CHEMISTRY Plan of Study 2008 by Ax2YAZF

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									Chemistry

Course Description: Chemistry deals with the substances that make up our
environment and with the chemical changes these substances undergo. The
course material will include an in-depth look at atomic structure, formula
writing, equation writing, mathematical application, stoichiometry and a
number of other related topics. Numbers of topics correspond to chapter
numbers.

Book: Glencoe, Chemistry: Matter and Change ( Buthelezi, etc.) ,
     copright: 2008

Grading Scale:     A+    99%
                   A     93.5%
                   A-    91.5%
                   B+    89.5%
                   B     85.5%
                   B-    83.5%
                   C+    81.5%
                   C     77.5%
                   C-    75.5%
                   D+    73.5%
                   D     69.5%
                   D-    67.5%
                   F     0


1. Introduction to chemistry: Discussion of chemistry and matter, scientific
       methods and scientific research.

      Standards: Nature of Science:N1.1,N1.2, N2.2,N2.2AN2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.2, P1.8A,
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:E1.1, E1.2, E1.3
                 Science Technology: S1.1, S1.2, S2.1, S2.3

      Objectives: a. Define, compare and contrast chemistry, matter, mass,
                        and weight.
                  b. Identify the steps in the scientific method.
                  c. Compare and contrast types of data, variables, types
                     of research.
                  d. Apply knowledge of laboratory safety to lab
                     situations.
      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory
            experiences.

2. Data Analysis: Students will recognize SI units, convert data into
     scientific notation and from one unit to another, round off answers
     to correct degree of uncertainty and use graphs to organize data.

      Standards: Nature of Science: N2.2, N2.2A, N2.3A
                 Physical Science:
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                 Science Technology:

      Objectives: a. Define SI base units, use prefixes and derived units.
                  b. Express numbers in scientific notation and use
                        dimensional analysis to convert between units.
                  c. Define and compare accuracy and precision, use
                        significant figures and rounding to reflect the
                        certainty of data and use percentage of error.
                  d. Create and interpret graphs
      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory


3. Matter – Properties and Changes: Students will distinguish between
      physical and chemical properties, classify matter by composition,
      identify characteristics of chemical reactions and explain the law
      of conservation of matter.

      Standards: Nature of Science: N2.1, N2.2, N2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.1, P1.5, P1.5A
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                   Science Technology:

      Objectives: a. Identify characteristic of a substance, physical and
                        chemical properties, and differentiate between
                        states of matter.
                  b. Define and describe physical changes, chemical
                         changes and apply the law of conservation of
                         mass to chemical reactions.
                  c. Contrast mixtures and substances, classify mixtures
                        as homogeneous and heterogeneous and use
                        techniques to separate mixtures.
                  e. Distinguish between elements and compounds,
                        describe the organization of the periodic table,
                        and explain how compounds obey the laws of
                        multiple and definite proportions.
      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory
.

4. The Structure of the Atom – Identify the experiments that led to the
      nuclear model of atomic structure. Describe the structure of the atom
      and describe nuclear stability and radioactivity.

      Standards: Nature of Science: N1.1, N1.2, N2.2, N2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.1, P1.1A, P1.2A
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                 Science Technology: S1.1, S1.2


      Objectives: a. Compare and contrast the atomic models of
                        Democritus and Dalton and define the atom.
                  b. Describe the structures of the nuclear atom and include
                         the location, relative masses and charges of the
                         subatomic particles.
                  c. Define and apply knowledge of atomic number, atomic
                          mass, isotopes to calculate the number of
                          electrons, protons and neutrons.
                  d. Explain the relationship between unstable nucei
                         and radioactive decay and characterize alpha,
                         beta and gamma radiation in terms of mass and
                         charge.

      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory.



5. Electrons in Atoms – Compare the wave and particle models of light,
      compare and contrast the Bohr model and quantum models of the
      atom, write electron configurations and electron dot structures.

      Standards: Nature of Science: N1.1, N1.2, N2.2, N2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.1, P1.1A, P1.2A
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                 Science Technology: S1.1, S1.2

      Objectives: a. Compare the wave and particle models of light, define
                        a quantum of energy, contrast different spectrum
                        of light.
                  b. Compare the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of
                        the atom
                  c. Explain the impact of de Broglie’s wave-particle
                        duality and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle
                        on the modern view of electrons in atoms.
                  d. Apply Pauli’s exclusion principle, the aufbau
                        principle, and Hund’s rule to write electron
                        configuration.
                  f. Define valence electrons and draw electron dot
                        structures representing an atom’s valence
                        electrons.
      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory.
6. The Periodic Table and Periodic Law – Explain why elements in a
   group have similar properties. Relate the group and period trends in
   the periodic table to the electron configuration of atoms. Identify the
   s, p, d, and f blocks of the periodic table.

