The outer layer of the Earth, made up of the crust and the part
of mantle just below it.
ion An electrically charged atom or group of atoms.
mantle The layer of rock just below the crust.
All the water on the Earth, including oceans, lakes, rivers,
underground reservoirs and rainwater.
The force of attraction between objects with opposite electric
charges. A positive ion, for example attracts a negative ion.
atmosphere The layer of gases that surrounds the earth.
biosphere All the living organisms on the Earth.
An ionic compound formed when a metal reacts with a non-
metal or when an acid neutralizes an alkali.
dissolve When a solid splits up and mixes with a liquid.
Bonds that form between atoms of non-metallic atoms and
consist of a shared pair of electrons.
A naturally occurring element or compound in the Earth’s
abundant This describes how common an element is.
The chemical that makes aup chromosomes –
Chemicals in living things that are polymers made by joining
together amino acids.
Bonds that come from the attraction between positively and
negatively charged ions.
Splitting up a chemical into it’s elements by passing an
electric current through it.
A conductor made of a metal or graphite through which a
current enters or leaves a chemical during electrolysis.
A mineral that contains enough valuable chemicals to make it
profitable to mine.
A chemical which can be split up by an electric current when
molten or dissolved in solution.
Strong bonds due to the attraction between positive ions and
free outer electrons that can drift from ion to ion.
reduction A reaction that removes oxygen from a chemical.
oxidation A reaction that adds oxygen to a chemical.