Interpersonal Attraction - DOC by 5KXGhE

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									Chapter 9: Interpersonal Attraction

• Situational Factors & Liking
1. Proximity
    • Festinger, Schachter, & Back (1950)
        – Massachusetts Institute of Technology Study
        – Physical proximity was the most important determinant of friendship

Other Areas
• Urban housing projects for the elderly
• Office work environments
• Classroom settings
• Priest & Sawyer (1967)
• Lions and Lambs
        • What if we move enemies next door to one another?
• Ebbesen, Kjos, & Konecni (1976)
        • They also developed most of their enemies close by as well. Why?

2. Familiarity
• We like stimuli we have had more exposure
       – Occurs in the absence of information about the person or object
       • Saegert, Swapp, & Zajonc (1973)

3. Anxiety:Does Misery Love Company?
• Schachter (1959)
       – Dr. Gregor Zilstein study
• Misery loves miserable company

Are anxious people motivated to seek out similar others in order to talk about
the impending misery?

Same study, but women could not talk
• Motivating Factor
• Social Comparison
        – Compare emotional reactions
• Two little wrinkles
• Sarnoff & Zimbardo (1961) “Baby Study”
• Chose to wait with dissimilar others
• Outcome dependence vs. Emotional dependence operating
        – Outcome dependence refers to dependence on others for positive outcomes
• Social Comparison Process
• Kulik & Mahler (1989) “Heart Surgery Study”
        – Social comparison fueled by desire to affiliate with similar others AND a need to
appraise the situation itself

Characteristics of Others
• Physical Attractiveness
• Feingold (1992)
                 Sociable               Less Modest
                 Dominant               Mentally Healthy
                 Intelligent            Socially Skilled
• Frieze, Olson, & Russell (1991)
• Facial attractiveness led to $2,200 more in starting salary
        – Influenced later salaries for women
• Attractive women average $4,200 more
• 20% overweight reduced a man’s starting salary by $2,000

Are Attractive People Better?
• Feingold (1992) analyzed 90 studies
• Found no differences
• Attractive people:
   Not More          Not Perceived to Be
        Intelligent                  Trustworthy
        Dominant                     Honest
        Self-Esteem                  Sensitive

Judgments of Attractiveness
• Value Transfer or “rub off” effect
       – viewed simultaneously
• Contrast Effect
       – viewed sequentially

Evaluations of our own appearance
• Brown, Novick, Lord, & Richards (1992)
• Universal Beauty Standard

• Ford and Beach (1951)
• Studied 190 tribal societies
• No Universal Standards of Beauty
• WHY?

Similarity and Liking
• Kandel (1978) found best friends in H.S. were similar in sex, race, age, and year in school
• Why does similarity increase liking?

Theories of Similarity & Liking
• Byrne (1971)
• Aronson (1974)
• Davis (1981)

Evaluation and Liking
• Aronson & Linder (1965)
• 4 patterns were:
      – Positive from start to finish
      – Negative at first, then positive
      – Positive at first, then negative
      – Negative from start to finish

Competence and Liking
• Competent people are liked more
       – “Best idea guy” is not the best liked member
• Aronson, Willerman, & Floyd (1966) “Spilled Coffee” study

								
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