Periodic Table of the Elements - DOC by Ax2YAZF

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									           Honors Chemistry
                Unit 4




 Families (research and present)
 Metals/nonmetals
 Trends
    o Atomic radius
    o Electronegativity
    o Ionization energy
    o Metallic and nonmetallic character
 Review Ions
 Oxidation #’s




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                     Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids


Define the following terms/physical properties & determine how you can test a sample for this
property.

   1) Malleability




   2) Luster




   3) Conductivity




   4) For reactivity with acid, how will you determine if a chemical reaction has occurred?




Purpose: To classify unknown samples as metal, nonmetal, or metalloid based on the observed
characteristics.

 Use the procedures you described above to test each physical property of the samples. To test the
chemical property (reaction w/ acid) place a small piece of the sample into a test tube and then add 5-
                10 drops of acid. Record your observations in the table on the back.




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               Properties of Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids Table



Sample #      Color         Luster        Malleability Conductivity Reaction         Classification
                            (lustrous)    (malleable)               w/ acid




See p. 22-24 in your book for the basic properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Then classify
each of your samples as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid.




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                    Families on the Periodic Table

 Family Name                List Elements            Characteristics
                         (Solid/Liquid/Gas)
                     (Metal/Metalloid/Nonmetal)
   Hydrogen




  Alkali Metals




 Alkaline Earth
    Metals




Transition Metals




  Other Metals
(Post transition)




   Metalloids




                                                                       7
     Family Name                   List Elements         Characteristics
                                (Solid/Liquid/Gas)
                            (Metal/Metalloid/Nonmetal)
   Other Non metals




       Halogens




      Noble Gases




      Lanthanoids
(Inner transition metals)




        Actinoids
(Inner transition metals)




     New Elements




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Periodic Trends




                  9
                                  Honors Chemistry Note-Taking Outline
                                          "Periodic Properties"
Atomic Radius

___________ the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms that are bonded together.
Left to right across the periodic table
    1.        Electron – electron ________________________
                   Makes radius larger
                   Very weak interactions
    2.        Proton – electron _________________________
                  Makes radius smaller
                  Very strong interactions
Down a group/family
    3.        Energy level, n, __________________ from top to bottom
                  Radius gets larger by adding large amount of electrons
                  Think Bohr model (adding rings)

Electron Affinity
The energy change that occurs when a neutral atom ___________________ an electron.

Ionization Energy
The energy required to ___________________ one electron from a neutral atom.

Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to _______________ electrons.
Most electronegative element is F (fluorine).
It is assigned the number 4.
All other values are based on this value.


                                               Periodic Trends



                                                   Top to Bottom                      Left to Right




             Atomic Radii



              Ionization
               Energy



           Electron Affinity



           Electronegativity




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Metallic Character

    1.      _______________ ionization energy (easy to remove electrons)

    2.      _______________ electronegativities (don’t attract electrons)

    3.      _______________ Luster – shiny

    4.      _______________ conductor of electricity and heat

    5.      _______________ and ductile


Most metallic element = _______________________



NonMetallic Character

    1. ______________ ionization energy (hard to remove electrons)

    2. ______________ electronegativities (attract electrons)

    3. ______________ or no metallic luster

    4. ______________ electrical and thermal conductors

    5. ______________ solids


Most nonmetallic element = _____________________



Metalloid Character

    1.       Characteristics of both metals and nonmetals.

    2.       _______________________ between those of metals and nonmetals.

    3.       _______________________ energies between those of metals and nonmetals.

