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       For functions to mark 350 Global Warming Action Day, 24th October, 2009

   Bulu Imam addresses the press on 24th October at Hotel Chinar, Ranchi 12:00 noon &

   Bulu Imam talks on Global Warming: Intercity Meet on “Global Warming : The Problem-The
 Solution-The Role Rotary Can Play” on Sunday, October 25, 2009 at Rotary Hall, Ranchi Club,11
                                         am to 1 pm
  Bulu Imam talks on Global Warming: Bokaro Steel City Auditorium, Sunday, October 25,
                                     2009, 6:00pm
On Oct. 24th, 2009 the International Day of Climate Action, over 3,700 actions will happen around the
world, in over 162 countries.

01. Why 350?

One of the major studies has been done by NASA the USA’s National Aeronautical and Space Administration
through its Goddard Institute for Space studies headed by the world’s foremost climatologist, Dr James
Hansen. Dr Hansen was the first to point out the effects of global warming on the planet’s climate. In his
opinion we have passed the danger level of 350 parts per million (350ppm) of carbon dioxide in the earth’s
atmosphere which is continuing to rise by an estimated 2ppm at current rates. The temperature over the past
decades has also been steadily rising. Coal is the chief source of Carbon dioxide which is the chief cause of
global warming. According to Dr.Hansen and thousands of other leading climate scientists in studies
undertaken by the World Bank, United States Military, The World Bank and Rockefeller Foundation (2009
State of the Future Report) we are at a point of catastrophic climate change not even anticipated two years
back by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) that won a Nobel Prize – the ice of the Arctic
and Antarctic are the canaries in the coal mine and they have begun to melt four times faster than anticipated
due to thermal expansion of the ocean due to warming. Naturally the life in the oceans is dying at an
extraordinary rate and soon the oceans will become lifeless carbon-dioxide emitting sources. In the north the
Arctic permafrost is rapidly melting, exposing the vast methane deposits in the peat which contain more
greenhouse gases than currently in the atmosphere (1000bn tons). 350 has been cited as the maximum level
of CO2 tolerable in the atmosphere. Beyond this level we are in threat of eco-catastrophe.

Pollution from industrial emissions that contain greenhouse gases (GHG) have to be stopped at any cost.
There is already nearly one thousand billion tones (gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and the
concentration is scientifically expressed as 390parts per million (ppm). According to the worlds best
climatologists we have to stop it increasing and take it back to 350ppm, and this is the figure which the 350
campaign is built around. The figure 350ppm as the highest possible concentration of carbon dioxide and its
equivalents (CO2e) was calculated by Dr James Hansen the director of NASA and his colleagues at the
Goddard Institute of Space Studies.

Today the level of 390ppm is dangerous and at any time a sudden spike in world temperature of over 2C is
predicted, followed by steadily rising temperatures upto 5C above pre-industrial levels (275ppm). Since the
rate of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is rising annually 2ppm we need to stop, and if at all possible at this
late hour, try to reverse the trend. But to achieve this we need to get the dirty-coal lobby on our side. We have
got to stop burning more and more coal. China and India are the world’s biggest dirty-coal users with
absolutely no CO2 sequestration facilities.

So we see the rationale behind the movement is to stop more pollution of the atmosphere with carbon
dioxide. This has led to the most extraordinary global campaign of all time and you can find more information
at America will be trying to phase out all coal by 2020. UK has brought down its coal
consumption by 20%. Norway, Sweden, and Denmark do not use coal, and Germany too has phased out
coal. India must follow this example. The 350 Campaign is the world’s last chance to create a mass
awareness of the seriousness of global warming and bring the power and energy-hungry legislators and
policy-makers to their senses. It is time for human management, not wildlife management, and
environmentalists had better wake up! If the pollution of the atmosphere through greenhouse gases (GHG) is
not checked within the decade we shall enter into an uncontrollable phase of global warming, and when
dying life-forms will become sources of greater and greater amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and
when human life on the planet will be in grave danger.
02. What has been done?

