Carbon Capture and Sequestration by 073ecl

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 24

									Alexander Voice
24 November 2008
   Motivation for the development of CCS
    technology
     Climate change
     Energy profile and outlook
   Public perception of CCS
   CCS technological overview
   CCS challenges and solutions
Muir Glacier, August, 1941
Muir Glacier, August, 2004
Source: Petit et. al. , Nature, 2000
Average global
temperatures have             6°
risen .75°C in the       5°             2°
past 100 years.
How much will the
rise in the next 100
years?                   4°
                                   3°
Source: IPCC Report on
Climate Change, 2007
Source: Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, 2006
 CO2 concentration highest in last 650,000 years
 Warming of the climate system is unequivocal,
  most of the global warming of the past half-
  century is due to increases in greenhouse gases
 Global GHG emissions reduction challenge
     Stabilize CO2(e) concentrations at 450ppm (2.0 –
      2.4°C temperature rise)
     Peak CO2 concentration before 2015
     Reduce 2050 emissions to 50-85% of 2000 emissions
     Reduce annual global emissions to 5Gt long term
MIT Carbon Sequestration
   Initiative, Survey, 2006
                   Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions
                   from Electricity in 2007
                   Total = 10,539Mt          Other
                                              Fuel oil       1%    H2
                                        NG      9%
Global CO2 PS Emissions 2007
                                        14%
Total = 13,375Mt          Petro.
                       Steel
              Cement           Chem.
                        5%
                7%              3%                       Coal
 Refineries
    6%                                                   76% (60% of total)
  NG Sweet
                                Power
                                 79%
             210
                              Oil
             180
             150
 Quad. BTU




                                     Coal                   NG
             120
             90
                                                  Nuclear
             60
              30                                                   Renewables
               0
                1990       2000             2010            2020         2030
                                            Year
Source: EIA, International Energy Outlook, 2006
Source: IPCC Special Report on Carbon Capture and Sequestration
   Capture
     Power plants
     NG treatment


     800GW Coal / 1600GW NG
     Oil refineries
    Transportation
     Pipelines
     Ships 1Gt CO2 / 1BSCFD
   Sequestration
     Geological formations (underground)
     Ocean
   What is the scale of this project?
   Systems
       Post-combustion
       Pre-combustion
       Oxy-fuel
       Industrial processes (e.g. NG sweetening)

   Separation technologies
       Solvents – aqueous amines and salts
       Membranes – polymeric
       Solid sorbents – Lime, zeolite, activated carbon
       Cryogenic processes – Liquefaction/distillation
                 Clean gas                   CO2

Flue gas




           ABS               H        STRP
                             X




                     Recirculating
                    (amine) solvent




Source: http://www.co2crc.com.au/
                  Clean gas                   CO2
Flue gas


           ABS                        STRP
           40°C          HX           120°C


                                                    ENERGY

                     Recirculating
                    (amine) solvent
   CO2 + OH-C2H4-NH2 + B 
    OH-C2H4-NH-CO2 + BH + Heat
   Absorption of CO2 by MEA at 40°C
   MEA recovery by desorption at 120°C
   Reboiler provides heat to desorber in the
    form of steam from the boiler, reducing plant
    output and efficiency
   Optimize loading, operating temperature,
    minimize solvent losses
   Formation of heat stable salts 
    precipitation to produce fertilizer
   Corrosion of equipment by amine solvent 
    addition of Cu2+ or Va4+ to solution
   Degradation of solvent  addition of EDTA
    or other inhibitor to solution
   Energy use  solvent storage / cycling; use of
    salts, high pressure processes, new solvents
Source: http://www.co2crc.com.au/
Source: http://www.co2crc.com.au/
   2500km of pipeline / 50Mtyr-1 in western US
    TODAY
   Use of existing infrastructure – require dry,
    sweet gas to prevent corrosion
   Challenges are manageable, similar to
    transport of hydrocarbons
   Big picture – Storage in oil reservoirs
    (depleted and EOR), natural formations,
    ocean storage
   Will it leak? Not likely – models suggest 99%
    containment
   Existing reservoir data can be used to
    estimate storage potential and address
    (water) concerns
   No groundwater contamination (salt?)

								
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