MUCH USE OF IMAGE SENSING This article will discuss: A. Remote Sensing Image B. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) So by studying images of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System, you can use it in analyzing climate change. IMAGE SENSING FAR Do you understand what is meant by the term remote sensing? Sensing the term just yet, let alone understand the term Remote Sensing In the Indonesian language known by the term Remote Sensing, if the English translation is Remote Sensing, whereas in France, better known as Teledetection, and in Germany called Fernerkundung. Although Pengideraan Far relatively new knowledge known, but its use is quite rapid in Indonesia. The use of remote sensing, among others, to obtain the right information from all broad areas of Indonesia. The information is used for various purposes such as detecting natural resources, the area floods, forest fires, and the distribution of fish in the sea. Definition of Remote Sensing According to you, what is Remote Sensing? By using the description in the introduction above, now try to answer without opening the next page, Test Early Remote Sensing You've tried to answer what is meant by remote sensing, now matched Kaliaan answer to the following description of Remote Sensing. Have you ever done the reading? Do you like reading? If you pass up reading it You can understand the following analysis. Analogy Remote Sensing = Reading Process Description: If the analogy Remote Sensing can be considered as a process of reading. Why? Because, using your eye acts as a sensing device (sensor) which receives the light reflected from the page module. The data received by your eyes in the form of energy according to the amount of light reflected from the light on the module page. The data were analyzed or interpreted in your mind in order to explain that the dark on this page is a collection of letters that make up words. Moreover, these words make up sentences, and you interpret the meaning of the information contained in those sentences. Well now, to be able to learn more on this, try to do it! A. Reading as usual B. Reading with the cover page C. Reading in the dark D. Reading by using sunglasses There are various descriptions of Remote Sensing, leaving you to read some of the following definitions. 1. Remote sensing is the science or art of obtaining information about an object, area or phenomenon, by analyzing the data obtained by using the tool, without direct contact with the object, area or phenomenon to be studied (Lillesand and Kiefer, 1990). 2. Remote sensing is an attempt to obtain, menemutunjukkan (identify) and analyze the object with a sensor at the position observational study area (Avery, 1985). 3. Remote sensing is a technique developed to acquire and analyze information about the Earth. The information was in the form of electromagnetic radiation reflected or emitted from the earth's surface (Lindgren, 1985). From some of the limitations of the above understanding can be concluded that: Remote sensing is an effort to obtain information about the object by using a device called a "sensor" (tentacle), without direct contact with the object. In other words it can be stated that remote sensing is an effort to acquire data remotely by using certain equipment. The data obtained were then analyzed and used for various purposes. The data obtained from remote sensing can shape the result of variations in power, sound waves or electromagnetic energy. For example grafimeter obtain data from variations of gravity (gravity), sonar navigational system to obtain data from the sound waves and our eyes get data from electromagnetic energy. So remote sensing is the monitoring of an object from a distance with no direct contact with the object. Enter Remote Sensing Data In the remote sensing data or the results obtained input observation is called the image. The image can be interpreted as the look of a picture of the object being observed, as a result of reporting or recording a monitoring tool. For example, photographing flowers in the garden. Photos of flowers that we managed to make it an image of interest. According Simonett (1983): the image as the image recording an object (usually a picture in the photo) is obtained by means of optical, electro-optical, optical mechanical or electronic. In the English language there are two terms that mean the image in the Indonesian language, the "image" and "imagery", but the term is considered more appropriate imagery usage (Susanto, 1986). In order to be used then the image should be interpreted or translated / interpreted first. Image interpretation is an activity of assessing and aerial photographs or images with a view to identify objects and assess the importance of these objects (Estes and Simonett, 1975). In short image interpretation is a process of object recognition in the form of an image (images) for use in specific disciplines such as geology, geography, ecology, geodesy and other disciplines. In interpreting the image is divided into several stages: • Detection of object recognition is to have certain characteristics by the sensor. • Identify the object is characterized by using referral data. • Analysis is to collect more information in detail. Remote Sensing Tools To perform remote sensing necessary sensors, data processing equipment and other tools as support. Tool in remote sensing sensors can receive information in a variety of forms such as light or light, sound waves and electromagnetic power. Sensors are used to track, detect, and record an object in a particular coverage area. Each sensor has its own sensitivity on the part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The ability of the sensor to record images of the smallest known spatial resolution. The smaller the object that can be recorded by the sensor, the better sensors and better spatial resolution in the image. Based on the recording process of the sensors can be divided into: 1. Sensor Photography The recording process took place as usual on the still camera, or as we know it is through a chemical process. Electromagnetic power received and recorded on the film emulsion and after processing will produce images. This means, in addition to power, the film also serves as a recorder, which ultimately results in the form of aerial photographs, if the recording done from the air, either by aircraft or other vehicle. But if the recording done from space so the end result is called orbital satellite photo or a photo. 