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					               ACKNOLEDGEMENTS

   I would like to express my first debt of gratitude to my
supervisor Prof. Dr. Kadhim Haidar al-Jawadi, for suggesting the
topic of this thesis , and for his patient and sincere supervision of
this work.
   I am under the greatest obligation to Dr. Abdullatif al-Jumaily,
for his guiding remarks and comments on the proposal as well as for
his continuous support throughout the courses of my M.A. Study.
   Special words of thanks are due to Dr. Sundus al-‘Ubaidy, Head
of the Department of English at the College of Arts, for her valuable
comments on the research as well as for her great help in providing
me with valuable references.
   I also wish to thank all those who directly or indirectly
contributed to this thesis by giving me their        practical help,
especially the staff Members of the Library of the Department of
English, Mrs. Widad Salman (Um Ali) and Miss Ma'aani.
   Finally, I wish to thank my family for their encouragement,
patience and unfailing support .




                        CONTENTS


                                   ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................ii
ABBREVIATIONS .........................................x
ABSTRACT..................................................xi
DEDICATION
CHAPTER ONE:                          INTRODUCTION
           1.1 The Problem...............................................1
           1.2 The Aims of the Study...................................4
           1.3 The Hypotheses............................................4
           1.4 The Procedures............................................5
           1.5 The Limits of the Study.................................6
           1.6 The Value of the Study..................................6


CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPTS OF
DIMINUTION                                                     AND
AUGMENTATION
          2.1. The Concept of Diminution.............................7
               2.1.1 Definitions .............................................7
               2.1.2 Meanings Associated with Diminution……...........9
               2.1.3. Functions Associated with Diminution
..........10                       2.2. The Concept of
Augmentation..........................12
               2.2.1 Definitions.............................................13
               2.2.2 Meanings Associated with Augmentation……......13
               2.2.3 Functions Associated with Augmentation........14
CHAPTER THREE: DIMINUTION

                                               iii
           3.1 Diminution in English...................................16
               3.1.1 Morphology of Diminution ....................18
                  3.1.1.1 Diminutive Suffixes..........................18
                  3.1.1.2 Diminutive Prefixes..........................37
              3.1.2. Semantics of Diminution.....................................44
                  3.1.2.1.Diminutive Force.............................................44
              3.1.3. Pragmatics of Diminution.................................51
                   3.1.3.1. Hypocoristic Sense........................................52


3.1.3.1.1.Endearment..................................................52
                     3.1.3.1.2. Pet
Names...................................................53
                   3.1.3.2. Proper Names...............................................55
                   3.1.3.3. Oaths ............................................................57
                   3.1.3.4. Names of Garments......................................57
                   3.1.3.5. Names of cloth..............................................58
                   3.1.3.6. Contemptuous sense.....................................58
                   3.1.3.7. Scientific Terminology ................................59
                   3.1.3.8. Other Senses.................................................62
           3.2. ‫ التـصغـيـر‬in Arabic......................................................66
              3.2.1. Preliminaries..........................................................66
                  3.2.1.1. The Conditions of Diminution........................67
                  3.2.1.2. Diminution of the Noun..................................76
                     3.2.1.2.1. Infixation..................................................76
                       3.2.1.2.1.1.The Paradigms.....................................77
                       3.2.1.2.1.2. Anomalous Cases..............................82
                       3.2.1.2.1.3.Transposition.......................................86

                                               iv
         3.2.1.2.2. Suffixation...............................................86
        3.2.1.3.Diminution and Verbs.................................87
        3.2.1.4. Diminution and Compound Nouns..............88
        3.2.1.5.Diminution and Numbers............................90
        3.2.1.6.Diminution and Epithets.............................91
        3.2.1.7.Diminution and Adverbs..............................92
        3.2.1.8.Diminution and ‫49 ..............................الـنـَـسـَـب‬
        3.2.1.9.Diminution and ‫59.................................الحرْ ف‬
                                    َ
        3.2.1.10.Diminution and Proper Names...................96
         3.2.1.10.1.Original Proper Names..........................96
         3.2.1.10.2.Proper Names Based on CN..................98
         3.2.1.10.3.Proper Names Derived from ‫99.........الحرف‬
         3.2.1.10.4.Proper Names Derived from Verbs......100
         3.2.1.11.Diminution and Foreign Names..............101
         3.2.1.12.Diminution and Feminine Nouns............101
         3.2.1.13.Diminution and Vague Nouns …............102
           3.2.1.13.1. Demonstratives..................................104
           3.2.1.13.2. Conjuncts...........................................106
         3.2.1.14.Diminution and Plurality.........................107
     3.2.1.15. ‫ تصغير الترخيم‬The Curtailed Diminution…..108
3.2.2. Semantics of Diminution.....................................111
3.2.3. Pragmatics of Diminution...................................112
  3.2.3.1 Functions of Diminution.....................................112
     3.2.3.1.1. Smallness or Littleness...............................112
     3.2.3.1.2. Pitiness........................................................113
     3.2.3.1.3. Fewness......................................................113
     3.2.3.1.4. Contemptibleness........................................114

