2012 T1 W8 Lecture Notes & Homework
Note to Students:
This week’s lecture worksheet will be discussed during the PW lecture in T1W8.
BEFORE the lecture, attempt to answer the questions on your own, so that you will be able
to follow the lecture well.
1. This worksheet deals with Problem Selection & Phrasing
Good & bad topic choices
Categorizing the causes of a problem
Identifying the gap in current measures & selecting the right case study
1. During the lecture, examples of real life attempts to make a difference through
Planned Wellness will also be presented. You need to take notes on your own.
DO NOT use electronic recording devices or cameras.
These exercises are based on the 2011 Task, “CONFLICT”.
Assume that the problem you have chosen to deal with is the conflicting demands on
their time faced by Singaporean working adults in Singapore.
Apply all that you learnt about SMUG, HOPE and ADORE in last week’s lecture.
2011 Task “Conflict”
This project task asks you to show how an understanding of conflicts may be of help in
resolving conflicts in the future.
Identify one conflict (in politics, human interaction etc). Explain its main causes and
analyse the positive and negative effects which resulted.
Suggest how lessons learned might help resolve future conflicts.
1. Identify the parts of the 1st bullet which might take up a lot of words but might be
irrelevant to the 2nd bullet (i.e. the selected problem or the proposal). How can this
waste of words be avoided?
2. Your group has drawn up the table below of things to do to fulfill the task
requirements. Identify which steps will earn marks for
- Analysis & Evaluation
- Generating Insightful Ideas
NOTE: Some steps may earn marks in more than one area.
What to do Do this to
Craft a SMUG problem statement
- Gather data and opinions by experts about the types & causes of
time-conflicts faced by working adults in your country
- Justify which particular time-conflicts you are most concerned about.
- Evaluate their causes based on comments & studies on the local
situation by experts.
- Consider if there are other causes by analyzing studies by other
experts about time conflicts faced by working adults (i.e. not only
experts speaking about your country)
- Analyse which causes need to be managed urgently because of a
possible Significant positive or negative consequence
- Evaluate the effectiveness of current measures (e.g. are time
management workshops organized by bosses for their workers really
- Identify the unaddressed gap (e.g. the biggest cause of time-conflict
is because workers have to please their over-demanding bosses at
the expense of time for family. So the unaddressed gap to be
addressed is actually bosses paying lip service to work-life balance.)
- Justify the kind of outcome or objective you want to achieve through
- Justify the kind of Case study you want to use where unrealistic
conflicting demands (not necessarily involving time) were resolved
Identify the HOPE Case Study
- Gather and analyse information on the RELEVANT positive &
negative effects of the way the Conflict in the Case Study was
handled. These are RELEVANT to the problem situation that you are
Frame the ADORE proposal
- A multi-prong proposal that has short term impact (to raise
awareness) as well as longer term impact to correct some of the
wrong attitudes and behaviours
- ADORE Reasons (supported with logic & research) to support the
Proposal; the mini-trial methodology; cite other experts & relevant
- Conduct a sensible Focus Group Discussion and evaluate outcomes
- Refine the proposal after FGD; conduct a mini-trial with the relevant
target group after refining the FGD outcomes; analyse the mini-trial
Beyond the basic Proposal
- Your group decides to briefly consider how to extend the proposal to
other related fields
- Your group anticipates briefly how to rejuvenate and refresh the
Proposal Ideas over the next few years as fashion or people’s tastes
- Your group gives brief reasons for the above based on research &
3. Look at the two problem statements below. They both fulfill SMUG requirements, but
one is better than the other. Select the better one. How can it be made even better?
NOTE: The samples below have been summarized. A good problem statement may
actually sometimes take up to 3 paragraphs.
Sample A Sample B
According to sociologists, Singaporeans are very busy people with
Singaporeans are very busy people little time for social interaction. They face
with little time for social interaction. many conflicting demands on their time:
Government ministers often remind
they need to work hard as the cost of
us that we need to work hard as the
cost of living is very high and living is very high and competition for
competition for jobs is extremely jobs is extremely keen, especially with
keen, especially with the influx of the influx of cheaper “foreign talent” and
cheaper “foreign talent” and “foreign “foreign labour”. Working long hours to
labour”. Working long hours to impress the boss and attending skills
impress the boss and attending skills upgrading courses to keep up with new
upgrading courses to keep up with
new development, Singaporeans development, Singaporeans often make
often make sacrifices in family life. If sacrifices in family life. If something is
something is not done to rectify this not done to rectify this problem, we are
problem, we are headed for a
headed for a catastrophic emergency
catastrophic emergency situation.
