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					                                                  A nail                                  Will find nail in tyre


                                                                                 prediction
               what caused it ?
                                                 hypothesis
                                                   [suggestio
                                                       n]
                                                                                          Test prediction
                                   question
                                                                                           [experiment]
                                                                                                                   Look for nail

                                                           Form New
    E.g. Flat tyre                                         hypothesis
                          observation

                                                                                                   Result
                                                                                                                       No nail
                     SCIENTIFIC                                  Some other
                      METHOD                                       cause



                                                                             Hypothesis
                     limitations                                              NOT true
equipment
                                                                                                      conclusion
         Too many
         variables          Not enough
                                                                        Hypothesis
                               time
                                                                         UPHELD



                                                           If as predicted
                                                            [many times]
                                  Years of
                                   correct
                                 predictions
      Becomes a                from the theory      Develops into
    Principle / Law                                   a theory
                                                                          Except 1
                                                                                               Control
                                                                            being       =    Experiment
                                                                           tested
                                                      Must NOT
                                                       change

                                                                      What you change

                                                   Controls                             these change during
                                   Can change                                             the experiment
                                                              independent
                                     or be                                                       you measure
                                    changed                                 dependent               these

                                                        variables                             qualitative      quantitative

                                    Method
                                                                                                          Record
                                                                                   Result

                                                                                                      Write up
                       Aim--To
                         test a
                      hypothesis



                                                                              negative            positive
               EXPERIMENT                                                    Not predicted       As predicted
ethics

          Fair test
                                                         Conclusion
No bias                                                                                      Conclusion
                                      Need new
                                      hypothesis

                                                                                Hypothesis now
                                                                                  more likely

                                                                      Write a
                                                                      Report
                        Allows other to         Communicat
                          repeat your           e [Publish]
                          experiment
                     anabolic                                                             energy
      catabolic
                                       enzyme                                      Burning                      oxygen
                                      controlled              feeding
                                                                                    food
                  reactions                                                                        aerobic

                              metabolis                      nutrition
                                                           biochemistry          respiration
                                                                                microbiology
                               zoology
                                  m                                                                anaerobic
                                                                                                                 No oxygen

      nucleus
                     cells
DNA                                                   Characteristics
                                                        of Living                            excretion         waste removal
                                                         Things
                              death

                                reproductio                                               responsivene
                                     n                       growth                            ss
                                                                               movement                          reaction
            sexual                                 new
                                                                                                adaptations
                                                   cells
       variety           asexual                                Bigger cells
                                                                               for food, away
                                                                               from danger….
                                               metabolis
                                                  m
                                                    physiolog                           fungi
                                      chemistry
                                                         y                    viruses           bacteri
              animals                                                                              a
                                                biochemistry                  microbiology
                         zoology

     plants         botany

                                                                                        DNA
                                               A BIOLOGIST’S
   Organisms                                  Areas of Interest
       &                                                                            genetics            genetic
  environment           ecology                                                                       engineering
                                                                                  inheritance
         Natural                    Biology
        resources                                            Applied
                                                             biology
                         Study of
Pollution
                          Living
                          Things
                                                                               biotechnology
                                              horticulture
                                                                agriculture
                            lipids

                                               protein
     carbohydrates                                                                      nerves
                                                           Nucleic                                         chlorophyll
                                                            acids                  Na
                                                          DNA, RNA                                 Mg
                                     N
              C     H   O                      P                                                           Photosynthes
                                     S                                                                          is
                                                                                                   Cl
                                                                                                             osmosis
                                                                        minerals

                                                                                                              nerves
                                Main                                                               K
                                                          ELEMENTS                                            stomata

                                                                                                         Blood clotting
                                                                                              Ca
        New cells                                  NUTRITION                                             Middle lamella
                                                                                         I               Bone, teeth
                            FOOD
     growth                                                                                  Thyroxine


      metabolism
                        energy                                                                          haemoglobin
chemistry
            reactions                               H2O                       Trace           Fe

                                                   WATER
                                                                                        Cu          photosynthesis
                                     solvent
                                                             Slow to
                                                            heat/cool          Zn
                                     transport                                                   enzymes
                                             Medium for
                                               reactions
                                                        growth
     structural                  fat
                             LIPIDS
                                                 PROTEIN         enzymes
               energy
                                                                             Co-
                                                                           enzymes
    CARBOHYDRATE
                                                             VITAMINS

