The Moroccan Sultan Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah by 073ecl

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									Sidi MohaMad Ben aBdullah’S
        Foreign Policy




              Prepared and presented by :
                             Mbark ERRAJI
                                     Outline
I. Introduction
II. Mohammad III Foreign Policy as a Part of the Reform Policy
III.The Two Major Trends in Mohammad Ben Abdullah’s Policy
          1. The Internal Policy
          2. The Foreign Policy
IV.The Confrontation Policy
          1. The Blockade of Mellila
          2. The Battle of El Jadida
          3. The Battle of Larache “lexus”
V. The Peace Policy
          1. Diplomatic Relations with the Moslem World
          2. Diplomatic Relations with the Western World
          3. Relations with The North African Regencies
                a. Tunis
                b. Tripoli
                c. Algeirs
          4. Diplomatic Relations with the Western World
                a. Relations with France
                b. Relations with Spain
                c. Relations with The United States

VI.Conclusion
                   I.Introduction
  The period following the death of Moulay Ismail was chaotic which
lasted for more than thirty years (1727-1757).It witnessed, almost, a
total absence of the states 'authority. Besides, It was known of the
weakness of the Moroccan economy and a severe decrease in its
revenues. By the beginning of the mid 18th century, the situation
changed slightly towards a better position by the coming of the
Sultan Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah(19757-1790).
  He started to execute a new policy which was based on
modernizing the political , economic and social life. That is to say ,
he brought new financial sources rather than the ones the the state
was relying on during the precedent period.
   His Long term vision was based on opening the country towards
European and Moslem countries. In deed, this played the vital role in
spreading the image of a strong nation situated on the west of North
Africa called Morocco.
II- Mohammad III Foreign Policy as a Part of
           the Reform Policy
    After the death of the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail, Morocco was at
the heart of a political and economic crisis that lasted for thirty years . The
state was in a situation of chaos. Hence, it’s sovereignty on the whole
country was limited .The Moroccan economy was weak and this has
influenced trade and Agricultural revenues. This situation remained till the
coming of Sultan Mohammad Ben Abdullah who lead a reform policy
which influenced two major fields:

               1-The Internal Policy

               2-The Foreign Policy
III- The Two Major Trends in Mohammad
          Ben Abdullah’s Policy
1-The Internal Policy
    Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah brought back the stability to the
  political life.
    He benefited from the tribal confrontations and called for Arabic
  and Berber tribes to support him in his military campaign against
  « Al Boukhari Army » .
    He provided new financial resources to the Moroccan economy by
  issuing taxation and assuring land and maritime trade ways.
2-The Foreign Policy
 He Signed many peace and trade treaties with many foreign countries .

 He exchanged diplomatic embassies with many European and Moslem
    countries.

    He opened the Moroccan ports for international trade and shipping in both
    costal sides (Mediterranean and Atlantic)

    The corsair activities were reduced .

    Exportation and importation increased.
            IV- The Confrontation Policy
 This policy was tended by Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah for many reasons.

 The Geo-strategic site of Morocco at the meeting point of two big seas (the
   Atlantic and the Mediterranean).
             ”...‫"... فالدولة المجاورة للبحر تدعوها الضرورة والحاجة التخاذ السفن الماخرة من تجارة بازركانية قرصانيه‬
   256‫االتحاف البن زيدان.ص‬

      The stats that is near the sea is obliged by means of need and necessity to obtain strong
   ships for a corsair trade
                                                                                        Ibn zaidan,Al Ithaf(p:256)

 The nearness of the country from the European continent .

 Political religious reasons .

 The Decrease in the financial revenues.
                                           " ...‫"...تعطل بما كان يستفاد من المداخيل والمحاصيل وانقطاع خوف امم البحار‬
256-257‫االتحاف البن زيدان.ص‬
  « …The decrease in incomes, agricultural yields and the end of European nations’fear… »
                                                                                   Ibn zaidan,Al Ithaf(p:256-257)
• To meet these goals, Mohamad III renewed the Moroccan fleet and made a
  great amendments on the Moroccan navy .This was by bringing new war
  equipments such as : warships , guns, artillery….


