America in the 19th Century by 22AThu


									General Information…
  • Started on July 28, 1914
  • Ended on November 11, 1918

  • Almost 8,000,000 dead.
       *** Russia the most = 1.7 million
  • Almost 22,000,000 wounded…..

• Map of Europe greatly changed.
Reasons for start of war…
Extreme nationalism – pride in country
Militarism – building up military
Alliance system - <KEY REASON>
  European powers formed rival
  alliances to protect themselves
  PROBLEM? One event could drag
  all countries involved into a
        The Black Hand..
The main objective of
the Black Hand was the
creation, by means of
violence, of a Greater
 Its stated aim was: "To
realize the national
ideal, the unification of
all Serbs. This
organization prefers
terrorist action to
cultural activities; it will
therefore remain
The spark that lit
   the fuse….
The one event that started the Great War
happened in the Balkans.
The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) was
assassinated while visiting Serbia.
The Black Hand was responsible….
      Kaiser Wilhelm II

“You will be
 home before
 the leaves
 have fallen
 from the
The War Begins
  Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife
  assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist,
  Gavrilo Princip (June 28).
  Austria declares war on Serbia (July 28).
  Germany declares war on Russia (Aug. 1), on
  France (Aug. 3), invades Belgium (Aug. 4).
  Britain declares war on Germany (Aug. 4).
  Germans defeat Russians in Battle of Tannenberg on
  Eastern Front (Aug.).
  First Battle of the Marne (Sept.).
  German drive stopped 25 miles from Paris. By end of
  year, war on the Western Front is “positional” in the
Outbreak of War
Balkan trigger
  Serbs revolt/backed by Russians
  Austria suppressed Serbs
  Serbian killed Austrian heir
War (domino effect)
  Austria declared war on Serbia
  Russia declared war on Austria
  Germany joined with Austria          Archduke Ferdinand
  France and Britain declared war on        on day of
  Austria and Germany                     assassination
Conduct of War
German attack in the
French counter-attack but
are pushed back
Russian speed of
mobilization surprised
Germans so Germany was
forced to move some
troops to the Eastern
Stagnation and trench
warfare in the West
  German submarine blockade of Great Britain begins
  Dardanelles Campaign—British land in Turkey (April),
withdraw from Gallipoli (Dec.–Jan. 1916).
  Germans use gas at second Battle of Ypres (April–May).
  Lusitania sunk by German submarine—1,198 lost,
including 128 Americans (May 7).
  On Eastern Front, German and Austrian “great
offensive” conquers all of Poland and Lithuania;
Russians lose 1 million men (by Sept. 6).
  “Great Fall Offensive” by Allies results in little change
from 1914 (Sept.–Oct.).
  Britain and France declare war on Bulgaria (Oct. 14).
Trench Warfare
 The two armies dug trenches to protect
 themselves from bullets and bombs.
 Then they put up mazes of barbed wire around
 the trenches. The area between the trenches was
 called "no man's land.“
 Soldiers ate and slept in the trenches.
 First one side, and then the other would try to
 break through at some point along the line.
 It was very difficult for either side to win a battle
 this way, and trench warfare claimed many lives.
Trench Warfare
  Technology superior to tactics
   Machine gun versus a human charge
   through "No man's land"
   New technology = poison gas,
  Very high death rates
   Battle of the Somme = 600,000 allied and
   500,000 German dead for 125 miles of land
   Battle of Verdun = 700,000 killed on both
   sides with no gain in territory
Trench Warfare
  From Erich Remarque's All Quiet
  on the Western Front
  "We see men living with their skulls
   blown open; we see soldiers run with
   their two feet cut off… Still the little
   piece of convulsed earth in which we
   lie is held. We have yielded no more
   than a few hundred yards of it as a
   prize to the enemy. But on every
   yard there lies a dead man."
Russian Revolution
Unhappiness with the war
among the Russian people
  Germany/Austria beating
Changes in government
  Lenin transported
  Mensheviks (moderates)
Bolshevik counter revolution
Russia withdraws from war
  Germany ready to have a
  single front war
Wider Involvement
  Ottomans (Turkey) entered war in
  1915 on side of the Central Powers
   Wanted to acquire Russian territory
   Turkey slaughtered millions of
   Armenians to get their land
   Britain wanted to protect trade routes