   Standards: Nature of Science: N1.1, N1.2, N2.1, N2.2, N2.3A
              Physical Science: P1.1, P1.5, P1.2A
              Life Science:
              Earth Science:
              Science Technology: S1.2,


   Objectives: a. Trace the development and identify key features of the
                      Periodic table.
               b. Explain why elements in the same group have similar
                      properties.
               c. Identify the four blocks of the periodic table based on
                      electron configuration.
               d. Compare the period and group trends of several
                      properties.
               e. Relate period and group trends in atomic radii to
                      electron configuration.
   Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
         problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
         laboratory.


7. Ionic Compound and Metals – Define a chemical bond, describe
   how ions form, identify ionic bonding and characteristics of ionic
   compounds. Name and write formulas for ionic compounds.
   Relate metallic bonds to the characteristics of metals.

   Standards: Nature of Science: N1.2, N1.2A, N2.1, N2.2, N2.2A,
                                N2.3A
              Physical Science: P1.1, P1.2, P1.2A
              Life Science:
              Earth Science:
              Science Technology:
     Objectives : a. Define chemical bonds and relate bond formation to
                        electron configuration.
                 b. Describe the formation of positive and negative ions.
                 c. Describe the formation of ionic bonds.
                 d. Account for the physical properties of ionic
                         compounds .
                 e. Write formulas and names for ionic compounds and
                        oxyanions.
                 f. Describe metallic bonds and the physical properties of
                        metals in terms of metallic bonds .
                 g. Define and describe alloys.
     Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
                  problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
                  laboratory.



  8. Covalent Bonding - Analyze the nature of a covalent bond, name
     covalently bonded groups of atoms, determine the shapes of
     molecules, describe the characteristics of covalent molecules,
     And compare and contrast polar and nonpolar molecules.

Standards: Nature of Science: N1.2, N1.2A, N2.1, N2.2, N2.2A,
                                    N2.3A
                Physical Science: P1.1, P1.2, P1.2A
                Life Science:
                Earth Science:
                Science Technology:


     Objectives : a. Apply the octet rule to atoms that bond covalently.
                  b. Describe the formation of single, double and triple
                        bonds.
                 c. Compare and contrast sigma and pi bonds.
                 d. Relate the strength of covalent bonds to bond length
                     and bond dissociation.
                 e. Identify the names of binary molecular compounds
                     and name acidic compounds.
                 f. Explain why resonance occurs and identify resonance
                     Structures.
             g. Discuss the VSEPR bonding theory, predict the
                  shape of and the bond angles in a molecule.
             h. Define hybridization
             i. Describe how electronegativity is used to determine
                 bond type.
             j. Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar bonds and
                 and molecules.
             k. Describe the characteristics of compounds that are
                 covalently bonded.
   Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
              problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
              laboratory.


9. Chemical Reactions –Write chemical equations to describe
       Chemical reactions. Classify and identify chemical reactions.
       Write ionic equations for reactions that occur in aqueous
       solutions.

   Standards: Nature of Science: N1.2, N2.1, N2.2, N2.1A, N2.2A
                                N2.3A
              Physical Science: P1.4, P1.5, P1.2A, P1.3A
              Life Science:
              Earth Science:
              Science Technology:

   Objectives : a. Recognize evidence of chemical change.
               b. Represent chemical reactions with equations.
               c. Classify chemical reactions.
               d. Identify the characteristics of different classes of
                      chemical reactions.
               e. Describe aqueous solution.
               f. Write complete ionic and net ionic equations for
                       chemical reactions in aqueous solutions.
               g. Predict whether reactions in aqueous solutions will
                      produce a precipitate, water or a gas.

   Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
         problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
         laboratory.
10. The Mole - Use the mole and molar mass to make conversions among
          moles, mass and numbers of particles. Determine the percent
          composition of compounds. Calculate empirical and molecular
          formulas and formulas of hydrates.

