Religious Wars – Notes FRANCE: ______________________ vs. ______________________ France – Large country with virtually independent regions (like ________________________________) Heavily localized __________________ & _______________ structure Variances by province: –Laws –Courts –Tariffs –Taxes –____________________________ –Corporate rights –Provinces as great as some kingdoms elsewhere. The Huguenots French _____________________ –“_________________” movement – lacked govt. backing and organization. –Opposed by Sovereigns (England & France) Calvinism seen as threat to ___________________________. –Appealed to _____________________ Wanted similar rights as Prince’s of H.R.E. Peasants tended to follow. Civil / Religious Wars _____________________ accidently killed (1559) _____________________ – Acts as regent: –Francis II (1559 – 1560) –Charles IX (1560 – 1574) –Henry III (1574 – 1589) No firm control Chaos among powerful families/factions. Catholic: ____________________________ Huguenot: _______________________________ (Bourbon) Catherine de’ Medici plays to both sides to maintain influence with King. –Feared Catholic Guise desire for __________________. –Anti-Protestant –Orders _________________________________________ 3,000 Protestants killed, inc. Coligny Henry of Navarre escapes by converting to _______________. Armed bans slaughter each other on and off for 30 years. Bourbon Dynasty ______________________ is assassinated. Henry of Navarre becomes king (____________________) Politique –Majority of French were ________________________. –Paris refuses to admit the “heretic” king. –“______________________________” – Henry IV (Converts again to Catholic) –Conversion upsets Huguenots, fearing oppression. ________________________________ issued Edict of Nantes Lord can hold Protestant Services ___________________ allowed in towns where it prevailed. Barred protestant churches from Catholic towns. Same __________________________ as Catholics –Public Office –Law Courts (with Mixed Chambers) –______________________ fortified towns of defense The Thirty Years War Origins _________________________ ___________________________ – no method of resolving conflicts. Catholic Archduke Ferdinand (Ferdinand II, HRE, 1619- 1637) crowned ______________________________, 1617. o Sought to curtail religious freedom. o ________________________of ________________. Protestants name Frederick V as HRE Battle of ____________________________– Catholics win o Wallenstein, General – Czech Protestant, hired for Catholics. Fantastic success. The War _____________________ King of Denmark – Christian IV invades N. Germany to protect Protestants, seize influence. Edict of _____________________________, 1629 o Outlawed Calvinism in HRE o Reclaimed ______________________ confiscated by Lutherans. Enter Sweden – ______________________________ France supports ____________________ against a united Germany (HRE). _____________________ wins, then is rumored to be negotiating with protestants. Removed and assassinated. France joins openly, declares war on Spain. (_________________________________________) Spain faces Portugal and Netherland’s crisis, France faces ________________________ from taxation to support war. Louis XIV, 5 years old in 1642. _______________________________________, 1648 Ended the “world war” France gains parts of Alsace – displaces ______________ as dominant power. Sweden took several northern territories. _______________________ recognized, Princes still chose. Germany remains ________________________. Armies grew, national governments grew. “_______________________” Reason of State – Richelieu Swiss and Netherlands are recognized ______________________________________.
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