                              DIET [Functions]
                                                                       metabolism


                                                        MINERALS
         FIBRE
                  Roughage
constipation                                                       structural
                                   WATER

                              transport    metabolism
                         fruit                                                   seeds
                                               milk
sweets
                                                                                                        Table sugar
                         fructose                                               maltose
                                             lactose
         glucose
                                                                                                        sucrose
                              Monosaccharide
                              [simple sugar]                                   Disaccharide
                                                                                [2 sugars]                      in plants




                                                 CARBOHYDRATES                                       glycogen

                                                                                                                       Muscle,
                                                                                                                        liver


                                                                                 Polysaccharide                               Fuel
                                                                                 [many sugars]                                store
                    sugar + protein

                                             sugar + lipid                                                                  seeds
                                                                      cellulose                       starch
               Glycoprotein

plants                                 Glycolipid                          Plant
                                                                          cell wall            sugar +calcium
                     Surface of
                       cells
                                                  animals
                                                                                                      pectin
                                                                                      cement

                                                                   uses

           70 % of our
              diet                                                                                fuel (wood)

                         clothing (cotton,
                           linen, rayon),                                     paper, books and
                                                         housing
                                                                             packaging (wood).
                                                         (wood)
                                                                                                                       animals


                                                                                                   long chain,
                                                                                                    saturated                     Single
                                               adipose
                                                                                                                                  bonds
           Seeds

                                             insulation                                Fats
                    Energy store                                                                                                       plants
                                                                                                   Oils

                                                                                                                   Short chain,
                                                                     glycerol +                                    unsaturated
                                                                    3 fatty acids

                                                                                                                                       Double
 Vitamin A
                                                                                                                                       bonds

                                                            LIPIDS                             Phospholipids
                Carotenoids

                                                                                                    Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + P + N
Retinal[eye]
                                            Waxes
                                                                          No fatty                                                acetylcholine
                                                                          acid tails
                                                                                                      Cell membranes
                                   fatty acids +                                                                                         Nerves
                                   alcohol rings


                          waterproofing                                                 Sterols [4 carbon rings]


    Plant cuticle
                                                                                                                    cholesterol
                                   Skin, feathers                            Steroids
                                                                         [sex hormones]


                                                          testosterone                                           Bile salts
                                                                                       Vitamin D

                                                    oestrogen
                     skin
    tendon
                                  gelatine
                                                               Seeds
                                                                                  Egg
                Collagen                                                          white
                                           Cell
                                         membrane                                            Casein[milk
                                                                                                  ]
     Elastin                                                          Storage

                            Structural
 Blood                                                                                                      Red cell
vessels

                                                                                Transport             haemoglobin


                                               PROTEIN
                                                                                              homeostasis
                                              [Functions]
                                                                                                            buffers


                  Enzymes
                                                                                                             stabilising
                                                                                 Hormones                      the pH
    metabolis
       m                         Antibodies
                                                           Movement
                                                                                            insulin

                                                               Myosin
                       defence
                                                  Cilia,                                      Blood sugar
                                                 flagell               muscle
                                                    a
                                                                                                             support

                                                                         cell membrane
                                                                                                         turgor
photosynthesis               medium
                                                    transport                                              plasmolysi
                                                                                        osmosis
                                                                    diffusion                                  s
                 substrate


           joints                                                                              cytoplasm
                                   reactions
         mucu
                                                          solvent
          s                                                                        cells

                             lubricant

                                                                                                                  Maximum
                                                          WATER                            density                 at 4OC
    H+
                         molecule                                                                                  Only top layer freezes
          O--

    H+                                                                                               High heat capacity
                                                                           homeostasis
                                                                                                         remove wastes
                                   polarity

                                                                           dispersal
                  adhesion                   cohesion                                          spores
                                                 To                             seeds
                  To others
                                             themselves                                    gametes

                               capillarity                  Surface
                                                            tension
                 xylem
                                    transpiration
                                       stream
                                                       Blue-
                                                                      bread
                                                       black          pasta
 Brick-red
                              seeds                                   seeds
                                                                                         Muscle,
                                                       Iodine                             liver
Fehlings +                  maltose
   heat                                                                       glycogen
                                                             starch
                           disaccharide
                                                                                                    Cell wall
    glucose
                                                                                cellulose
                                                  polysaccharide                                      fibre
    monosaccharide
                                           insoluble
                              soluble
                                                                C, H, O
                                     CARBOHYDRATE