    4.       Boiling pts, Melting pts and _________________ vary widely.


         Example: Silicon –                             _______________ luster

                                                        _______________

                                                        _______________ conductor




                                                                                       11
Periodic Table of the Elements




                                 12
                              Periodicity Review Worksheet

1. Which atom in the following pairs would have the larger atomic radii?

P or Cl        P or Ge         Mg or Ca         Na or Mg
K or Mg        Sn or Pb        Sn or As         Al or Cl
As or Se       Cl or Br        Si or S          Sr or Ra
Si or O        Ca or Al        H or He

2. Which ion in the following pairs would have the larger radii?

Li+ or Be2+             Mg2+ or Be2+            Cs+ or Be2+            Cu+ or Cu2+
Cr3+ or Cr6+            Na+ or Al3+             Zn2+ or Fe2+           N3- or F-
S2- or O2-              I- or Cl-               P3- or S2-             Br- or S2-

3. Which member of the following pairs would have a larger radii?

Br or Br-               S or S6+                O or O2-               P or P3-
Ca or Ca2+              Al or Al3+              Li or Li+              N3- or Al3+

4. Which atom in the following pairs would have the greater first ionization energy?

   Sr or Ba      Cs or Ba            Cl or Ar      In or Sn        Xe or Kr        Mg or Sr     Ca or Cu

5. What is the difference between electron affinity and ionization energy?




6. Which member in the following pairs would have the greater electron affinity &
electronegativity?

F or Cl        F or O          F or Any element        S or Cl         Ca or K        Ca or F      Al or
Si
S or O         N or O          Nonmetal or Metal                 C or S Mg or Na      Na or K

7. What is the difference between a cation and an anion?



8. Identify three anions in Period 2 that can have the same number of electrons when they
become ions. Do they gain or lose electrons?

9. Identify three cations in Period 3 that can have the same number of electrons when they
become ions. Do they gain or lose electrons?




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10. Identify the ions that are most likely to have an ion charge (oxidation state) of -2? (Hint:
there are five of them)

11. Identify the ions that are most likely to have an ion charge (oxidation state) of +2? (Hint:
there are six of them)



12. Why do elements in the same family generally have similar properties?



13. Which element has the greatest electron affinity? Why?

14. Which element has the lowest ionization energy? Why?




15. Consider all elements in period 3 for the following (Na through Ar)
____ has the largest atomic radius
____ has the greatest electron affinity
____ has the highest first ionization energy
____ is the most reactive metal
____ is the most reactive non metal
____ is the least reactive
___________ are metalloids
___________ are most likely to be cations
___________ are most likely to be anions
_____ loses 3 electrons to have noble gas configuration
_____ gains 3 electrons to have noble gas configuration

16. Consider all elements in group 17 (O through Po)
____ is the least reactive
____ is the most reactive
____ has the greatest electron affinity
____ has the greatest first ionization energy
____ has the smallest atomic radius

17. In a given period, are cations larger or are anions bigger?

18. Is the radius of a cation larger or smaller than the neutral atom? Why?

19. Is the radius of an anion larger or smaller than the neutral atom? Why?




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Martian PT                                                                Name ___________________________________

Date ________                                                             Class Period _______ Clicker Number ________

                                              Honors Chemistry Worksheet
                                                       "Trends"

                               "Periodic Chart For Mars And Its 33 Known Elements"

Place the following elements in their proper place in the Martian periodic table. Remember, natural laws are the
same for the whole universe. Note that Mars has no transition metals.

     a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z, !, #, $, %, +, =, ?




                                                                                                       undis-
                                                                                                       covered


1. The most reactive metallic element is x.

2. The most reactive nonmetallic element is !.

3. Inert gases (like our noble gases) are $, %, a, and d. a is the least dense, $ is the most dense,
         and d has a lower boiling point than %.

4. The lightest element of all is #.

5. All the following elements are in the 3rd energy level and have
         n is the largest atomic radius
         g is a metalloid
         = is the most reactive nonmetal
         ? is a pretty reactive metal
         + is to the right of k but k has the higher ionization energy
         e is in this period as well

6. Element g has 14 protons.

7. f has 7 electrons.

8. c has an atomic mass of 5 and forms the compound cs.

9. r would correspond to our alkali metals and is in the 4th energy level.




                                                                                                                     15
10. The ! family is made up of the elements !, =, s and p in order of increasing atomic radii.

11. j is the most dense of all Martian atoms and is radioactive.

12. q is in period 5 and has a dot notation of 2 dots and an oxidation number of +2.