‫"...فقد بلغ في دولته عشرين كبارا من المربع .وثالثين من الفراكط والغالئط وبلغ رؤساء البحرية‬
    ‫ستسن رئيسا كلها بمراكبها وبحريتها وبلغ من عسكر البحرية الفا من المشارقة وثالثة آالف من‬
    ‫المغاربة. ومن الطبجية الفين.وبلغ عسكره من العبيد عشرة آالف ومن االحرار سبعة آالف‬
           " ... ‫.اما عسكر القبائل الذي كان يغزو مع الجند فمن الحوز ثمانية االف الغرب سبعة االف‬
‫االستقصا في اخبار دول المغرب االقصى ,للناصري,ص‬
      « During his rule there was twenty of squared and thirty of frigates and galleys. The
    number of captains was sixty with their ships and seamen. Moreover, the navy army was
    divided to one thousand of the Easterns and one thousand of the Moroccans. The battery
    soldiers were two thousand. His army was of ten thousand of slaves and seven thousand of
    free men .however, the tribal soldiers that often raided with the Army were eight thousand of

    Alhawz and seven thousand of Algharb».
• This resulted in extending the Corsair’s activities against the European
  shipping in the Mediterranean .
      "...‫"...دوخهم في البحر وغنم منهم غنائم كثيرة ..وتكاثرت سفنه في البحر ...وهدا ماجعل ملوك االفرنج وطواغيتهم يهابونه‬

‫االستقصا في اخبار دول المغرب االقصى.لناصري .ص‬
He and loot much trophies….His ships multiplied in the sea….This made the ”ifranj“ kings and
    dispots to be frightned from him.

 ‫”…هابته ملوك االفرنج وطواغيتهم ووفدت عليه رسلهم بالهدايا والتحف يطالبون مسالمته في البحر بلغ دلك رحمه هللا بسياسته‬
          ‫وعلو همته حتى عمت مسالمته النصارى كلهم اال المسكوب ...ووضف عليهم الوضائف فالزموها وكانو يؤدونها كل‬
        ‫سنة...وكانوا يستجلبون مرضاته بالهدايا وااللطاف وكل ما يقدرونوكل ما اليقدرون عليه ومهما كتب الى طاغية في امر‬
                               "...‫اسرع اليه ولو كان محرما في دينه .ويحتال قضاء االغراض منهم بكل وجه احبو ام كرهوا‬

70‫االستقصا في اخبار دول المغرب االقصى.لناصري .ص‬

« ...The”ifranj“ kings and dispots were frightned from him.They sent their messengers carrying
    presents and gifts to ask him to sign a peace treaties with them. He reached this with his
    policy and high mettle , till that he signed peace treaties with all christians except the
    Russaians….He oblige them to pay tribute and they sticked to pay it every year…and they
    tried to please him by presents and by any thing that they could afford and what they couldn’t.
    whenever he wrote to a dispot in a certain matter, he hurry to make it even if it was
    prohibated in his religion… »
                1- The Blockade               of Mellila
 After being crowned, Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah decided to liberate all
   occupied Moroccan territories either by means of peace or war .

 He sent his ambassador « Ahmed Al ghaz’al » went to Spain to meet the
   Spanish king Carlos III to liberate Moslem captives there.

 The Spanish king sent back his ambassador to Morocco « J.Jouan ».

 The signing of the Moroccan Spanish peace treaty in1767.

 The Moroccan Sultan sent a letter to the Spanish king telling him that he will
   try all possible ways to liberate Septa. Mlillia and the other occupied Algerian
   territories (Ohran ) in response to the religious implications.
 ‫ان رعايانا ,وباتفاق مع اتراك الجزائر ,وهم اليقبلون باي حال من االحوال ان يروا االسبان على السواحل المغربية من سبتة الى‬
                           ‫وهران,,,واننا اخذنا بعين االعتبار رجائهم وسنقاتل ضد المعسكرات االسبانية حتى يقضي الله بيننا‬
9 ‫عبد الهادي التازي,المجلد رقم‬
 The Moroccan Army blockade the city of Mlillia and its fort. This blockade
  continues for more than three months.
 In 19 March 1775, Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah cease fire with the
  Spanish army .

    What happened? And why did the Sultan stop the blockade ?