Fortunately for the world a massive citizens’ program has started in the USA and now reached every corner of
the world. This was started by the scientist and writer Bill McKibben using the magic number 350, the
enigmatic symbol of the last point beyond which science allows global warming to go. Since the surface
temperature of the planet is exactly in the same graph as the level of carbon dioxide trapping the solar
infrared heat in the atmosphere we are able to measure the temperature rise according to the carbon dioxide
graph as Al Gore showed in his film An Inconvenient Truth. Perhaps this is not so easy to understand by
simply seeing the number 350, but we have to understand that it means 350 particles per million of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. This is according to the world’s leading climate scientist Dr James Hansen,
Director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the maximum we can allow of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere to go before the tipping point into uncontrollable warming of the planet. Unfortunately, its almost
too late as we are at 390ppm already, and rising 2ppm yearly. Some scientists still write glibly of 450 and
500 and 600 ppm without taking into consideration that post 450 temperatures will definitely be 3C or 7F
higher, unimaginable heat in the south latitudes. Such temperatures are foreseeable by mid-century in the
opinion of the most conservative experts. The 350 campaign of public and government aware ness of the
threats from global warming has not come a moment too soon.

03. Where is the problem?

We are seeing in India economic development through industrial development at all cost which is, the
industrial economy destroying the twenty-first century. The biggest threat to the environment from global
warming comes from traditional coal fired thermal power plants without sequestration. Coal contains more
carbon dioxide than any other greenhouse gas other than methane, and a typical coal plant converts only
about one-third of the energy in coal to electricity while producing 3.5 times is its molecular weight in carbon
dioxide! The waste and pollution of coal fired thermal power generation is unimaginable.

04. Who are the polluters?

In spite of all the talk and treaties two major global warming threats confront us – China and India. China for
the past several years has been steadily building almost one major dirty-coal plant every week#1, and India
on the other hand is following China’s example by not restricting greenhouse gas emissions or signing
treaties ratifying such emissions. We might recall that both China and India did not ratify the Montreal Protocol
of 1987 calling for a 50 percent cut in CFC production which eventually after signing by 29 countries and the
EEC and helped save millions from skin cancer by healing the ozone hole. This emphasis on industrial growth
at any cost has been China and India’s continuing policy. Even today India is following China’s policy of
refusing to restrict greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The climate change problem is directly related to global
warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, trapping the sun’s heat in the
atmosphere leading to typhoons in China , hurricanes in America, floods in Indonesia or Bangladesh, or
change in monsoon patterns and drought and floods in India. We are at war with mother nature, and as food
resources dwindle as the result of erratic weather conditions and water starts getting an extremely scarce
commodity both for drinking and farming, we will soon be at war among ourselves for resources. The great
bone of contention on the subcontinent will be the Indus waters which are shared with Pakistan by treaty.
The time to stop catastrophe is now, not when the Ganges or Indus are running dry due to melting glaciers.

Is it conceivable that governments would want expensive dirty fuel for generating power when clean power
sources are quite easily available from a variety of renewables like wind, solar, hydel etc., with a little sensible
conservation not beyond society ? Can we believe that in the twenty-first century mankind is so incompetent
that clean, adequate power is unavailable ? No this is not the source of the problem. The real answer is
“Because pollution pays-- it is more popular in the action-oriented, corrupt, development agenda” It creates
massive infrastructural requirements and gives employment to people it displaces and by creating vast iron
ore and bauxite and coal mines allied to its development agenda of industrial units such as steel plants,
thermal power stations, big dams, gives the illusion of development. The bigger, the dirtier, the more lucrative
the better. This gives vast return to governments, politicians, industrialists, and the working-class. We are
aware that carbon dioxide emissions worldwide are going up at an alarming rate. New coal-fired plants built
between 2005 and 2030 or twenty-five years, will release as much carbon dioxide as all coal burned since the
industrial revolution two centuries ago.#1. Our coal mining technology is improving. But the carbon dioxide
from these plants will break the camel’s back of global warming and by 2025 ecocatastrophe would be in full

swing with rising extreme temperatures and over twenty feet sea-rise inundating coastal                cities and
populations around the world.