13. m is in period 2 and will form a compound with ! that has the formula m!2. In other words, m has two electrons that it
         would like to give to !.

14. h is like our element carbon and is in same family as t, w and g.

15. t is bigger than w in atomic radius.

16. The Martian solvent is like our most important liquid and has the formula # 2y.

17. o is in the same family as e and has a lower melting point.

18. i is the only metalloid in the family of y.

19. l has a dot notation of 3 dots and an oxidation number of +3.

20. z is in the same family as q and has a slightly higher ionization energy than q.

21. b is slightly smaller that q.

22. u has a final electron configuration of 4p 3.

23. v is next to s and more dense then s.




Bonus Problems:


A. If you discovered the Martian element that is listed as undiscovered at this time on the
        Martian periodic table, what would you name it?


         ______________________________


B. What chemical symbol would you give this element and why?

         __________


C. Name at least three characteristics that this element would have because
      of its location on the Martian periodic table?




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                                                                  Name ___________________________________

Date ________                                                     Class Period _______ Clicker Number ________

                                        Honors Chemistry Practice Quiz
                                         “The Periodic Law”: "Trends"




Answer the following problems by placing the correct letter next to the problem number.



For problems 1-5 indicate with answer "a" the element you would predict with the highest ionization energy.
        Continue ranking the elements down to the lowest.
a. highest b. second highest c. third highest d. second lowest e. lowest

1. 37 - Rubidium                  2. 55 - Cesium                   3. 50 - Tin
4. 39 - Yttrium                   5. 87 - Francium



For problems 6-10 indicate with answer "a" the element you would predict with the largest atomic radius. Continue
         ranking the elements down to the smallest.
a. largest b. second largest c. third largest d. second smallest e. smallest

6. 73 - Tantalum                  7. 12 - Magnesium               8. 80 - Mercury
9. 84 - Polonium                 10. 16 - Sulfur



For problems 11-15 indicate with answer "a" the element you would predict with the highest electronegativity.
         Continue ranking the elements down to the lowest.
a. highest b. second highest c. third highest d. second lowest e. lowest

11. 55 - Cesium                  12. 9 - Fluorine                 13. 8 - Oxygen
14. 87 - Francium                15. 7 - Nitrogen



For problems 16-20 indicate with answer "a" the element you would predict with the highest reactivity. Continue
        ranking the elements down to the lowest.
a. highest b. second highest c. third highest d. second lowest e. lowest

16. 37 - Rubidium                17. 55 - Cesium                  18. 50 - Tin
19. 39 - Yttrium                 20. 87 - Francium



For problems 21-25 indicate with answer "a" the element you would predict with the metallic characteristics.
        Continue ranking the elements down to the lowest.
a. highest b. second highest c. third highest d. second lowest e. lowest

21. 11 - Sodium                  22. 18 - Argon                   23. 81 - Thallium
24. 20- Calcium                  25. 30 - Zinc




                                                                                                                  17
Review of Ions




                 Notes on Oxidation Numbers




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                        Common Polyatomic Ions

      Polyatomic Ion Name               Formula            Charge

           Ammonium                      NH4                +1

             Acetate                     CHO                 -1
                                         2 3           2

Bicarbonate (Hydrogen Carbonate)         HCO                 -1
                                                   3

            Bromate                      BrO                 -1
                                               3

            Chlorate                     ClO                 -1
                                               3

             Chlorite                    ClO                 -1
                                               2

           Hydroxide                      OH                 -1

          Hypochlorite                   ClO                 -1
                                               1

             Iodate                       IO                 -1
                                               3

           Manganate                     MnO                 -1
                                                   3

             Nitrate                     NO                  -1
                                               3

             Nitrite                     NO                  -1
                                               2

           Perchlorate                   ClO                 -1
                                               4

         Permanganate                    MnO                 -1
                                                   4


Bicarbonate (Hydrogen Carbonate)         HCO                 -1
                                                   3

   Bisulfate (Hydrogen Sulfate)          HSO                 -1
                                                   4