     Standards: Nature of Science: N2.1, N2.2, N2.2A, N2.3A
                Physical Science: P1.4, P1.5, P1.3A, P1.6A
                Life Science:
                Earth Science:
                Science Technology:


     Objectives: a. Describe how a mole is used in chemistry.
                 b. Convert mole to particles and visa versa
                 c. Relate the mass of an atom to the mass of a mole
                 c. Calculate the number of moles in a given mass and
                        visa versa
                 d. Calculate the number of moles if given number of
                        atoms of a substance and visa versa
                 e. Recognize the mole relationships shown by a chemical
                        formula.
                 f. Calculate the molar mass of a compound
                 g. Calculate the number of moles of a compound from a
                         given mass of the compound and visa versa
                 h. Determine the number of atoms or ions in a given
                         mass of a compound
                 i. Explain what is meant by the percent composition of
                        a compound
                 j. Determine the empirical and molecular formula of a
                         compound from mass percent and actual mass
                         data
                 k. Explain what a hydrate is and how its name reflects its
                        composition
                 l. Determine the formula for a hydrate from laboratory
                        data

     Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
           problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
           laboratory.
11. Stoichiometry: Write mole ratios from balanced chemical equations,
            calculate the number of moles and the mass of a reactant or
            product when given the number of moles or the mass or another
            reactant or product, identify the limiting reagent in a chemical
            reaction, determine percentage yield.

Standards: Nature of Science: N2.1, N2.2, N2.2A, N2.3A
                Physical Science: P1.4, P1.5, P1.3A, P1.6A
                Biological Science:
                Earth Science:
                Science Technology:


      Objectives: a. Identify the quantitative relationships in a balanced
                         chemical equation.
                  b. Determine the mole rations from a balanced chemical
                         equation.
                  c. Explain the sequence of steps used in solving a
                         stoichiometry problem.
                  d. Use the steps to solve a stoichiometry problem
                  e. Identify the limiting reagent in a chemical equation
                  f. Identify the excess reagent and calculate the amount
                         remaining after the reaction is complete.
                  g. Calculate the mass of a product when the amounts
                         of more than one reactant are given
                  h. Calculate the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction
                         from data
                  h. Determine the percent yield for a chemical reaction

      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory.


12. States of Matter : use the kinetic-molecular theory to explain the
             physical properties of liquids, gases and solids. Compare types
             of intermolecular forces, explain how kinetic energy and
             intermolecular forces combine to determine the state of a
            substance. Describe the role of energy in phase changes.

      Standards: Nature of Science: N2.1, N2.2, N2.2A, N2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.2, P1.3, P1.4A, P1.5A, P1.6A,
                                   P1.7A
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                 Science Technology:


      Objectives: a. Use the kinetic-molecular theory to explain the
                         behavior of gases.
                  b. Describe how mass affects the rates of diffusion and
                         effusion.
                  c. Explain how gas pressure is measured and calculate
                         the partial pressure of a gas.
                  d. Describe and compare intramolecular and
                          intermolecular forces.
                  e. Distinguish among intermolecular forces.
                  f. Apply kinetic-molecular theory to the behavior of
                         liquids and solids
                  g. Relate properties such as viscosity, surface tension,
                         and capillary action to intermolecular forces.
                  h. compare the structures and properties of different types
                          of solids.
                  i. Explain how the addition and removal of energy can
                          cause a phase change.
                  i. Interpret a phase diagram

      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory.


13. Gases : Use gas laws to calculate pressure, temperature, volume and
            number of moles of a gas when one or more of these variables
            change. Compare properties of real and ideal gases. Apply the
            gas laws and Avogadro’s principle to chemical equations.

      Standards: Nature of Science: N2.1, N2.2, N2.2A, N2.3A
                   Physical Science: P1.4, P1.5, P1.6A, P1.7A
                   Life Science:
                   Earth Science:
                   Science Technology: S1.2


      Objectives: a. State Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law and Gay-Lussac’s
                         law.
                  b. Apply the three gas laws to problems involving the
                         pressure, temperature and volume of a gas.
                  c. State the relationship among temperature, volume and
                         pressure as the combined gas law.
                  d. Apply the combined gas law to problems involving
                         pressure, temperature and volume of a gas.
                  e. Relate the numbers of particles and volumes by using
                         Avogadro’s principle.
                  f. Relate the amount of gas present to its pressure,
                         temperature and volume by using the ideal gas
                         law.
                  g. Compare the properties of real and ideal gases.
                  h. Determine volume ratios for gaseous reactants and
                         products by using coefficients in a chemical
                         equation.
                  i. Calculate amounts of gaseous reactants and products in
                         a chemical reaction using the gas laws.

      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory.


14. Mixtures and Solutions : Describe and categorize solutions, calculate
           concentrations of solutions, analyze the colligative properties
           of solutions, compare and contrast heterogeneous mixtures.

      Standards: Nature of Science: : N2.1, N2.2, N2.1A, N2.2A, N2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.3, P1.4, P1.5A, P1.6A, P1.7A
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                 Science Technology: S1.2, S2.2
      Objectives: a. Describe the characteristics of solutions and identify
                          the various types.
                  b. relate the intermolecular forces and the process of
                         salvation
                  c. Define solubility and identify factors affecting it.
                  d. State the concentrations of solutions in different ways
                  e. Calculate the concentrations of solutions
                  f. Explain the nature of colligative properties
                  g. Describe four colligative properties of solutions
                  h. Calculate the boiling point elevation and the freesing
                         point depression of a solution.
                  i. Identify the properties of suspensions and colloids
                  j. Describe the different types of colloids
                  k. Explain the electrostatic forces in colloids

      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory.