05. What can be done?

Better architectural design to keep urban environments cool greater efficiency in equipment for producing
clean energy through renewables, white roofs and car-tops to reflect sunlight, planting of trees in urban areas
to give shade and absorb water made the environments treated in this way 3-10% cooler and equivalent to
rural temperatures, thus requiring less air-conditioning which brought energy consumption down. Compact
fluorescent bulbs (CFLs) replaced ordinary incandescent bulbs consuming less power with longer use-life. It
is to be noted that the use of batteries and inverters charged by electricity saves 75% coal fired electricity and
can be used with CFLs or Low Energy Diodes (LEDs). No green cover should be destroyed as this leads to
desertification and global warming. This pattern of environmental concern building-wise over millions of units
changed California’s energy consumption. It is more profitable to save energy than to create it. India needs to
turn to renewable power in wind, solar and hydel sectors which the government needs to subsidize (dirty-coal
mining on the other hand is subsidized by the government and is the cheapest form of energy although it
causes massive displacement , environmental damage, and atmospheric pollution.

06. The Indian Climate Dilemma

Today one of the major issues controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions causing climate change through
global warming is the reluctance of developing countries – in particular India and China –to ratify negotiations
and treaties seeking to curb dangerous emissions. America has been the world’s greatest cumulative GHG
polluter with two centuries of growing emissions and will be uptil 2050, yet it refused to cut emissions unless
the developing countries – particularly China and India – cut their emissions. All sorts of spurious scientific
statistics entered the scene, while some scientists held that it was safe to pollute the atmosphere up to
550ppm (parts per million of atmospheric carbon dioxide) when today it is scientifically established today that
the global temperature at that level of CO2 will be past 5C!

China and India while being newly industrialized countries are more recent polluters and so claim their rights
to pollute to develop at a par with developed countries which is very dangerous owing to their huge
populations! We are reminded of Gandhi’s words, “There is enough for every man’s need, but not for every
man’s greed”. If the temperature rises to 5C the ice-melt in the north and south poles will raise the sea to an
estimated 80 feet ! China and India need to realize they do not have the authority to destroy the human future
in their race to develop industrially and economically in an industrialized world. They still have moral
obligations to the human race and the planet we share. Unchecked greenhouse gas emissions from China
have now exceeded America’s 6.049 bn. Metric tons of CO2 emissions in 2004. Future generations are in
peril and depend upon how we act today.

India is continuing to authorize new coal mines, and recently we heard from the government that despite the
INTACH campaign to stop coal mines in the upper Damodar valley in North Karanpura in Jharkhand ( the over thirty new strip mines would go ahead, because “There is no is no
escaping the fact that coal plays an important role in supporting India’s energy plans and also that energy is a
critical input for our economic growth.”(letter from C.Balakrishnan, Secretary, Govt. of India Ministry of Coal,
dated 23 September, 2009, to S.K.Misra, Chairman, INTACH). There was no reference to global warming
being caused by coal emissions which had been stated explicitly in our petition to the Minister for Coal.

Legislators and administrators absolve themselves of all moral liabilities for their actions and as if by remote
control the planet’s resources are being administrated. Nobody is keen to hear the arguments of serious
environmentalists warning that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are making the atmosphere go past a
tipping point when the carbon dioxide in the planet’s atmosphere will suddenly bring about a 2-5C spike.
India uses the old argument of having a right to pollute the atmosphere because developed countries have
done so for nearly three centuries from the start of the industrial revolution in England from the beginning of
the 18 century. Today we have to realize that any further pollution of the atmosphere will one day be judged
as a crime against humanity even as there have been war crimes against humanity.