   to India
    • Arabs promised their own country if they
      would join with Britain against the
May 17, 1915
   May 7, 1915 brought the United States into World
   War I. A German submarine sank the British ocean
   liner Lusitania off the coast of Ireland.
   More than 1,000 passengers were killed, including
   128 Americans.
   The people of the United States were shocked!
   Wilson did not declare war, but instead asked
   Germany for an apology, for damages to be paid, and
   for a promise not to attack any more passenger
   Italy then entered the war for the Allies and attacked
   Austria-Hungary from the south.
Sinking the Lusitania: 1915
   In February, 1915, the German government
   announced an unrestricted warfare campaign.
   This meant that any ship taking goods to
   Allied countries was in danger of being
   This broke international agreements that
   stated commanders who suspected that a
   non-military vessel was carrying war
   materials, had to stop and search it, rather
   than do anything that would endanger the
   lives of the occupants.
Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 cont.
   The Lusitania, was at 32,000 tons, the
   largest passenger vessel on
   transatlantic service, left New York
   harbour for Liverpool on 1st May, 1915.
   It was 750ft long, weighed 32,500 tons
   and was capable of 26 knots. On this
   journey the ship carried 1,257
   passengers and 650 crew.
Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 cont.
   At 1.20pm on 7th May 1915, the U-20, only ten miles
   from the coast of Ireland, surfaced to recharge her
   Soon afterwards Captain Schwieger, the commander
   of the German U-Boat, observed the Lusitania in the
   distance. Schwieger gave the order to advance on
   the liner. The U20 had been at sea for seven days
   and had already sunk two liners and only had two
   torpedoes left.
   He fired the first one from a distance of 700 metres.
   Watching through his periscope it soon became clear
   that the Lusitania was going down and so he decided
   against using his second torpedo.
Sinking the Lusitania: 1915 cont.
  After a second, larger
  explosion, the
  Lusitania rolled over
  and sank in eighteen
  minutes. A total of
  1,198 people died
  (785 passengers and
  413 crew). Those
  killed included 128 US
"The World In Shambles"
   "It is a fearful thing to lead this great
   peaceful people into war.... but the right is
   more precious than peace, and we shall fight
   for the things which we have always carried
   nearest our hearts."
   Woodrow Wilson
What was the job of George Creel
during the war?
  His job was to sell
  America the war.
  Creel tried to “whip”
  up support for
  Wilson’s ideas
  Help US raise money
  to fight
United States
 War at sea initiated US involvement
  Americans initially supplied both the
  Allies and the Central Powers
  Blockade brought sinking of US ships
  Germans killed 1000 Americans
  Americans entered the war on side of
  the Allies
 Tipped the balance in trench warfare
  General Jack Pershing
End of the War
 Battle of Argonne broke
 German morale
 Versailles Peace Treaty
   70 nationalities
   Woodrow Wilson (League of
   Britain and France desires
    • Fence Germany in
    • Reparations
    • Mandates over other territories
   Division of German colonies
   German reaction
    • Too harsh
    • Felt justified in the war
   Seeds of WWII planted
The Big Four Leaders of World War I

    The Big Four
   Leaders gathered
   at Versailles in
   January 1919 to
   write a formal
   treaty for peace.
Woodrow Wilson
 Woodrow Wilson, the President of the
 United States at the time of war,
 represented the United States in Versailles
 He had a difficult time convincing the other
 three leaders to accept his idea of peace
 without victory. Wilson was forced to agree
 that Germany had caused the war.
David Lloyd George
   David Lloyd George was the British
   Prime Minister who represented the
   United Kingdom.
   During their talks, George put the
   needs of his own nation first.
Vittorio Orlando
   Vittorio Orlando, the Italian Prime
   Minister, also put the needs of his
   nation first during talks.
Georges Clemenceau
  Georges Clemenceau,
  the French Premier,
  wanted to make
  Germany pay for the
  entire cost of the war
  since most of the
  fighting took place on
  French soil.
Figure 31.1: Approximate Comparative Losses in World War I

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