discuss the
origin, history, deities, ancestors, and heroes of
that culture. Epics are long poems that are
centered on a hero and involve a series of
achievements or events about that hero.
Greek Mythology
   Greek mythology came from a religion of
many gods, or polytheism. The Greeks
believed the most important gods lived on Mt.
Olympus. Many of the Greek myths told
stories that explain nature and natural events,
though some also told of wars and historical
events. They also explained the origin of the
world and different things in the world.
According to Greek mythology, the first gods
were the Titans, though the main god became
Zeus. Zeus was believed to be the god of the
sky and thunder, and he was leader of the other
gods. The goddess of wisdom was named
Athena, and Poseidon was the god of the sea.
The Greeks built temples and sculptures of
their gods and goddesses.
Greek Literature
    The Greeks created many different forms of
literature that still exist today. They wrote lyric
poetry, which is the poetry most people are
familiar with. They also wrote epic poetry,
such as The Iliad and The Odyssey. Greek
theater included tragedy and comedy, and the
actors wore different face masks to represent
which character they were playing or what
emotions the characters were experiencing.

Aesop's Fables: a collection of fables credited
to Aesop, a slave and story-teller in ancient
Greece. They are tales that include personified
animals and are the source for moral education
of children even today. The fables include The
Fox and the Grapes, where the term "sour
grapes" comes from, The Tortoise and the
Hare, and The Boy Who Cried Wolf. They are
known throughout the world.

The Iliad: a Greek epic describing the siege of
the city of Troy (also called Ilium) in the
Trojan War, attributed to Homer. The story
includes Greek gods and goddesses, and it
shows heroes both on the side of the Greeks
(Agamemnon, Achilles) and the Trojans
(Hector, King Priam). The story would have
been passed down orally before being written
down, and so there are many memory devices
used throughout the long poem.

The Odyssey: a Greek epic about the return trip
of Odysseus after the Trojan War, attributed to
Homer. It includes Greek gods and goddesses
and tells of mythical creatures and lands, like
the Sirens, Scylla and Charybdis, and Cyclops.
Odysseus is the hero of the story, and he is
trying to get home to his son and wife. The
story would have been passed down orally
before being written down, and so there are
memory devices used throughout the long

The Persian Empire consists mostly of the
land now known as Iran. The empire also
expanded out to Greece and other lands during
different emperors' reigns.

Founding the Persian Empire
   The Persian Empire was created by the
Achaemenids around 700 B.C. It started in
present-day Iran and quickly grew because of
bold leaders. It became the largest and most
powerful empire the world had seen, stretching
from India to Greece, and including parts of
Egypt. It was the first time people of different
cultures were under one ruler.

Greece and the Persian Empire
   The Persian Empire took over many parts of
Greece in the mid 6th century B.C. The Greeks
rose in revolt in 499 B.C., and in 478 B.C. the
Athenians captured Byzantium, a main port
city of the Persian Empire. Athens became
unchallenged as a naval and commercial
power, and the Persian Empire began
withdrawing from Greece and starting its

The End of the Persian Empire
    The greatest empire of its time started to fall
after Alexander the Great attacked it. It took
only eight years for the entire Persian Empire
to collapse and fall under the rule of
Alexander. Alexander captured many areas
before taking the capital at Susa. He founded
many cities that helped bring Greek culture
into Persia. After Alexander's death, his empire
was broken into pieces, most of which fell to
Roman rule

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