                                                 FOOD TYPES

                                                                                       Meat,
                                                                                        fish
                                                                                               C, H, O, N, [S]
                              LIPIDS
                                                                                  PROTEIN
                                                                                                      Amino acids
                                          C, H, O
                        Glycerol +                                                                       [20]
                                                                              Biuret
                          3 fatty                                              Test
                           acids                                                                              Polypeptide
                                          Brown
  Insoluble                                                                                                      chain
                                          paper
   in water                                                                   Copper sulphate +
                                                                              sodium hydroxide                    Folded in
                                          spot                                                                    3D shape
                                            or
                fats          oils                +alcohol
                                                  +water=                                  purple
                solid       liquids               emulsion

                             olive
              butter
                              oil
Night blindness       rickets             Poor growth        Beri-beri            Colds, scurvy


    Retina,                               Antioxidant,                            Immune system
                  Ca absorption,                            Co-enzyme
   epithelium                             membranes                                 cell growth
                      bone

                                          Plant oils,          Meat
 Fish, dairy           milk                                                              fruit
                                         green leaves     wholemeal flour

                                                                   B                 C
          A            D                    E


                           Fat soluble                            Water soluble
                                                  Co-
                                                enzymes
                                          metabolism



                                         VITAMINS
                                                  Nutrition


                                                                         Consumer
                  Producer


photosynthesis          chemosynthesis                 herbivore
                                                         Eat                     omnivore
                                                                                                    decomposer      detritivore
                                                        plants                     plants
                                                                    carnivore
 Green plants                Bacteria                                  Eat         animals                   dead
                                                                     animals




                                   Influences on an organism
                                                   sun’s
                                                                   daylength
                                        wind     radiation
                                                                                heat
                             humidity
                                                                                             fire
                       air-gases

                                                                                                topography
                                                        ORGANISM
                   humans                                                                            soil

         Biotic        competition
                                                                                              pH
                               predators
                                                                                salinity
                                           parasites           waves




                         Animals and plants must adapt to these in order to survive.
                    wind    water


       contractio                                              air             water
                            abrasion
           n
 ice
                     PARENT
                                                                     FERTILE
                      ROCK
expansion                                                              SOIL
                                       Soil particles

                                                        invertebrates      humus
   heat

                          Rain
                     [carbonic acid]                                      microorganisms
                                      biospher
                  Organisms +             e              terrestrial
                  environment                                              aquatic
                                                                                                pollution
                                                        habitat
                                ecosystem

                                                                              Human impact             waste

                                                   ECOLOGY
                                                                                                conservatio
                                                                                                    n


                                      energy                      nutrients
  Pyramid of                                                                             water
   energy
                                                                       recycling             carbon
                                      flow
                                                                                           nitrogen
                                                                       micro-organism
                                             sun


   Pyramid of                                            plant          animal
    biomass
                                                             Food chain
                                                                                        niche
                                                                    Food
                                                                    web
                         Pyramid of
Limitations*              numbers


               shape*
                                     wind             light
                                                                              N or S facing

                       rain
                                                                                        aspect

     season                                                                                       Slope of ground

                                        CLIMATE                     TOPOGRAPHY
altitude       temperature
                                                                                         composition
                                                                                                         drainage
   latitude                                           ABIOTIC

                                                                                  EDAPHIC                      pH
                          ENVIRONMENTAL                                             [soil
HABITAT
                             FACTORS                                                  ]

                                                                                                           nutrients


                                                    BIOTIC                                             water
               Populations


                                       animal                                          ATMOSPHERE
                                                                plant
                      Factors
                     controlling                                                 CO2
                                            micro-organism
                                                              photosynthesi                                Water
                                                                                                 O2        vapour
                                                                    s
                                                recycling
                                                                                        N2
   predation
                                   parasitism
       competition
                         symbiosis
In spite of this diversity, we can identify six categories of
interactions that have different effects on population growth

                                Neutral relationship no direct effect


                                                             directly helps
                                      Commensalism           one species


              symbiosis                   mutualism        benefits flow both
                                                           ways --a two-way
                                                           exploitation
                                           parasitism
                                                             directly benefits one, and
                                                             hurts the other
                                              predation



                                interspecific competition,     disadvantages flow
                                                               both ways




                                  Birth                                    Immigration
                                              +                      +
          pollution                               Population Size
                                                  [Density or Frequency]
  natural
                      Abiotic
                                                  -                    -
  disasters
                      Factors        Death                                 Emigration


        drought
                                           Biotic
                                           Factors