                                  v
                 3.2.3.1.5. Endearment, kindness or affection.............114
                 3.2.3.1.6. Fascination .................................................115
                 3.2.3.1.7. Enhancemnt or Magnification....................116
                 3.2.3.1.8. Nearness......................................................118


 CHAPTER FOUR: AUGMENTATION
      4.1. Augmentation in English...............................................122
        4.1.1. Morphology of Augmentation.................................122
        4.1.2. Semantics of Augmentation.....................................150
         4.1.2.1. Exaggeration...........................................................150
      4.1.3. Pragmatics of Augmentation...................................151
         4.1.3.1.Extremity.................................................................152
        4.1.3.2. Pre-eminence...........................................................152
        4.1.3.3. Excessiveness..........................................................153
        4.1.3.4. Depreciativeness......................................................154
        4.1.3.5. Beyondness .............................................................155
        4.1.3.6. Technical and Scientific Terminology....................156
        4.1.3.7. Other Senses............................................................159
    4.2. ‫ المبالغة‬Intensiveness in Arabic........................................
161
4.2.1.Preliminaries.................................................................161
         4.2.1.1. Morphology of Intensiveness...............................162
           4.2.1.2. Intensiveness and the ‫ ة‬of Femininization...........165
           4.2.1.3. Professions............................................................166
           4.2.1.4.Drugs ....................................................................166
           4.2.1.5. Machine or Apparatus.........................................166
4.2.2. Functions of Intensiveness.................................................167

                                               vi
    4.2.2.1. Frequentativeness..................................................167
    4.2.2.2. Extreming, Violence , or Strength.........................168
    4.2.2.3. Intensification of the Quality.................................170
    4.2.2.4. Habitual.................................................................172
    4.2.2.5. Instrumentalness....................................................173


CHAPTER FIVE: CONTRASTIVE                                        ANALYSES
  5.1.1 Diminution at the Morphological Level...................172
    5.1.1.1.Suffixation and Diminution....................................176
    5.1.1.2.Conditions to form Diminution..............................177
    5.1.1.3.Parts of Speech Serve as Diminutive Bases...........178
      5.1.1.3.1. Proper Names ………………………………..178
      5.1.1.3.2. Common Nouns………………………………179
      5.1.1.3.3. ‫ االفعال‬Verbs…………………………………...180
      5.1.1.3.4. ‫ الصفات‬Epithets………………………………..181
      5.1.1.3.5. ‫ االسم المركب‬Compounds……………………...181
      5.1.1.3.6. ‫ االرقام‬Numbers……………………………….181
      5.1.1.3.7. ‫ الظرف‬Adverbs…………………………….….182
      5.1.1.3.8. ‫ الحرف‬Particle………………………………...182
      5.1.1.3.9. ‫ النسب‬Relation………………………………....182
      5.1.1.3.10. Vague Nouns………………………………..183
      5.1.1.3.11. Plurality..........................................................183
      5.1.1.3.12. Femininity......................................................183
      5.1.1.3.13. Transposition..................................................184
      5.1.1.3.14.The Curtailed Diminution................................184
    5.1.1.4.Parts of Speech Formed with Diminutives………..185
  5.1.2 Diminution at the Semantic Level...........................185

                                        vii
   5.1.3. Diminution at the Pragmatic Level .........................185
     5.1.3.1.Endearment , Pet-Names or Hypocrisy....................185
    5.1.3.2.Personal names..........................................................186
    5.1.3.3.Oaths..........................................................................187
    5.1.3.4.Names of Garments...................................................187
    5.1.3.5.Names of cloth...........................................................187
    5.1.3.6.Contemptuous Sense ................................................188
    5.1.3.7.Scientific Terminology..............................................188
    5.1.3.8.Instruments................................................................188
    5.1.3.9.Pitiness......................................................................189
    5.1.3.10.Fewness...................................................................189
    5.1.3.11.Fascination...............................................................189
    5.1.3.12.Enhancemnt or Magnification.................................190
    5.1.3.13.Nearness..................................................................190
5.2. Augmentation.....................................................................191
  5.2.1 Augmentation at the Morphological Level...............191
     5.2.1.1. Augmentative Patterns.............................................192
     5.2.1.2. Augmentatives and Particular Signs........................193
     5.2.1.3.Parts of Speech Serve as Bases for Augmentatives..193
       5.2.1.3.1.Substantives........................................................193
       5.2.1.3.2. Adjectives..........................................................194
       5.2.1.3.3. Verbs..................................................................194
       5.2.1.3.4. Adverbs..............................................................194
     5.2.1.4. Parts of Speech in Form of Augmentatives ..........195
          5.2.1.4.1. Substantives....................................................195
          5.2.1.4.2. Adjectives.......................................................195
          5.2.1.4.3. Verbs..............................................................195