4. After your group crafts a properly researched Problem Statement and selects the
Case Study, you decide to write a linking paragraph to introduce the Case Study.
Which of the following would make a good linking paragraph between the problem
statement and the case study? Why?
Sample A Sample B
Our chosen case study about Our group intends to address the
financial planning has seen difficulty that Singaporeans face in
considerable success, and this is managing their limited time by looking at
largely due to the solutions taking
a preventive approach. We aim to focus
into consideration the priorities of all
involved, before coming up with a on helping teenagers while they are still
compromised resolution. This is in school, to learn how to prioritise their
exactly what our problem requires as time and to cultivate the right values, so
well, as there are many conflicting that difficult choices about conflicting
demands on the limited time that we demands will be easier to handle when
have. All of these demands are they are adults. A parallel situation where
important “stake-holders” in our lives
this has been somewhat successfully
and to neglect any would result in a
decline in our quality of life, be it attempted is in how financial planners
work, social or family life. advise clients on their investment
Furthermore, the solutions employed decision. In both cases, there are
in the case study of financial planning conflicting demands and choices. We will
are somewhat reflective of what we use the decision-making process of
will be hoping to implement for our financial planners as our case study to
problem, and therefore it would be
teach students how to make decisions
useful for us to evaluate these
solutions and apply them accordingly. regarding their management of time
among the conflicting demands.
5. Besides the Case Study above, select ONE of the following as an alternative Case
Study for the problem statement in Q. 4 above. Justify your choice.
(a) How the United Nations settles conflicts – e.g. United Nations Assistance Mission for
(b) How marriage conflicts are managed by Singapore Mediation Centre under the
Matrimonial Mediation Scheme
(c) How Consumer Association of Singapore (CASE) mediates in conflicts between
consumer and retailer
(d) How People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) deals with conflicts
between human convenience in animal testing, consumption of endangered species
etc and the need for humane treatment of animals.
(e) How Singapore Sports School manages conflict between the need to nurture sporting
talent and need to ensure that students achieve academic qualifications
(f) Preservation of Monuments Board (Singapore) – deals with conflict between need to
conserve heritage and need to use land for expanding population.
6. Study the groups of problems listed below. Identify which (if any) would be good
choices for PW problems, and explain why. Likewise, explain why the remaining
problems would not be good choices. There may be more than one correct answer in
some cases. The first has been done as an example.
Be inspired by the Peaceful Warrior’s wish based on advice given to you in your 1st
The Peaceful Warrior’s Plaintive Wish
Let me have the discernment
To leave the problems I cannot change
Courage to propose solutions for those I can
And wisdom to know the difference.
Addressing one SMUG Problem at a time
Using one HOPEful Case Study
To frame an ADOREable proposal.
(a) Poverty in Singapore
(b) Lack of support for the destitute elderly in Singapore
Answer: (b) has more potential for something specific to be maximised or minimised. It
could be even more specific if it focused on lack of a particular type of support (e.g.
financial or medical or housing etc).
(a) Inaccessibility of health screening for the elderly in Singapore
(b) Aging population in Singapore
(c) Declining mental health/well-being of elderly in Singapore
(d) Social exclusion of the elderly in Singapore
(a) Lack of employment opportunities for the disabled in Singapore
(b) Neglect of the disabled in Singapore
(a) Increasing number of PRs and foreign workers in Singapore
(b) Lack of interaction opportunities between foreigners and Singaporeans
(a) Inadequate nutritional awareness in young Singaporeans
(b) Unhealthy lifestyles of Singaporeans
(a) Apathy towards volunteerism in Singaporeans
(b) Lack of awareness of volunteer opportunities in Singapore
(a) Environmental Issues
(b) Lack of green awareness amongst Singaporeans
(a) Managing & Curing Depression among teenagers
(b) Raising awareness amongst Teenagers about Depression
(a) Financial management lessons for final year students in ITE, the polytechnics and at
(b) Addiction to shopping amongst young office workers.