15. Energy and Chemical Change : Measure and calculate the energy
            involved in chemical changes. Write thermochemical equations
            and calculate changes in enthalpy.

      Standards: Nature of Science: : N2.1, N2.2, N2.1A, N2.2A, N2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.3, P1.4, P1.5A, P1.6A, P1.7A,
                             P1.8A
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                 Science Technology:

      Objectives: a. Explain what energy is and distinguish between kinetic
                          and potential energy.
                  b. Relate chemical potential energy to the heat lost or
                          gained in a chemical reaction.
                  c. Calculate the amount of heat absorbed or released by a
                         substance as its temperature changes.
                  d. Describe how a calorimeter is used to measure
                         enthalpy changes in a chemical reaction.
                  e. Explain the meaning of enthalpy and enthalpy changes
                         in chemical reactions.
                  f. Write thermochemical equations for chemical reactions
                          and other processes.
                  g. Describe how energy is lost or gained during changes
                          in state.
                  h. Calculate the heat lost or gained in a chemical
                         reaction.
                  i. Use Hess’s Law of summation of enthalpies to
                         calculate the enthalpy change of a reaction.
                  j. Differentiate between spontaneous and nonspontaneous
                          processes.

      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory.


18. Acids and Bases: Compare acids and bases and understand why their
            strengths vary. Define pH and pOH and calculate the pH and
            pOH of a solutions. Calculate and determine experimentally
             the concentration of acid and base solutions. Explain how
            buffers resist changes in pH.

      Standards: Nature of Science: N2.1, N2.2, N2.1A, N2.2A, N2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.2, P1.4, P1.3A, P1.4A, P1.6A
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                 Science Technology:


      Objectives: a. Identify the physical and chemical properties of acids
                         and bases.
                  b. Classify solutions as acidic, basic or neutral
                  c. Compare the Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry model
                         of acids and bases.
                  d. Relate the strength of an acid or base to its degree of
                         ionization.
                  e. Compare the strength of a weak acid to the strength of
                         its conjugate base and the strength of a weak base
                         to the strength of its conjugate acid.
                  f. Explain the relationship between the strengths of acids
                         and bases and the values of their ionization
                         constants.
                  g. Explain the meaning of pH and pOH
                  h. Relate the pH and pOH to the ion product constant for
                         water.
                  i. Calculate the pH and pOH of aqueous solutions
                  j. Write chemical equations for neutralization reactions.
                  k. Explain how neutralization reactions are used in
                         acid base titrations.
                  l. Compare the properties of buffered and unbuffered
                         solutions.

      Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
            problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
            laboratory.



21. Hydrocarbons: Compare the structure and properties of alkanes,
           alkenes and alkynes. Recognize and compare the properties
           of structural isomers and stereoisomers. Describe how useful
           hydrocarbons are obtained from natural sources.

      Standards: Nature of Science: N2.1, N2.2, N2.1A, N2.2A, N2.3A
                 Physical Science: P1.2, P1.3, P1.4, P1.4A, P1.6A,
                             P1.8A
                 Life Science:
                 Earth Science:
                 Science Technology: S1.1, S1.2, S2.3


      Objectives: a. Describe the structure of alkanes
                  b. Name an alkane by examining its structure
                  c. Draw the structure of an alkane given its name.
                  d. Name a cyclic alkane by examining its structure
                  e. Draw the structure of a cyclic alkane given its name
                  f. Describe the properties of alkanes
           g. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated
                  hydrocarbons.
           h. Compare the properties of alkenes and alkynes with
                  those of alkanes.

           i. Describe the molecular structure of alkenes and
                  alkynes.
           j. Name an alkene or alkyne by examining its structure.
           l. Draw the structure of an alkene or alkyne by analyzing
                  its name.
           m. Distinguish between the two main categories of
                  isomers, structural isomers and stereoisomers.
           n. Differentiate between cis- and trans- geometric
                  isomers.
           o. Recognize different structural isomers given a
                  structural formula.
           p. Describe the structural variation in molecules that
                  results in optical isomers.
           q. Compare and contrast the properties of aromatic and
                  aliphatic hydrocarbons.
           r. Explain what a carcinogen is and list some examples
           s. Identify the fractions into which petroleum can be
                   separated.

Assignments and Assessment: Test, Chapter Problems, Section
      problems, worksheets, quizzes, Written Assessments and
      laboratory.

								
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