                                competition            parasitism


                                               predation
                                     EDAPHIC
                                       [soil
                                         ]          ATMOSPHERE
            TOPOGRAPHY
                                                             natural disasters
           CLIMATE                                                                                                   Pyramid of
                                                             pollution                                                numbers
                                  ABIOTIC


                                                                                                                     Pyramid of
 POPULATION                          ENVIRONMENTAL                               Food                                 biomass
                                                                                 web
  ECOLOGY                               FACTORS

                                                                                        Food chains

                                                                                                                     Pyramid of
                                                                BIOTIC                                                energy
         Birth
                                   Populatio
Death                               n Size
                                                                                                                      Wastes
                                                                Human                         Impact on              produced
 Immigration                                                   population                    environment
                                                                                                                     Resources
        Emigration                     Factors                                                                        needed
                                      controlling
                                         size                            control               famine

                                                                                                        war
                     parasitism
                                                                                                         Contraception
                            symbiosis                                                                       policy

                                       competition     predation                                           disease
                                                                         adaptation
                                                Predator-
                                               Prey curves                                 niche

                                         factors         variables
                                  light intensity        air speed
                     slope
                                                                              air

              exposure
                                                                                       ground
                                                                     temperature


temperature
                                            ABIOTIC                                     % air
                         water
 currents                                   FACTORS
                                                                       soil

                                                                                    % water
     Dissolved O2
                                                    pH
                         Salt conc.
                                            mineral conc.              % humus
                           Sweep net
                                               Pitfall trap


               pooter                                           Tullgren funnel




beating tray
                                       Apparatus


                          direct
                          search




                                   transects
                                                                 quadrat

                                                                                   repeat

                 profil                                                                     average
                   e
                                                         belt

                                                                                  random
                                                                                               average
                                                                       repeat


                                                                                      throw
                                                                random


                                                                 systematic
 Tullgren funnel                               quadrat

                                                                                                      transect

                           Apparatus
                                                                                   profil
pooter                                                                                                  belt
                                                                                     e
                                                                            slope
                                                                                                 To see
  beating tray                                                                                  changes

                        direct
                        search                           ECOSYSTEM
                                                           STUDY

  ACTIVITY                                                                                        SURVEY
                                              habitats
Any 3 of these
   factors                                                                              quantitativ
                                                                                                                     qualitative
                                  Factors                                                   e
   abiotic                                                                              how many                       names

     pH                                                                                                                        Use a Key
                                                                                    quadrats
 temperature      air                                                 % cover
                  ground                        biotic
light intensity                                                             frequency          capture-
                                                                                               recapture          results

  air speed                                                                                                       tables
                                    Role in energy
mineral conc.                          transfer                                                                   graphs
                                                         adaptation
 % air in soil                                               s                                                   histogram
 % water in                      food chain
    soil                                                              structural
% humus in soil                                                                                                             report
                                      food web                        competitive
                                                                      behaviour                                             assess
   exposure                                   pyramid of
                                                                         al
                                               numbers                                                                      analyse
     slope
                                                                                                                       Ecological
                                                                                                                         issues
Water temperature
    Water
   currents
 Dissolved O2
   Salt conc.
                                                                                 microorganism
                                                                   compostin           s
                                                                      g
                                                 minimisation
                                                                     recycling

                                  CO2
                                                      Landfill
                   erosion                                                                  incineration
                                                                     disposa
                                 Deforestation                          l

  pesticides
    Slurry,                Agricultur
                                                                    Household
  fertilisers                  e                   land              rubbish                Wastes
                                                                                           produced




eutrophication                                                                                     Population
                                           Pollution
                                                                                                      size
                                                                                                                           Fossil
           Sewage
                                water                                                                                      fuels
                                                                                                      Resource
                                                                                                                  energy
                                                                                                       s used
            Heat                                                                                                 used up
                                                                                                         up
                                                                 HUMAN IMPACT
                 Poisons                                             on the
                                                                 ENVIRONMENT

                                                                                               conservatio
                                                                                 control
                                  CFCs               air                            s              n
        Ozone damage

                                                                                                                      agriculture
                                    CO2               NO2
                                                                                                           forestry
                                                      SO2
                                                                                            fisheries
           Global warming
                                                 Acid rain

				
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posted:10/4/2012
language:English
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