07. Impacts of Global Warming

The greatest oversight of our times has been the failure to draw the connection between the increasing series
of natural disasters and man-induced global warming and climate change through industrial pollution by
greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide which is the prime cause of global warming which is produced

by burning coal as the major source of industrial power. This is the cheapest, most polluting, and easiest
available source of modern power since the industrial revolution began three hundred years ago in the
eighteenth century. We have had ample warning but our society, or should we say the modern western
world’s developed society failed to address this issue in time. Later the developing countries took up the same
dirty-coal industrial technology, and ended up destroying far more than was gained. The global warming
caused by the fossil fuels trapping the sun’s rays in the Earth’s atmosphere has increased hundredfold until
the oceans are sixty percent warmer, and this caused thermal expansion and the melting of vast polar ice-
caps in the Arctic and Antarctic, causing a steady rising of the seas expected to reach 20-80 feet if the
present rate of emissions continues. By then the earth’s surface temperatures will have risen 3-5C higher
than pre-industrial levels, which means the heat will be almost humanly intolerable.

The warming of the oceans has directly affected the intensity of hurricanes and typhoons. Sea life is steadily
dying and if it continues will destroy the oceans’ hydrological cycles, leading to the seas becoming sources of
carbon dioxide and further global warming. The absorption of increasing quantities of carbon dioxide in the
seas is killing ocean life much faster than predicted as recently as 2007.Polar ice is also melting sixty percent
faster than was predicted. Many scientists are of the view that we have already passed the tipping points of
systems to adjust and that extreme climate conditions will cause unprecedented events such as changes in
the monsoon in Southeast and South Asia, West Africa and the Sahara, and such changes would mean
large-scale famine to these monsoon-agriculture dependant societies. Everywhere across the world we are
daily witnessing massive natural disasters caused by earthquakes and tsunamis which might or might not
directly be results of global warming, but hurricanes, floods, droughts change in monsoons, glacial ice-melt,
polar-ice-melt, and rising sea levels that are directly due to global warming. Entire ecosystems are being
destroyed by seeming natural calamities that have their cause in human actions, primarily burning coal for
energy and thus releasing carbon dioxide that traps the sun’s heat instead of turning it into energy. This
transformation of capturing the suns heat and warming the planet has to be changed into using the sun’s heat
by the use of mirrors to create steam And generate thermal energy to turn turbines.

The destruction of the natural ecosystem has been noted for several decades and today over fifty thousand
species a year are becoming extinct. Ecosystems are disappearing such as the coral reefs of eastern
Australia and eastern South America. Mangroves are dying in West Africa and the Bay of Bengal. Indian
wildlife, particularly tigers, have been disappearing at an alarming rate. Deniers of climate change attribute
this to poaching but it is more likely it is simply due to thirst in parched forests. In East Africa an
unprecedented death of wild elephants were reported.

We humans are unable to react to these events rationally any longer and denying that it is our industrial
pollution of the planet which is causing these events. is a campaign on global awareness of the
effects of carbon dioxide pollution which is either directly or indirectly responsible for these tragic events.
Governments are unanimously in denial of industrial pollution and global warming to save their own seats
and sources of wealth and power. Honesty and transparency appears only at the highest levels such as the
United Nations. At this time there was needed urgently a global awareness movement such as to
bring awareness of the real cause of climate change to the world’s uninformed masses. Even our educational
institutions have not expressed the problem of global warming or its science clearly. People everywhere had
to know that extreme weather events such as hurricanes, typhoons, melting glaciers, extinction of species,
rising sea-levels, drought, floods , monsoonal failure or unprecedented localized rains, were not signs of
God’s wrath (Mother Nature’s ?) but the symptoms of a planetary sickness caused by the burning of fossil
fuels. That this was the cause of everything , and it was a symptom of power and greed, of industrialization
and economic growth. That a CEO could earn 12,500 times the earnings of an Indian farmer ! The great
disparity of wealth in an industrialized world created an increasingly wide gulf between the haves and have-
nots. This has been setting the foundation for global domination by a very few. It was the death-blow to real
democracy and the foundation of dictatorships.