 Stories differ from one historical reference to an other .
 According to the western sources , the blockade failed because of the
  weakness of the Moroccan Sultan and Army
 According to Abd Alhadi At’tazzi this was simply a result of the betrayal
  Of the Algerian Turks.
     ‫عالوة على نجاح اسبانيا في منع وصول المواد الحربية...نجد داي الجزائر محمد عصمان باشا ومعه اتراك الجزائر‬
   ‫يخذلون السلطان محمد بن عبد الله بعد ان كانوا اتفقوا معه باالمس على مساندته في تصفية االحتالل االسباني من سبتة‬
                                                                                                     !‫الى وهران‬
9 ‫عبد الهادي التازي,المجلد رقم‬
              2- The Blockade of El Jadida(1768)

 After the Ceasefire took place between Morocco and Spain, Sidi Mohamad Ben
   Abdullah felt the danger that is represented by the Portuguese occupation of El
   Jadida .

 The Moroccan Army blockade the city of El Jadida

 In one month and ten days time , the Moroccan battery fired the city of El Jadida by
   more than 1000 bombs

 The Moroccan Army attacked the city and embarked in a huge battle with the
   Portuguese one .

 After being lost, the Portuguese army submitted to the Moroccan sultan and asked

   him for three days truce to withdraw their troops and military equipments .
.




    www.eljadida.ma/galerie_photo_el_jadida/image...
                      3- The Battle of Larache
 The extension of the Moroccan corsair's activities against the French Shipping in the
   Mediterranean .

 In 1765 Moroccan corsairs seized the French ship « La Sirene » and dragged it to the
   Larach’s harbor.

 As a revenge, the French navy attacked two of the Moroccan ports(Salee and Rabat).

 Their attack failed under a strong Moroccan resistance.
                                                   “‫” ولما لم يحصلوا على طائل قلعوا وانصرفوا‬
« …They got nothing. Then, they went away… »
 At the same year, they renew their attack and fire the harbor of « Larache» and the
   French ship « La Sirene ».

 The Moroccan navy fought them and they were forced to withdraw their troops.

 Many of the French troops were killed and 50 of them were captives.
                 V- The Peace Policy

 Mohamad The Third tended this policy for political ,economic and security
   reasons.

 The need for peaceful relations with his neighbors to build a stability in the
   political life.

 The economic situation in Morocco in the 18th century required new
   revenues that with the Europeans will provide it.

 The Sultan engaged in a huge reforms where national security was an
   essential factor .
  1- Diplomatic Relations with The
          Mosleme World

     Relations with this part of the world were based on the
religious concept of solidarity and Jihad. Therefore, It was
very justified to see the Moroccan Ambassadors in more than
one Moslem country illustrating the notion of cooperation and
alliance. Among these, the Othman Empire and the North
African regencies were supposed to take an advanced position
in the Moroccan diplomacy.
     2- Relations with the Othman Empire
 The first initiative in the 18th century was held by Sidi Mohamad Ben
   Abdullah.

 In March 1765, he sent two well known figures in Morocco: Al haj
   Att’aher Bennani and Abdallah Alkhiat to congratulate the Othman Sultan
   « Mustapha The Third » for being throned.

 May 1783, the Othman sultan was upset of the visit of the ambassador

  « Mohamad Ben Abdelmalik » to Austria.

 At the same year, Sidi Mohamad sent his Ambassador « Taher Al Fanish »
   to explain the situation to the Othman sultan.

 The Russian Othman war was one of the main issues of the Moroccan
   diplomacy towards the Othman Empire.
 In 1785, the ambassadors Al Amin Abd alkarim Ala’awni ,Abdelaziz Assanhaji and
    Mohamad Ezzwin Al rahmani went to Istanbul to deliver a letter from Sidi
    Mohamad to the Othman Sultan about the defeat of the Algerian Turks.
                                                    “‫”ان لم تدفع ضررهم عن المسلمين فدعني واياهم‬
«If you won’t stop them from harming Moslems ,so just let me deal with them»

 The Othman Sultan asked Sidi Mohamad to intervene between him and the Bashaw
    of Algiers to make him conform to the peace treaty that was signed between Spain
    and the Othman Empire.
  ‫...ان اهل الجزائر ان فعلوا مع جنس االصبنيول الصلح الذي امرهم به السلطان العثماني نصره الله صلحا تاما‬
             ‫كيف امرهم فبركات الله تعالى وان لم يفعلوا فنوجه عشرة فراكيط من فراكيطنا الجهادية لباب‬
                                                                                          .‫مرسىالجزائر‬
46‫عبد الهادي التازي ص‬
   ” If Algerians comformed to the peace treaty as the Othman Sultan ordered them ,may God
    make him prevail,with all its conditions, this will be good. However, if they do not, we will
    send ten frigates of our Jihadi frigates towards the Algeirs’harbpur…“