           Carbonate                     CO                  -2
                                               3

            Carbonite                    CO                  -2
                                               2

            Chromate                     CrO                 -2
                                               4

             Sulfate                      SO                 -2
                                               4

             Sulfite                      SO                 -2
                                               3


          Perphosphate                   PO                  -3
                                               5

           Phosphate                     PO                  -3
                                               4

            Phosphite                    PO                  -3
                                               3




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Name ________________________________________                          Class Period _______________


                                                       Ion Practice



   1.   An isotope has 106 proton, 157 neutrons, and 106 electrons:

            a.   Write the nuclear symbol for this isotope _________________

            b.   What is the name of this element? ___________________

            c.   Is this an atom or an ion? ______________________

            d.   What is the mass number of this isotope ________________

            e.   What is the atomic number? __________________

            f.   What is the net charge? _______________________

   2.   An isotope has 29 protons, 34 neutrons, and 28 electrons:

            a.   Write the hyphen notation for this isotope ______________________

            b.   What is the name of this element? ___________________

            c.   Is this an atom or an ion? ______________________

            d.   What is the mass number of this isotope ________________

            e.   What is the atomic number? __________________

            f.   What is the net charge? _______________________
                           104
   3.     a. The species         Rh3+ has _____protons, _____neutrons and _____electrons
                           12
          b. The species        C has _____protons, _____neutrons and _____electrons
                           130
          c. The species        Te-2 has _____protons, ____neutrons and ____electrons

  4.      Which element will produce an ion with 15 protons, 16 neutrons and 18 electrons?
          _______________.

  5.    Which element will produce an ion with 20 protons, 20 neutrons and 18 electrons?
        _______________.




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6.      a.   A Calcium atom will (lose or gain) _____ electrons. How many? _______
             Is the calcium atom bigger or smaller than the calcium ion? ___________

         b. A Francium atom will (lose or gain) ______electrons. How many? ______
            Is the francium atom bigger or smaller than the francium ion? ___________

         c. A Fluorine atom will (lose or gain) _______ electrons. How many?______
            Is the fluorine atom bigger or smaller than the fluorine ion? ___________

         d. A Oxygen atom will (lose or gain) ______ electrons. How many? _______
            Is the oxygen atom bigger or smaller than the oxygen ion? ___________

         e. A Carbon atom will (lose or gain) _______electrons. How many? ______
            Is the carbon atom bigger or smaller than the carbon ion? ___________



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7.   Considering a    Mg atom and and a    Mg2+ ion, label the following true or false:

     _____ They both have the same number of protons

     _____ They both have the same number of electrons

     _____ They both have the same number of neutrons

     _____ The magnesium ion has 14 electrons and the magnesium atom as 10 electrons

     _____ The net charge on the magnesium ion is +2

     _____ The Bohr model of the magnesium ion has 0 electrons in the outer most shell.

     _____ The Mg2+ ion is larger than the Mg atom.




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                      Periodic Table Unit
                       Extension Activity
             PowerPoint Directions for Presentation:

1. Start with www.ptable.com. Click on the family (in the legend area of the
      website) that you have been assigned. Take down information on your
      worksheet. Hydrogen group – click directly on the Hydrogen square on the
      periodic table.

2. Transition Metals, Lanthanoids, and Actinoids for the elements in the family –
      list the range of atomic numbers --- do not name them all!! Example:
      Transition metals range from 21 – 30 and ….

3. Go to 2 other websites – search for your family in a search engine to find
      information. For “other” information, uses is good information to include.
      Anything unusual or unique for that family would also be good in include.

4. Make the information into a powerpoint – have at least 4 slides. Use only a few
     words per slide and bullet the information.

5. Each slide is to have at least one picture and at least one motion and/or
      transition.

6. Store your information in my teacher file inbox in the correct class file. Once
      you submit it, you will not be able to see it in my inbox.