08. Call of 350

The call of the Campaign is a call for worldwide action by all peoples unitedly against global
warming and resulting climate change, altered weather patterns, and resulting affects such as extreme
weather events, changed monsoonal cycles, desertification, floods, and loss of agriculture. The science of
global warming is not simple as some think and it has been explained at the 350 website ( but
individuals must follow it by studying it on the Internet to understand more about its causes and effects. The
basic science is simple once one has gained sufficient information on the subject. This same science is used
also by detractors of global warming and resulting climate change – the dirty oil and coal lobby, and
governments committed to industrial development and growth of the economy. India and China are the

biggest polluters of the developing world and China has become the biggest polluting country in the world,
ahead of the USA and Canada. The 350 campaign is a convincing call to people everywhere to stand united
against global warming. If we do not act immediately to stop global warming it will be too late. People
awareness have to be made aware that greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon emissions – from the
cooking stove to the great thermal power stations – are emitters of carbon dioxide gas, the most lethal of the
fossil fuels in sheer quantity. A sense of deep urgency must henceforth inform our understanding and
energize our individual and collective actions. We in India are living on a coal-driven economy and even now
we are claiming the urgency of making vast new coal mines to supply our energy sector. Our Prime minister is
a highly educated Oxford trained economist and his prescription for poverty is economic growth. In achieving
this growth more millions of India’s poorest people will be displaced. Meanwhile atmospheric pollution causing
increased levels of global warming will be triggered and due to extreme weather events more millions will be
displaced and made to seek a livelihood in a country wracked by flood, drought and famine. Does this make
any sense to anyone ? It sure does to the Finance Ministry.

09. New coal mining

Massive displacement is caused through making new coal mines. For twenty-three years INTACH
Hazaribagh Chapter under the leadership of Bulu Imam has fought the making of new coal mines in the upper
Damodar valley catchment of Karanpura ( and yet even now thirty-one new
coal mines have received deemed clearance which will destroy thousands of square kilometers of forests and
rich agricultural lands, displacing hundreds of below poverty line villages. This is development in modern India
! Those who protest have been told that they will be forcibly removed in “national interests”. One wonders who
the nation consists of, its poor or its rich leaders. When we look at the situation from the point of view of global
warming the seriousness of the situation moves from the immediate violation of human and indigenous rights
to the violation of humanity as a whole on the planet as well as generations yet unborn who will not survive
the extreme heat and rapidly rising seas. They will pay with their lives for the actions being taken today by a
race gone made in the pursuit of wealth and fulfillment of greed.

The coal country of the lower Damodar valley has been beset by underground coal fires for the past century.
The amount of carbon dioxide released daily in the districts of Bokaro, Dhanbad, Ramgarh and Hazaribagh
would be in millions of tones.In this scenario the government has insisted on clearing over thirty new opencast
coal mines in North Karanpura forty kilometers from the district headquarters of Hazaribagh and Chatra. India
is continuing to authorize new coal mines. INTACH Hazaribagh Chapter appealed to the Governor of
Jharkhand to stop the planned 31 new opencast coal mines in the Karanpura valley (letters dated 18 June,
and 27 July, 2009). Subsequently the Government asked the centre to stop the reckless mining by PSUs like
Central Coalfields Limited and Bharat Coking Coal Limited and notified the Environment Minister Jairam
Ramesh and asked that they stop opening virgin areas without exhausting the ore in opened up areas. Letters
were also written by INTACH Hazaribagh Chapter to Shri Sriprakash Jaiswal, Minister of Coal and Shri
Jairam Ramesh, Minister of Environment and Forests. Chairman INTACH supported the appeal by writing to
both the Ministers. However, recently the Ministry of Coal wrote to the Chairman INTACH that the planned
new coal mines in North Karanpura would go ahead, because
         “There is no is no escaping the fact that coal plays an important role in supporting India’s energy
plans and also that energy is a critical input for our economic growth.”
         (letter from C.Balakrishnan, Secretary, Govt. of India Ministry of Coal, dated 23 September, 2009, to
S.K.Misra, Chairman, INTACH). There was no reference to global warming being caused by coal emissions
which had been stated explicitly in INTACH’s petition to the Minister for Coal and Minister for Environment.
The INTACH Hazaribagh Chapter has now appealed to the President of India and the Prime Minister of India
who has acknowledged the letter.