(a) Absence of Singaporean culture
(b) Insufficient appreciation for local art in Singapore
(c) Absence of art appreciation in Singapore
(a) Increasing youth violence in Singapore
(b) Lack of meaningful interaction time between parents and children
2012 Term 1 Week 8 Tutorial
2012 PW Tutorial T1W8: Defining the problem; selecting a related case study
Note to Students:
This tutorial exercise is based simply on your existing knowledge. In your actual Project
Work for the ‘A’ Level exams, you will need to do a lot of research to check all facts and
assumptions, and substantiate all your claims.
1. Basic characteristics of a problem (for PW@HCI): SMUG
Give examples for each point below
Something positive to be maximized for a Significant beneficial outcome. Think of
good things in life that you wish could be enjoyed by more people.
Something negative to be minimized for a Significant beneficial outcome. Recall a
point of view held by some people, or a situation faced by some people, or any aspect of
life that disturbs you.
There is an Unaddressed Gap in the present measures.
2. A helpful way to think about problems.
In addressing a problem, the following steps are helpful:
(a) Select a problem situation that you care about. Do the research and provide logical
reasons why the problem exists. If possible, organise the causes or unaddressed
gaps or other details under sensible categories. E.g. logistics; perception; emotional;
monetary; ignorance; mindset; time etc.
(b) What is currently being done? Research & identify an Unaddressed Gap. Show that,
if left unaddressed, it will result in a significant negative outcome.
(c) Select the category / categories of causes that you wish to address, and why.
(d) Suggest a parallel Case Study
Some worked examples:
Read the 2 outline examples below that are based on the SMUG-HOPE-ADORE
approach to PW. Which parts of the method below do you think you would find most
challenging? Which parts of this approach would earn you marks for the following
categories: Substantiation; Analysis & Evaluation; Generating Ideas?
A situation that will improve if something negative were minimized
Decline in the practice of traditional cooking methods
What is the Problem
Consequence: Loss of heritage and cultural appreciation (to be
supported with secondary research)
Research on the - apathy
Causes and classify -ignorance; lack of information sources
under categories if -lack of time; busy lifestyle
Which of the above apathy & ignorance can be addressed, BUT can’t do much about
causes can be time
addressed in a PW
Research on what - Annual Food festivals
has been done or is -TV shows
currently done -Home Econs lessons
BUT all these are inadequate because...
The kind of Case A case study where attitudes toward something changed through an
Study required. event or campaign of some kind –
-Attitudes towards learning Mandarin
Study to Use. Why? -Attitudes about having large families (in the 1960s);
-Attitudes toward public hygiene;
Most -New enthusiasm for sports in Singapore after being offered
suitable/interesting opportunity to host YOG.
Case Study from the
Possible Proposal Basic Proposal (to be refined with insightful ideas!):
-Study the publicity methods that successfully got Singaporeans
enthusiastic about hosting YOG.
-Adapt similar methods to get Singaporeans excited about
preserving food culture in order to be listed on UNESCO cultural
Situation that will improve if something positive were maximized
Need to have a positive attitude toward exercise - Seeing exercise in
What is the Problem
a positive light & not as a chore
Consequence: If not addressed, people will tend to neglect it as they
Significant leave school and don’t have compulsory PE lessons. If addressed,
Consequence? people will enjoy better health.
Research on the -Current school experience of exercise is not fun enough according
Causes and classify to students
under categories if -Opportunities for exercise in the adult world are not fun
Which of the above Which would you like to address? What is the more Unaddressed
causes can be Gap? (Opportunities for exercise in adult world bec the former is
addressed in a PW already currently constantly re-evaluated by MOE & PE teachers)
Research on what PE Lessons
has been done or is
currently done Competitions e.g. New Paper Big Walk, Marathons etc
The kind of Case A case study where a situation that is associated with a business-like
Study required. atmosphere or attitude or a matter of necessity was re-framed as
something fun and enjoyable and non-competitive.
Possible Case E.g. Apple computers, iPhone etc – supposedly for work but also
Study to Use. Why? toys to be decorated & played with.
Case Study from
Possible Proposal Students to suggest…
3. In groups of 2-3, select a situation where there is something positive to be maximised
OR something negative to be minimised. Suggest how you would go about addressing
this ‘problem’ using the format above.