2. Sensor Electronics Electronic sensors is a tool that works electrically to the processing using a computer. The end result is a visual form of data or digital data / numeric. The recording process to produce an image made with a visual data capture of the screen or by using a special recording movies. The end result in the form of photographs with film as the recording device and not be called aerial photography but the image. In order for the information in various forms had been accepted by the sensor, then there must be another force that brought the sun. Information received by the sensor can be: a. Power distribution (forse). b. Distribution of sound waves. c. Distribution of electromagnetic energy. Such information is data about the object sensed and identified from the recording based on its characteristics in the form of light, sound waves, and electromagnetic energy. Example: Snow and limestone will reflect a lot of light (absorbs little light) and the water will reflect little light (light absorbing much). The information is the result of the interaction between energy and objects. Interactions between the power and the object recorded by a sensor, which include the following tools: • gravimeter: collecting data that affected Earth's gravity (collect data in the form of the force of gravity) i • Magnetometer: collecting data in the form of magnetism due to the magnetic field of the earth • Sonar: collecting data on the distribution of waves in water. • Microphone: collect / capture sound waves in the air. • Camera: variations in the distribution of collected data in the form of beams of electromagnetic energy. As has been mentioned that one of the energy used in remote sensing, among others comes from the sun in the form of electromagnetic energy. The sun is the primary source of electromagnetic energy. In addition to the sun as a source of natural energy, there is also another source of energy, which made power source. Remote Sensing Systems Remote sensing using solar energy is called passive remote sensing systems. Passive remote sensing system uses radiated light, can only operate during the day in clear weather. Passive remote sensing system that uses thermal energy emitted power, can operate in day or night. Citra easy familiarity when the temperature difference between each object large enough. Weakness of remote sensing systems are increasingly coarse spatial resolution due to the larger wavelength. Remote sensing using an artificial source of energy called the sensing remote system is active. Active sensing system deliberately created and emitted from sensor which is then reflected back to the sensor to be recorded. In general, these systems use microwaves, but can also use the visible spectrum, with artificial sources of energy in the form of laser. Try to look at the following statement: Remote sensing using the sun as a natural force called passive remote sensing system, while those using other power sources (artificial) is called an active remote sensing system. Now try to discuss in the group. What is meant by the above statement! Why remote sensing using the sun as a natural force called passive remote sensing system? Why use an artificial source remote sensing remote sensing system called active? Increased Benefits for Remote Sensing You now know, the use of remote sensing as a source of information has shown increasing rapidly. Some of the reasons why the use of remote sensing has increased as follows: 1. Through the use of imagery to be acquired object picture of the earth with the shape and position similar to reality, relatively complete, and can cover a wide area. 2. With the technology, the object is recorded in the aerial image has a 3-dimensional impression. 3. Through the image, or the appearance of symptoms can be detected on the surface of the earth such as the content of the mineral resources of an area, rock types, and so quickly, that is through the images using infrared light. 4. The image can quickly describe objects that are very difficult to reach by direct observation (field). For example, the aerial photographs covering a 132 km2 recorded in under 1 second. 5. Can describe or map the natural disasters in quick time as the area affected by earthquake, flood areas, and so on. 6. Can be obtained through remote sensing data or information fast, precise and accurate. Utilization of Remote Sensing Remote sensing is useful in many areas of life, particularly in the fields of marine, hydrology, climatology, environmental and aerospace. 1. Benefits in marine (SEASAT, MOSS) • Observation of the physical properties of sea water. • Observation of tides and waves. • Mapping of coastal change, erosion, sedimentation, and others. 2. Benefits in the field of hydrology (Landsat, SPOT) • Observations watershed. • Observation of the area and intensity of floods. • Mapping of river flow patterns. • Study of river sedimentation. • And so on. 3. Benefits in the field of climatology (NOAA, Meteor and GMS) • Observation of the climate of a region. • Analysis of weather. • Mapping climate and its changes. • And so on. 4. Benefits in the areas of the earth's resources and environment (Landsat, Soyuz, SPOT) • Mapping of land use. • Collect data on the environmental damage due to various reasons. • Detecting critical lands. • Monitoring the distribution of natural resources. • Mapping for HANKAMNAS purposes. • Planning the development of the region. • And so on. 5. Benefits in the field of outer space (Ranger, Viking, Luna, Venera) • Research on the planets (Jupiter, Mars, etc.). • Observation of celestial bodies. • And others Image Interpretation of the Cultural Landscape and Landscape Landscape and cultural landscape is the object of remote sensing. Through remote sensing methods, both of which can be recorded by the image sensor so that it becomes. With image interpretation, elements of the landscape and cultural landscape can be recognized and the results can be utilized in accordance with the objectives of the study. The following are examples of the introduction of elements of the landscape and cultural landscape of remote sensing images abstracted by prof. Dr. Sutanto in his book Remote Sensing, 1992. 