Consider that as a result of failure of the monsoons these districts and adjoining Palamau are famine districts.
India has a poor record in pollution control, the atmosphere of the Damodar valley in the catchment of which
these mines are being made, is already lethally poisoned by over one dozen mines upstream. A once fertile
valley, Karanpura which was known as “the rice-bowl of Hazaribagh” is today barren. One even feels that it is
ready for mining as a dead body is ready for autopsy. What the people will eat after their foodgrain reserves
of four to six months are finished is anybody’s guess. At a mine site where the people were protesting
displacement for a new mine the local officials told them bluntly that if they did not go obediently then the
government would remove them forcibly “in national interests”. Who does India belong to , anyway ? It would
seem that the officer had not considered this. India is building scores of new coal mines and dirty-coal thermal
power stations for electricity to pump out already depleted underground water. Coal is being exuded as
carbon dioxide throughout the Damodar valley breeding new poisoned organisms and according to a WHO
figure the life expectancy in the mining areas is 35 years. This is a far cry from the people who fly over the

mines every day in private airlines and government helicopters. If we allow this state of affairst to continue
unchecked then we will all die and the life of the natural environment will die, our agriculture and water
sources will die, and this will be the end of a small part of the planet dies, and filled with such wounds all over
the planet itself will die.

10. At the United Nations

There are 190 nations in the framework of the United Nations. The United Nations has been at the forefront of
action against global warming through its UNEP environment section and the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change which provide rigorous studies of environmental change, and the challenges the world faces
through global warming. In December this year the UN has arranged the largest global meeting at
Copenhagen. We are already aware that the IPCC study of 2007 which produced a Nobel Prize-winning
report has already become outdated as the ice-melt in both the Arctic and Antarctic is already 60 percent
more than the report predicted. Such ice-melt is an indicator of warming of the oceans and sure indicators of
vastly increasing global warming. The melting of the ice-bound Arctic tundra threatens to unlock vast stores of
methane in the frozen peat. The quantity of methane below the melting tundra is 20 times more powerful as a
greenhouse gas (GHG) than carbon dioxide. The Arctic experienced unusually high summer temperatures,
8F higher than normal. The methane of this region is estimated to match the quantity of CO2e (carbon dioxide
and equivalents) in the atmosphere. If released, as to be expected as unchecked warming of the planet
continues, there is a threat of spike temperatures of up to 5C immediately. We are fortunate that UN
Secretary General Ban Ki-moon is leading the war against global warming from the front, but there is
opposition from governments on every side. The UN more recently produced the Climate Change Science
Compendium as a primer before Copenhagen. The Compendium reviews some four hundred major scientific
contributions to our understanding of Earth systems and climate change through peer-reviewed research
produced after the 2007 IPCC report and was imperative for understanding at what stage of danger the life on
the planet was in. The report confirms our worst fears.

Among the world’s worst polluters are the rapidly developing countries that between China and India
constitute 40% (25/15)of global greenhouse gas emissions, the USA comes in with Canada with another
about 50% equally divided. Canada is currently expanding exploitation of its filthy tar-sands oil for energy. The
pollution is on the rise and is leading to the threat of a sudden catastrophic rise of temperature in the 2-5C
mark. Already with over one percent temperature rise above pre-industrial levels we have witnessed a 34%
loss of Arctic sea-ice. But while environmentalists are crying about polar bear habitat we the humans are
looking at the indicators of the early demise of the human race ! Perhaps the enormity of it is too much for the
doubting Thomases who have seen but cannot understand. Or the orientalists who consider it if it comes
punishment for our bad karma. Any way, it’s serious. All this makes wildlife conservation a dilettante
operation. Survival food production may not even be possible among subsistence societies globally
particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, which is predicted to be as dry and barren as Dafur in
Sudan within a decade. Tropical forests and wildlife are disappearing in front of our eyes and with these
sources of water and transpiration die-back and desertification will accelerate with rising heat even as
sporadic rainfall induced by forests will disappear. This is an absolutely terrible scenario.