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                                     Project PT                           Name ___________________________________

Due Date ________                                                         Class Period _______ Clicker Number ________

                                               Honors Chemistry – Project
                                               Unit on "The Periodic Table"

                            (20 points) Your Assigned Element: _________________

         Rather than having a major test over all we have covered concerning the elements and the information on the
periodic table, you will design a scale model of a selected element. The following is the grading rubric for this model:

                                     Criteria for Grading                                              Points          Points
                                                                                                      Possible         Earned
1. This visual aid is to be well designed and drawn.                                                     5
2. Your element collage is to be made from stiff cardboard or a similar material and cut out
         into the symbol of the element.
3. The piece is to be 11 inches high and 8 inches wide. From this piece of posterboard cut
         out the symbol of your element.
4. At the top of your element symbol poke a small hole and place a Christmas tree ornament
         hook or paper clip through the hole.
5. On the front of your element symbol you are to put your name and class number.
6. Then you are to place pictures of at least eight items (compounds or other materials) that
         are made out of your element on the front.

The creativity and neatness of your element collage. The overall neatness of your answers to              4
          the above questions on the back of your element collage. Each section was marked
          with the appropriate letter and placed in order. Information should be typed and
          formatted to fit the back of your symbol.

On the back of your element symbol place the following information in letter order                       11
          labeled properly with the letter:
A. Who discovered your element and when?
B. Its atomic number and mass                                                                        1 point per
C. The number of protons, neutrons and electrons in its most common isotope                            Letter
D. The electron configuration, orbital notation and dot notation
E. List 5 physical properties of your element. (be careful to distinguish between physical and
          chemical properties.)
F. List 5 chemical properties of your element (you need to understand what a chemical
          property is as opposed to a physical property.)
G. The abundance of your element by its percentage of the total mass of the earth's crust or
          atmosphere, or lithosphere. Indicate which one.
H. Where is your element found primarily on or in the earth. If I were to look for this
          element, where would be the best place to look.
I. List 5 compounds or other materials that contain your element
J. List at least 5 uses for your element
K. Unique information about your element - "Hey, that's pretty interesting!"


No Scoring Rubric                                                                                         -5

Total Score:                                                                                             20


         If absent = will be due to me the day of your return or -3 points if turned in later in the day and -5 points each day
the quest project is late. If your element symbol is turned in without this rubric for scoring, you will lose 5 points.




                                                                                                                                  24
Assignment # ____                   Project PT                           Name _____________________________________

Due Date ________                                                        Class Number ______

                                              Honors Chemistry – Project
                                              Unit on "The Periodic Table"


          Because one of the major purposes of this course is to expose each student to a broad overview of chemistry, one of
the best ways to do this is for each student to do some research on an element that interests them and make a presentation to
the class. You will be required to select an element that is listed below on a first come-first served basis on an announced
day. You will then research it using our school or public libraries, our textbook and any other resources you may find. The
entire project will be worth a total of 20 points. We will hopefully spend one day in the library and on the internet to expose
you to the material available for research and to get you started. The following is the list of the elements from which you
may choose:

Element                    Name                        Element                     Name

1 - hydrogen           ____________________________               15 - phosphorus       ____________________________

2 - helium             ____________________________               16 - sulfur           ____________________________

3 - lithium            ____________________________               17 - chlorine         ____________________________

4 - beryllium          ____________________________               18 - argon            ____________________________

5 - boron              ____________________________               19 - potassium        ____________________________

6 - carbon             ____________________________               20 - calcium          ____________________________

7 - nitrogen           ____________________________               26 - iron             ____________________________

8 - oxygen             ____________________________               28 - nickel           ____________________________

9 - fluorine           ____________________________               29 - copper           ____________________________

10 - neon              ____________________________               30 - zinc             ____________________________

11 - sodium            ____________________________               47 - silver           ____________________________

12 - magnesium         ____________________________               79 - gold             ____________________________

13 - aluminum          ____________________________               80 - mercury          ____________________________

14 - silicon           ____________________________               92 - uranium          ____________________________



          You will be responsible to select an element, research it and become the resident expert on this element for the rest
of the class. On the date listed present to me the information as listed on the rubric on the preceding page.




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