 The Othman sultan was afraid of the naval power that the Moroccan sultan has
    which can allow him to occupy Algiers.
3- Relations with The North African Regencies
    a.Tunis
     The relation between Morocco and Tunis was friendly at most of the time and was
    based on cooperation and solidarity.
                               ”‫,,وقد ضلت عالقة المغرب بتونس ,دوما متسمة بالمجاملة والود المتبادل “حاضرة افريقية‬
‫المجلد رقم,التاريخ الدبلوماسي للمغرب,عبد الهادي التازي‬
      The relation between Morocco and Tunis(The Capital of Ifriquia) was always characterized
    by amiability and courtesy
                                         Abdulhadi Attazi, The Diplomatic History of Morocco

 Among the examples of cooperation and solidarity , there is the letter of Mohamad
    The Third to Louis15 the was held by the ambassador Ahmad AL Ghaz’al. In this
    letter the Moroccan sultan threatened the French king of declaring war on France if
    he keeps his attacks on Tunis.

 The Moroccan Ambassadors were always received generously by the Basha of
    Tunis in their way to Istanbul.

 Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah always supported Tunis in disasters and starvation.
    b.Tripoli
   The relation was more friendly with Tripoli than other North African
    regencies

   This friendship dates back to the visit of the Sultan when he was young
    companying his mother to the pilgrimage.

   The privileged stance that Tripoli used to take in Moroccan diplomacy in
    the 18th century is shown in one of the important articles of the Moroccan
    French peace treaty(1767).In this Article the Moroccan state prevent the
    French fleet from attacking the Tripolitan regency.

   An other incident that strengthened the Moroccan Tripolitan relations was
    the sultan’s intervention between Tripoli and the United States.

   The notion of solidarity had a part in these relations especially when it
    comes to food supplies during the dry seasons.
    c.Algeirs
 Different from the other regencies, Algiers's relations with
    Morocco were characterized by conflict.

 Algerian Turks always show a kind of defeat to the
    Moroccan sultan.

 The Algerian desire of extending over the Moroccan
    territories was one of the factors that prevented the progress
    of these relations.

 Hosting of the prince Molay Al yazid when he was revolting
    on his father.
 Initiating Moroccan Marabouts from the Abi Al ja’ad zawia to rebel against
  the Mohamad The Third.
 This didn’t prevent Morocco from signing a treaty with Algiers that protect
  Moroccan Algerian trade ships and corsairs .

  ‫"ان القراصنة الجزائريين اذاماهاجموا احدى السفن ولجاوا الى احدى الموانئ المغربية فان الحماية المغربية تشملهم‬
‫وكل مافي السفينة فهو لهم ,لكن اذا حصل ان كان الماسورون الذين ينتمون الى احدى الدول التي لها عالقة بالمغرب‬
  ‫فان السلطان يتكلف بشرائهم مادامو فوق التراب المغربي,واذا رفض القرصان تسليمهم فان السلطان يقوم بمبادلتهم‬
                                                                                            " ‫باسرى مسلمين‬
256‫االتحاف البن زيدان.ص‬

    "If the Algerian corsairs attack a given ship and come to a given Moroccan harbor, they are
    under the Moroccan protection and every thing in the ship belongs to them. However, if the
    captives are citizens of a country that have relations with Morocco, so the Sultan is
    responsible of buying them as they are on a Moroccan soil. Moreover, if the corsair refuses to
    hand the captives to him, the sultan exchanges them with Moslems ".
                                                                        Ibn zaidan,Al Ithaf(p:256)
4- Diplomatic Relations with the Western World

       This diplomatic policy towards the western world was

    tended by the Moroccan Sultan in order to open the state for
    new economic opportunities( trade, investments
    …).Furthermore, Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah, to some
    extent, decided to put an end to corsairs activities that were
    taking place in the Mediterranean. This allowed him to begin
    in building the new modern Morocco.

.
            a. Relations with France

 The first initiative in these relations was held by Morocco in 1765 under
    the demand of France .

 The Ambassador Ali Marsil Arrubatti went to Paris to take the ransom of
    the French captives in Morocco.

