Additional file 2 - Background characteristics of additional

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Additional file 2 - Background characteristics of additional Powered By Docstoc
					Additional file 2 - Background characteristics of additional costing studies

              Barzgar et al.   Berggren [21]    Calderon-       Creese [24]    Cutts et     Khan et al.     Levin CE et     Linkins et al. [30]   Paxman et al.   Rask et al. [27]   Tulchinsky
              [20]                              Ortiz et al.                   al. [25]     [22]            al. [23]                              [26]                               et al. [28]
                                                [29]

Area          Pakistan         Deschapelles,    Tixtla,         16             Mozambi      Dhaka,          Indonesia       One urban and         Slums of        Atlanta,           Hebron
studied       (districts of    Haiti            Guerrero,       municipaliti   que          Bangladesh      (Provinces of   one rural area of     Kolkata,        Georgia, USA       district,
              Chakwal,                          Mexico          es in Brazil                                East Java,      Egypt                 Punjab and                         West Bank
              Malir and                                                                                     West Nusa                             Himachal                           and Gaza
              Mastung in                                                                                    Tenggara, and                         Pradesh,                           Strip
              the provinces                                                                                 Yogyakarta)                           Uttaranachal,
              of Punjab,                                                                                                                          India
              Sindh and
              Balochistan)

Timing        1994-1995        1968-1972        April-Dec.      Jan. – June    1986         1996            Aug 2000 –      1993                  1999-2003       Sept. 1, 1996 –    1985-1996
of the                                          1994            1982                                        July 2001                                             Mar. 31, 1998
study

Type of       Training of a    Delivery of      Promotion and   Routine,       Door-to-     Vaccine         Home vs.        Campaign;             NGO service     Immunisation       Promotion
interventi    new cadre of     vaccination      delivery of     intensified,   door         promotion       facility        promotion and         provision for   Registry to        of PHC and
on            health worker    via clinics in   vaccination     and            vaccine      and delivery    vaccination     delivery of           vaccine         promote            vaccines
              to deliver       major outdoor                    campaign       promotio                     delivery        vaccines              delivery        vaccination
              vaccinations     markets                          delivery of    n                                                                                  uptake
              and PHC                                           vaccines

Type of       Female           Literate lay     CHWs*           Workers        Communi      EPI             Midwives        Community             Community       Children were      Village
LHW           health           persons                          from           ty           Vaccinator at                   workers               health          randomized to      health
              workers          recruited on a                   schools, and   representa   NGO and                                               volunteers      one of four        guide/provid
                               day-labour                       private and    tives; lay   Govt of                                                               study arms, two    er of
                               basis                            voluntary      individual   Bangladesh                                                            of which           primary
                                                                organization   s from       static and                                                            included           health care
                                                                               workplac                                                                           outreach
                                                                               es and                                                                             worker1 (LHW)


1
    The outreach worker is the lay health worker in this instance.
                                                            s             schools      outreach sites                                                        phone call        to villages
                                                                                                                                                             follow-up and
                                                                                                                                                             computer-
                                                                                                                                                             generated
                                                                                                                                                             telephone
                                                                                                                                                             messages with
                                                                                                                                                             outreach worker
                                                                                                                                                             backup.

Training   Basic           On the job,     Unknown          Unknown       Training     EPI- and         Already         Unknown/ Not       Two-weeks,        Unknown           EPI- and
           training over   taught and                                     for          recurrent        trained         stated             with additional                     recurrent
           3 months and    supervised by                                  mobilizati   training                                            subsequent                          training
           for one week    full-time                                      on                                                               training (not
           a month for a   employees of                                                                                                    defined)
           year after,     hospital
           including       community
           community       health
           organization,   department
           health
           education
           and
           promotion
           and
           vaccination
           of infants
           against six
           diseases.

Comparat   (Implicitly)    Usual care      Centrally        Compared      Usual        NGO-run          10-dose vial    House visit vs.    Usual care        Usual care        None
or(s)      Usual care                      planned          each          care         and              of Hep B with   fixed-site polio                     (doing nothing
                                           strategy of      strategy to                Government       disposable      vaccine delivery                     beyond normal
                                           temporarily      each other                 of               syringe                                              clinical
                                           contracting of                              Bangladesh-      administered                                         procedure)
                                           individuals to                              run static and   at health
                                           catch-up                                    outreach         facilities
                                           vaccination                                 facilities.      (usual care)
                                           schemes, as
                                           needed (not
                                           regularly
                                           scheduled)
Study       Cost analysis   Cost analysis     Comparison        Comparison       Cost         Evaluation       Cost analysis      Cost comparison      Cost analysis     Cost comparison     Evaluation
type                                                                             analysis

Vaccines    Six             Neonatal          Routine           Oral polio,      BCG,         Routine          Hepatitis B        Oral polio vaccine   Routine           Routine             Routine
delivered   childhood       tetanus           childhood         measles,         DTP,         childhood        birth dose                              childhood         childhood           childhood
            immunisation                      vaccines          DTP, BCG         OPV,         immunisation                                             immunizations     vaccines            immunisatio
            s                                                                    measles,     s                                                                                              ns
                                                                                 TT