1. Elements of Landscape a. River The river has a uniform surface texture with a dark hue if the water is clear, or bright if cloudy. Direction of flow of the river is characterized by a broad river forms at the mouth of the meeting rivers have an acute angle in the direction of flow, the movement of meanders sideways and downward (estuary), Hirst pointed to the upstream river and extends toward the mouth b. Flood Plain Floodplain has a flat surface with a lower position than surrounding area. Sometimes found places uneven due to the former presence of a channel or oxbow lake (Horseshoe Lake). Floodplain has a uniform hue or sometimes not uniform, and there is a river whose position is sometimes a bit much. c. Alluvial Fans and Alluvial Cones 1) fan-shaped alluvial fan with a smooth surface. Lower slopes ramps (1-2 degrees) to the top of the steep, white to gray hue with white bottom darker because of the dense vegetation. 2) alluvial cone alluvial fan-like shape with a smaller size. The slope is steep (can reach 20 degrees). d. Guguk Sand (Beach Ridge) Hut shaped sand narrow and elongated, straight or curved, igir low with a flat surface, parallel to each other and parallel to the beach. There is no runoff and erosion. In the form of the proven high line. This area is often used for shelter or the street. e. Mangrove Mangrove forests have a very dark color because of the reflection of the dangers of low, uniform tree height and grows in the muddy beach, river or brackish water transition. f. Swamp Forests Swamp forests have a uniform color and texture. This is because different tree heights. Located among the mangrove jungles in the interior. g. Sago and Nipah Sago palm and palm classified types. The difference is: 1) Sago have leaves that form a rosette (star) is not NYPA. 2) Sago has a darker hue was NYPA tinted bright and uniform. 3) Sago palm grows in groups were not. 4) flower stalk sago white reflects light coming from the canopy palm flowers were not. 2. Cultural Landscape Elements a. Roads and Railways Roads and railways have elongated shapes, wide and relatively straight uniform. Fine texture and hue that contrasts with the surrounding area and generally sunny. Intersection perpendicular or nearly perpendicular b. Tunnels and Bridges 1) In the tunnel looks like a road or railroad that went missing at one point and reappear at another point. 2) On the bridge seems a river or irrigation canal crossing the road, there is a shadow of difference in height between the bridge by the river. Agency bridges are generally narrower than the road they relate. c. Railway Station, Bus Terminal, and Airport 1) At the train station there is a separate building from its surroundings, visible branch railways and railway carriages. In the visible rail station is missing on one side of the house and comes back on the other side. 2) At the bus terminal region appears flat, uncluttered and spacious, there is a large building with a row of buses lined up to the side and away meetings. 3) At the airport field appears wide, flat and smooth texture. The foundation of the straight, wide with a regular pattern evident. There is a terminal building, aircraft parking and occasionally visible plane. d. Football Field Rectangular with regular size (5: 4), with a hue bright and smooth texture. In the photo scale of 1: 5,000 visible behind the goal in the middle of the line. e. Settlement Houses 1) Home mukim rectangular, there is a shadow in the middle of the roof, is located near the road and the relatively small size of the house 2) The school building looks like I, L or U with a regular page and clean and spacious. 3) Hospital is building a uniform, large and elongated, with a regular pattern of rows of buildings are separated from each other are connected by a connecting building. It has a large yard for parking and is located on the edge of the road. 4) factory / industry has a building with a large size and usually elongated, some buildings are joined by a short distance (meeting). Located on a side street, there were points of loading and unloading goods, sometimes visible water tank / fuel, chimneys, etc. 5) Market has the shape and size of building a regular and uniform. The regular pattern of meetings with the distance, situated on the edge of the road and visible concentration of motor vehicles and non-motorized. f. Agricultural Land and Estates 1) Rice form rectangular plots on a flat area, in the area of sloping shape plot follows the high line. Often appear irrigation. If the paddy fields are there, have a smooth texture with a dark hue at a young age, the gray at the age of 2 months and sunny in old age. If planted with sugarcane, rougher texture than rice and seemed lariknya path. Uniform texture and color seems a large region. 2) Rubber plantations have straight lines with uniform tree height, spacing of plants in the regular line spacing between the lines as well. Texture similar to velvet with a dark hue. Located at an altitude of 50-60 m above sea level with a sloping relief. 3) Coffee plantation appears to be a straight row of black dots and bright background. Shade trees taller and more rare. Distance plants regularly (3-4 m) and plant height 3-4 m. Located on a sloping area to a height of 1,500 m above sea level. The land is fertile and able to soak up the water, with rainfall of more than 2000 m every year. 4) Oil palm has a regular pattern with bright hues and plant spacing of about 10 m tall tree reaching 15 m. There is the area that easily seep water with a fair amount of rainfall. Star-shaped tree canopy. 5) Oil palm plantations have editorial meetings and form stars. Smoother texture than the coconut, dark hue with regular plant spacing (6-9 m) and rainfall 2,000 mm - 4,000 mm per year. Exercise Once you learn the description of remote sensing, try to discuss with your group, and then answer according to your own opinion 1. What is remote sensing? 2. What are the benefits of remote sensing for human life? 3. What are the benefits pengideraan remotely to detect climate change? 4. What is the interpretation of images in Landscape? What are the benefits for climate change? 5. What dimaksdu the Cultural Landscape Image interpretation? What are the benefits for climate change?