 In 1766, Conte De Breigom leaded the French Diplomats to negotiate the

    peace treaty .
  ‫"… وقدمت رسلهم الى مراكش بهداياهم,,,فاجابهم ايده الله الى ما طلبوه من عقد الصلح و المهادنة بعدما بذلو عدة وافرة‬
                                                                                                  "…‫من االموال‬
255‫ابن زيدان االتحاف,ص‬
       « …Their Embassadors came to Marrakech with gifts….He ,may god support him, accepted            signing a
    peace treaty,after that they paid a lot of money… »
                                                                                          Ibn zaidan,Al Ithaf(p:255)
 In 1767, the peace treaty with France was signed.

 In 1777, The Moroccan embassador Taher lfanish went to France with the crew
    of the French ship « La Louise » which sinked infront of the cost of Cap
    Bojador.
             ‫بكل اسير من ايالتنا من النصارى ايا كان ففداؤه مسلم راسا براس وان لم يكن عندهم مسلمون فمائة ريال فداؤه الغير‬

‫عبد الهادي التازي,التاريخ الدبلوماسي للمغرب‬


     “ Each christian captive in our regency have to be exchanged with one moslem on an equal basis.however, if
    they have not a mosleme one , the amount of ransom would be 100 rial no more… “
               b. Relations with Spain

 The first treaty was signed in 1767.

 The Moroccan sultan wasn’t satisfied with its articles and he waged war against spain.

 In 1757, the blockade of Mlillia failed and the moroccan sultan was convinced to
   negotiate with the Spanish Embassador « J.Juan ».

 In 1779 Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah sent his embassador Mohamad Ben Othman to
   Madrid to ransom the Mosleme captives in Spain.

 In 1780, The Moroccan Sultan signed the new peace teaty with Spain .

 Mohamad The Third’s disicion was based on his belief that the country needs to limit its
   enmies and look for a better economic relations with the Spanish kingdom .

 This treaty couraged trade between spain and Morocco and spanish ships harboured
   regulary on the Moroccan ports.
          c. Relations with The United States
 One of the vital factors that leaded to these relations was assuring safe
  sailing for American ships in the Mediteranean.
 The reduction f the Moroccan corsair’s activities since Morocco have signed
  peace treaties with the majority of the European .
 In 1777, Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah recognize the American
  independence.
 In 1778,he sent his embassador Taher Alfanish to Madrid to negociate peace
  treaties with spain and other nations.Among them there was the United
  States.
 In 1779, Mohamad the Third appoint the French merchant E.A.Caillé as a
  consul of the forign countries that don’t have consuls.
 The American diplomacy failed in convincing European countries to
  intervent btween the United states and the « Barbary Powers ».
 This was understood by the Moroccan Sultan as an American neglection to
  the Moroccan rights in tribute .
 In 1783, the Moroccan navy seized the American ship « the Betsey ».

 The American Congress appoint J.Francklin, Thomas Jeferson and Jhon
   Adams to negociate for a peace treaty with Morocco

 After negotiation with the American comissioner Thomas Barclay Morocco
   signed the peace and freindship treaty in 1786 in Marrakech.

 This treaty opened the moroccan ports for the American trade .

 The Moroccan economy and trade benifited from the taxation that was paid
   on American products entering to Morocco.

 This revived the Atlantic costal side of Morocco .
                        VI- Conclusion
      When exploring the period of Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah, it is
    obvious to admit that this Moroccan Emperor, as the western
    diplomats used to call him, was one of the glorious kings of his
    dynasty.
   He renewed the political, economic and military arenas.
   He succeeded in making Morocco, by means of international trade,
    a link between four continents( Africa, Asia , North America and
    Europe).
       However, it is ,also, worthy to note that these reforms initiated the
    European intervention in more on Moroccan internal affaires.
   Sidi Mohamad Ben Abdullah left a very rich diplomatic legacy to his
    son Moulay Alyazid who will have to deal with a very complicated
    network of Moroccan foreign relations.
   The European intervention will extend in Morocco due to some
    gaps in the peace treaties signed during his rule.
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                                                       ‫لطيفة الفياللي.مركز الدراسات والبحوث العلوية,الريصاني1002‬

  ‫محمد الراجي."العالقات المغربية االمريكية من مفهوم التعاون الى التحالف االستراتيجي" بحث لنيل دبلوم الماستر في شعبة‬
                   ‫"الدبلوماسية المغربية".كلية العلوم القانونية و االجتماعية و االقتصادية سال.جامعة محمد الخامس.الرباط‬

‫‪www.eljadida.ma/galerie_photo_el_jadida/image‬‬
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