Age         Not stated      Neonates          Children <1 yr    Children of      Children     Children         Neonates           Children 0-5         Not stated        Children <1 yr      Children
group(s)                                      of age            all ages         12-23                         (administered      years old                              of age              and mothers
targeted                                                                         months                        within the first                                                              especially
                                                                                 and                           7 days of
                                                                                 mothers                       birth)

Perspecti   Not stated      Hospital          Healthcare        Healthcare       Healthcar    Healthcare       Health system      Government           NGO               Unknown             Healthcare
ve                          (inferred)        system            system           e system     providers                           health system        providing                             system
                                              (inferred)        (inferred)       (inferred)   (stated)                                                 services                              (inferred)

Study       Capital cost    Authors           Intervention      Cost per         Cost per     NGO static       The use of         Cost per child       Average cost      Outreach            On average,
outcome     of              assume 2320       strategy of       fully            fully        facilities       village            vaccinated (US$):    per service of    (registry based):   each VHR
and cost    recruitments,   cases of          using 2 people    immunized        vaccinate    were more                                                $3.11 (service    $1.87               costs $3.66
results     training and    tetanus were      known to the      child ($US):     d child:     cost-effective   midwives to        Fixed-site           includes child                        per villager
            deployment      avoided,          community 1-                       $6.90        (US$ 11.50)      administer a       delivery urban;      immunization,     Autodialer          in one-time
            of each         resulting in 41   2 times a week    Polio: 2.04                   than the         birth dose         House-to-house       family            (registry based):   start-up
            female health   140 days of       to cover an       (campaign)                    government       using the          delivery urban       planning, safe    $1.34               costs, and
            worker was      hospital care     area              – 4.77                        static           Uniject device     and rural: 0.11      motherhood                            $6.18 per
            US$ 386         averted, which    containing 100    (routine)                     facilities                                               and limited       Combination         villager per
            (1994);         at US$12          children for                                    (US$ 12.93).     during a home      Fixed-site           curative care).   (registry based):   year to
            inputs for      allows re-        US$ 12.70 per                                   The NGO          visit is cost-     delivery rural:                        $2.76               operate.
            salaries,       distribution of   person per                                      outreach sites   saving when        0.14                                                       This covers
            essential       US$494 000.       week versus                                     were also        the wastage                                                                   all care that
                                                                Measles:
            drugs,          Ratio of          as needed,                                      more cost-       rates of the                                                                  is provided
                                                                1.74
            supervision     control cost to   resulted in                                     effective than   multi-dose                                                                    free-of-
                                                                (intensificati
            and other       cost of no        only 42 days                                    the                                                                                            charge and
                                                                on) – 4.63                                     vial               Cost per high-
            recurrent       control was       needed to                                       government       alternative are                                                               includes
                                                                (routine)                                                         risk child
            costs were      1:7 (dollar       cover 100                                       outreach sites   more than                                                                     vaccines,
            estimated to    value of          children vs the                                 (US$ 9.80                           vaccinated (0-1                                            iron,
                                                                                                               33%.               OPV doses
            be $1.13 per    treatment         control group                                   and US$                                                                                        vitamins,
            female health   costs averted     which needed                                    10.07 per                           received) (US$):                                           ORS, blood
            worker.         was more than     60 days,                                        MVC                                                                                            tests and
                            7 times the       resulting in a                                                                      Fixed-site                                                 screening
                                                                                                                                  delivery urban:
                          cost of the     cost of                                    respectively).                   3.20                                        tests (for
                          programme).     US$533.43                                                                                                               PKU and
                                          (intervention)                                                              Fixed-site                                  hypothyroid
                                          vs US$762.05.                                                               delivery rural:                             ism).
                                                                                                                      6.31

                                                                                                                      House-to-house
                                                                                                                      delivery urban:
                                                                                                                      1.46

                                                                                                                      House-to-house
                                                                                                                      delivery rural:
                                                                                                                      1.51



Evaluatio   Not stated    Grant           NA               Not stated   Not stated   Department       Children’s      Not stated        Not stated   CDC          Terre des
n funded                  Foundation of                                              for              Vaccine                                                     Hommes,
by                        Pittsburgh,                                                International                                                                Israeli
                          Pennsylvania                                               Development      Program of                                                  Cancer
                                                                                     (DfID), UK       the Program                                                 Society,
                                                                                                      for                                                         UNICEF,
                                                                                                      Appropriate                                                 WHO
                                                                                                      Technology in
                                                                                                      Health

                                                                                                      (PATH)

* Two locally recruited known and knowledgeable residents, compensated at US$12.70 a day, employed for 1-2 days a week. For the purpose of this review, Mexican pesos
(N$)were converted to US$ based on the exchange rate at the mid-point of the study period, August 1, 1994 (N$ 1 = US$ 0.294).

				
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