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					       EIA, IPPC and SEVESO

                                 Links
Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) vs
Integrated Pollution Prevention & Control (IPPC)
vs SEVESO
•EIA: general environmental information tool (Directive 85/337/EEC, 97/11.EC)
  linked to “project consent” decision making (permit)
  environmental statement (report) - any relevant impacts, including emissions and
   health, environment and safety risks of accidents
•IPPC: technical criteria for project decision-making
  emission standards based on Best Available Technology BAT (Directive 96/61/EC)
•SEVESO: risk assessment tool (Directive 96/82/EC, 2003/105/EC)
  risks of major accidents for man and environment, limit the consequences


•EIA: political                      IPPC/SEVESO: technical
 Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
                           Fields of application
EIA: all categories of projects likely to have significant impact
Screening required for IPPC projects/SEVESO activities within scope EIA Directive

IPPC: industrial activities, some agricultural activities
Nearly all IPPC Annex I categories also in EIA Annex I or II


SEVESO: establishments with dangerous substances
SEVESO projects are included in both EIA and IPPC Annexes


All: new projects, existing activities with changes and
extensions

Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
 Exchangeable tools and procedures
EIA Annex III: tool to screen substantial changes or modifications,
estimate significance also for IPPC/SEVESO

Scoping: EIA tool also useful for IPPC/SEVESO (voluntary)

Screening phase: efficiency of decision-making procedure when
case is in scope of 2-3 Directives

Public participation: process for EIA, IPPC, SEVESO may be
joined

EMAS: information useful for appraising significance of
modifications and determining application of EIA/IPPC
 Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
           Required information, documentation
Environmental report/information/documentation from applicant:
• always required to provide, synergy possible
• EIA, IPPC: effects, preventive/mitigating measures
• SEVESO: risk analysis, safety conditions (also part of EIA/IPPC)

To avoid duplication:
• co-ordinate stages where information is submitted
• ensure information exchange between authorities
• EIA can serve as basis for IPPC/SEVESO, supplemented
• uniform classification system may save problems and time
 Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
Public involvement
•permit applications (“applications for development consent”)
and EIA report (“environmental statement”) available to the
public

•the “public concerned” : opportunity to express opinions
before decision-making

•inform “public concerned” about the decision and
considerations, responding to results of consultations

•Transboundary obligations may be joined for EIA, IPPC and
SEVESO (See also ECE Convention on Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents = EIA/SEVESO)
Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
                    IMPEL comparison table - a




Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
                    IMPEL comparison table - b




Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
EU project decision-making rules
(EIA + IPPC)
                             project permit application
         prepare                   check on BAT
         environmental             requirements IPP
         statement                 (government)
         (developer) public review

                      project decision (permit):
                             •conditions
                    •response to public opinions
Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
   Dutch permit / EIA procedure
        •preparatory discussions (developer, authority, NGOs)
        •submission of application (developer)
        •(only EIA: public scoping - announcement, public, authority)
        •(only EIA: preparing environmental statement: developer)

max 6 •draft decision (authority)
months •4 weeks time for public opinions (newspaper
        announcement, written or oral reactions, sometimes
        hearing)
        •project decision (permit + conditions + considerations)
        •possibility of appeal
   Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
Some indicative statistics

 •hundreds of environmental permits every year (tens of these
 require an EIAs as well)
 •90% of permits: no effect of NGO input
 •10% of permits: significant NGO input, leading to better
 project decisions
 •5% of permits are refused - but not an NGO effect
 •small percentage appeal
 •in most cases better acceptance of projects, despite NIMBY


Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
NGOs and BAT

•participating in national discussions about implementing
IPPC (national BAT regulations)

•checking whether projects meet national BAT regulations

•identifying outdated BAT regulations (since technology is
continuously improved - and economic growth will increase
carrying capacity of firms)


Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
INFOMIL - national helpdesk on environmental
permitting and BAT

  •NL 16 million people
  •about 1500 helpdesk questions per month
  •60% from governments
  •20% from corporations
  •20% others (incl NGOs, people from the public, Consultants)




Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
                        IMPEL questionnaire - a




Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
                       IMPEL questionnaire - b




Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
 IPPC: Best Available Technology

•50 industrial activities will be described in 30 BAT Reference
Documents (BREFS), non-binding

• states should develop their own criteria (binding)

•European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau
Seville (http://ippcb.jrc.es/), current situation:
  final BREFs on iron & steel, cement & lime, non ferrous, pulp and paper
  draft BREFs on industrial cooling, chlor alkali, ferrous metal processing, glass

 Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
BAT in NL
• technical standards and voluntary agreements with industry
• main ones: air emissions from furnaces, soil protection,
waste water emission, odour, noise, waste and hazardous
waste handling, energy, admission of dangerous substances,
use of pesticides, ..
• information brochures - INFOMIL heldpdesk website: ca. 30
about industries and environmental problems
• smaller industries need no permit but fall under general
environmental rules (restaurants, bakeries, swimming pools,
sport facilities, ...
Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture
NL BAT notes (input EU discussions)
http://www.infomil.nl/overg/sdt_/eubat/eubatinh.htm


  •paper and board                                •refineries
  •iron and steel                                 •nitric acid
  •cement clinker                                 •phosphoric acid
  •aluminium and zinc                             •intensive livestock farming
  •textile                                        •large volume organic
  •chlor-alkali                                   compounds
  •glass, mineral wool                            •waste gas treatment
  •fertiliser                                     •carbon black

Consultant: CMDC Joint Venture

				
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