11. Global Warming and Related Facts

Global warming is not just warming of the climate but there are other related effects that have been
scientifically observed and studied by scientists under the aegis of NASA, United Nations, The Hadley Center
(UK Meteorological Office), The World Bank, United States Military, Rockefeller Center, UNESCO, Etc. These
effects my be studied independently or studied in tandem through “systems thinking”, meaning the impacts
produced by them in tandem which have to be studied through inter-related connections. It compels the old
adage “The whole is more than the sum of its parts”.

First, is the dramatic changes being brought about through polar ice-melt in the Arctic and Antarctic regions,
and the rapid melting of glaciers from the Himalayas to the Andes mountains. Scientists have proposed the
hypothesis which was demonstrated by Al Gore in his film An Inconvenient Truth about global warming and its
related effects, that if the Greenland ice sheet melted there could be sufficient ice water to cool the North
Atlantic to the extent it could switch off the so called thermohaline warm current (or Gulf Stream) which cycles
up a warm current from the South Atlantic and keeps Europe from freezing. However, if this stream stops then
it could send Europe into another ice-age, as happened twenty thousand years ago. However, scientists are
in agreement this would not happen in this century, but with ice-melt in the Antarctic happening 60% faster
than predicted by the IPCC Report in 2007, we just cannot be too sure… But it remains a possible worst-case
scenario. Dr James Hansen and other leading climate and Earth scientists are of the opinion such an ice-age

in Europe may not be likely within the present century. But as the Earth warms and more ice melts in the next
century it is a probability, if not a certainty. Then what would happen to the people of Europe, the great
museums, the natural landscape and forests and wildlife ? These are to be considered now, even as we enter
what has been called “the final century”.

The second effect we may take into consideration is of an unimaginable magnitude and was first developed
by the British scientist James Lovelock in his book The Vanishing Face of Gaia – A Final Warning (Allen
Lane, UK 2009). According to Lovelock, who first discovered the earth was an entirely connected organism
(GAIA Hypothesis, 1960s) the there is a real danger of run-away global warming in which warming that kills
living organisms creates more carbon dioxide from their decay and which has been shown by the dying of
scores of thousands of species every year and the vast dying of ocean life and sea-algae. However,
Havelock’s opinion has not met with consensus by his peers.

Thirdly, and this threat is universally acknowledged by all scientists everywhere, is the release of the methane
trapped in the permafrost in the Arctic tundra where due to temperature rise ice-melt is rapidly occurring. This
year alone an 8F rise took the mercury in the summertime arctic to 28F. This is the highest on record.
Scientists have found ice-free areas of permafrost exuding massive measurable quantities of methane.
Methane is twenty-five times worse than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas (GHG) and so this is a terrible
threat of filling up the atmosphere with greater quantities of greenhouse gases than already in the
atmosphere believed to be capable of quadrupling the 700 gigatonnes (1000 million tones) of CO2e already in
the atmosphere. Should this happen temperatures will quickly soar to over 20F (12C) in which temperature
life cannot survive. There is no known way to stop this melting of the permafrost. Yet Canada is going on
mining dirty tar-sands in the north for fuel. Forest –fires are sweeping the taiga and forests of spruce, pine,
larch and fir are on fire. The tundra is an area between the perpetual ice of the Arctic regions and the tree-
line, having a permanently frozen sub-soil called permafrost supporting low-growing vegetation such as ice,
lichens, mosses and dwarf shrubs. The taiga is the sub-arctic coniferous forests of Siberia, northern Canada,
Lapland and the entire northern boundary of Russia.

