Retrieving and Forgetting by bcM6Wl

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									Retrieving and
Forgetting




       Unit 3: Memory &
       Learning
         Recognition

Our memories are organized in a way that makes
recognition quite easy
  Most people can accurately say whether something is
   familiar to them or not
  Ex. You may not be able to remember the name of
   your first grade teacher, but if you heard the name
   you would recognize it
Recognition: memory retrieval in which a person
identifies an object, data or situation as one he or she
has or has not experienced before
  Single items of information may be indexed under
   several “headings” so that it can be reached in many
   ways. The more categories something is filed in, the
   easier it can be retrieved
        Recall

Recall: memory retrieval in which a person
reconstructs previously learned material
  Recall is the active reconstruction of information
Recall involves a person’s knowledge, attitude and
expectations. It is guided by the our experience,
knowledge and cues from our environment.
It is influenced by reconstructive processes: the
alteration of a recalled memory that may be
simplified, enriched, or distorted depending on an
individual’s experiences, attitudes or inferences
  Confabulation: the act of filling in memory gaps
    when the information was never stored in your
    memory
       Schemas

Schemas: conceptual frameworks a person uses to
make sense of the world
 They are sets of expectations about something
  based on your past experiences
        Eidetic Memory

Eidetic Memory: the ability to remember with great
accuracy visual information on the basis of short-
term exposure
  It is a type of photographic memory
        State-Dependent Learning

State-dependent learning: You recall information
easily when you are in the same physiological or
emotional state or setting as you were when you
originally encoded the information
  Being in a certain physiological or emotional state
   serves as a cue to help you more easily recall the
   stored information
        Relearning

Recognition and recall are measures of declarative
memory
Relearning is a measure of both declarative and
procedural memory
        Forgetting

Forgetting- process of losing a memory that was
stored in our brain

Forgotten old memories are easier to relearn the
second time & stay in our memory longer the
second time
        Why We Forget

There are several theories that attempt to explain
forgetting
  Decay Theory
    • Fading away of memory over time
    • Uncertain whether long-term memory truly
      decay
    • Can be recalled through meditation, hypnosis
      or brain stimulation
        Why We Forget

Interference
  Theory that memories are blocked or erased by
   previous or new memories
  Example: You move to a new home & have
   trouble remembering your new address and
   phone number because your old information gets
   in the way (proactive interference). After awhile
   you know the new address but have trouble
   remembering the old data (retroactive
   interference).
       Why We Forget

Repression
 According to Sigmund Freud, some memories
  are blocked as a way of protecting the ego.
 We may subconsciously block memories that
  are embarrassing, frightening, painful or
  disturbing
 The material still exists but it is made
  inaccessible to you
        Why We Forget

 Amnesia
 Loss of memory due to a severe blow to the head or
    brain damage
 Infant amnesia
   • Why is it that most of us have no memory of being 2-
       3 years old?
           Freud: these memories are repressed because
           of the emotional traumas of infancy
           Language Problem: Memories are nonverbal &
           cannot be easily recalled
           Immaturity: Hippocampus may not be mature
          enough to spark memories; have not developed a
          sense of self to experience memories

								
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