The matter gets progressively worse when we consider the effects on the oceans. Soaring polar temperatures
more than triple the temperate latitudes are now rapidly melting the two polar ice sheets. The Arctic has
melted extremely fast --- 60 percent faster than predicted three years ago by the IPCC Report – and in the
Antarctic ice sheet comprising 7 billion cubic miles of ice the West Antarctic ice-sheet is breaking away
southerly into the West Atlantic. Thermal expansion is the canary in the coal-mine. When ice melts fast it
means the ocean water is melting faster than expected. In the high mountains such as the Himalayas and
Andes glaciers are also melting rapidly. America and Australia are turning into dustbowls; warming oceans
are creating worse hurricanes and typhoons than ever as we have witnessed over America, eastern China
and Indonesia recently. Droughts and floods have increased, and in West Africa, South and Southeast Asia
the monsoons have failed. Drought and famine threaten in the coming year. Man lives on food, and food
comes from agriculture that is climate-dependant and soil-dependant. If these are lost food security to billions
is lost. There can be no argument about this. This is all due to the uncontrolled over-heating of the planet by
industrial greenhouses gases trapping sunlight. As the oceans have warmed already to about 50-60 percent
corals, mangroves, algae and marine life is dying. The sea threatens to turn from an absorber of greenhouse
gases into the biggest source. In this scenario as temperatures start hitting catastrophic levels (10-20F) the
polar ice-melt will raise the sea an estimated 80 feet perhaps more. But if the Antarctic ice continent melts
sea-rise will be as high as 230 feet. The only relief would be that by that time everyone on Earth would be

These are extremely disturbing facts and not any less disturbing because the major brunt of global warming
through industrially produced greenhouse gases will be faced by generations other than ourselves (or
perhaps even by our grandchildren). The threat to human security has already reached unprecedented levels
of criminal delay and denial as a result of economic and industrial greed in the wealthy nations of which every
citizen is culpable. Global warming is a scientific reality accepted by every government under the United

We have to find solutions to prevent further warming of the planet and this is only possible through stopping
further carbon dioxide emissions. This can only be done by declaring coal emissions as a criminal act under
law because coal is the prime cause of greenhouse gases leading to trapping sunlight and causing global
warming. This would mean closing down dirty-coal industrial energy which runs the world because it is the
cheapest and most easily procured fuel – then come oil and gas. This is anathema to the industrially
developed economies and the industrially developing countries whose entire economies depend upon coal.

But the flip side is that through the industrial revolution, which caused the problem in the first place, we have
developed powerful other energy sources and technologies, in particular solar thermal turbine technology,
that can power us out of this crisis with the same sun’s rays we are being slowly killed by. We have seen the
tremendous benefits which can be had through coordinated energy-conservation. Everywhere there is theft or
avoidable loss of power and we have to try and move away from centrally supplied power to individual or
community-generated power. But governments are slow to dismantle their bureaucratic grip on lucrative
contracts. We have to convince them to move away from the boardrooms and political cubby-holes of power
to a broad consensus on energy consumption and renewable energy.

In these times of great doubt and distress over the future of ourselves and those who follow us we have to
address global warming collectively and in a spirit of humility and scientific enquiry. We have to move from
confrontation and dissent to collective constructive action. We have to proceed in a state of unselfishness and
morality expressed through rational action. We will have to stop offering excuses and deliver options and
alternatives to failure itself. It is at this moment of great uncertainty and ignorance among the worlds vast
population that the Campaign of awareness about global warming has been brought to us by the
American scientist and writer Bill McKibben. On 24 October in all countries of the world actions are being
held under the figure 350. This figure was given by the world’s leading climate scientist, Dr James Hansen,
also Director of NASA, as the highest concentration of carbon dioxide permissible in the planet’s atmosphere
that is 350 parts per million, or 350ppm. We are at present around 387-390ppm. It is critical to not only stop
further pollution of the atmosphere with the dirty-coal gas carbon dioxide but push it back to 350pp. This might
appear impossible but we have to try. If we let the gas concentration top 400ppm we are in grave danger of a
temperature spike of 2-5C. The time has come for citizens of the world to unite against global warming. The
time for introspection and argument is over.The time for action has come. For more information on the 350
Campaign go to

This Press Release has been designed from the seven 350 Press Briefings which are available on the
campaign website:

Bulu Imam
Global 350 Messenger
Coordinator, Karanpura Campaign
Director, Sanskriti Research Center
Convener, INTACH Hazaribagh Chapter
"Sanskriti", Dipugarha
P.O.Hazaribagh 825 301
Jharkhand, INDIA
Tel: 06546-264820; fax: 06546-270815


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