                                           viii
            5.2.1.4.4. Adverbs..........................................................196
     5.2.2 Augmentation at the Semantic Level........................196
     5.2.3. Augmentation at the Pragmatic Level......................197
        5.2.3.1. Extremity...............................................................197
        5.2.3.2. Pre-eminence.........................................................197
        5.2.3.3. Excessiveness........................................................198
        5.2.3.4. Beyondness ...........................................................198
        5.2.3.5.Depreciativeness.....................................................198
        5.2.3.6. Habitualness and Instrumentalness.......................199
        5.2.3.7. Professions.............................................................199
        5.2.3.8.Drugs......................................................................200
        5.2.3.9. Instruments, Tools................................................200
        5.2.3.10.Scientific Terminology.........................................200


CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSIONS,
                            RECOMMENDATIONS                                    AND
                            SUGGESTIONS
FOR                                                    FURTHER
RESEARCH
        6.1 Conclusions...................................................................202
        6.1.1. Diminution................................................................202
        6.1.2. Augmentation...........................................................204
        6.2 Recommendations........................................................205
        6.3 Suggestions for Further Research..............................205
BIBLIOGRAPHY..................................................................207


                                             ix
ARABIC REFERENCES………………………….…..…213
ABSTRACT IN ARABIC
           ABBREVIATIONS

adjs.        adjectives
advs.      adverbs
AS         Anglo-Saxon
augs.       augmentatives
cen.        century
Cl(L.)     Classical (Latin)
COD         Concise Oxford Dictionary
dims.       diminutives
f.           formed on
fem.         feminine
fr.         from
Gr.        Greek
L.           Latin
LL.         Late Latin
masc.        masculine
ME.         Middle English
Med.E       Medieval English
Med.L       Medieval Latin
MF.         Middle French
ML.         Middle Latin
ns          nouns
OE.         Old English
2OED.      Oxford English Dictionary 2nd edition
OF         Old French
OHG.       Old High German
ON.        Old Norse
OS.        Old Saxon
pl.        plural
pp.        past participle
pres. p.   present participle
preps.     prepositions
rad.       radical
sing.      singular
Skt.        Sanskrit
sub.       substantive
vs.        verbs

                          x
                       ABSTRACT
    Diminution and augmentation are morphological phenomena,
existing in English and Arabic. Both languages focus, to a great
extent, on their morphological requirements.
     Diminution and augmentation                are mostly employed in
expressing size or degree. Arabic grammars, as compared with those
of English, show special care for both processes, which is
manifested in the fact that they have been dealt with as independent
subjects whose morphological inflections have occupied a wide
space and received a great deal of researching.
   Their employment is chiefly due to the necessity to express in a
short and precise manner certain small and large things. However,
most nouns with these affixes do not express only the size. They
have affective meanings, showing that the denoted object causes
positive or negative emotions via expressing speakers’ sympathy,
endearment, admiration, intimacy, pity, or contempt.
   Diminution and augmentation, in English and Arabic grammar
books, are dealt with as       morphological categories with which
semantics has a parallel role. In other words, diminution and
augmentation are      semantic features realized via morphological
devices to be used literally or metaphorically, relying on pragmatic
factors. Hence, the subject under study, which has been
morphologically, semantically, and pragmatically dealt with, shows
the inter-relationship of these three levels.




                                    xi
   The present study aims at investigating the English patterns of
diminution and augmentation and their counterparts in Arabic to
determine their morphological requirements and semantic uses, and
to show points of similarity and difference between English and
Arabic in this connection.
  The present study is based on several hypotheses among which
are the hypotheses that: 1- Diminution and Augmentation, in
English and Arabic, are alike as a morphological         phenomenon.
2- Sources of diminution and augmentation are more productive and
powerful in Arabic than their counterparts in English. 3- Diminution
and Augmentation are features found mainly in nouns. 4- The
processes of diminution and augmentation are not the ones used to
express only smallness and largeness, but there are other various
senses, depending on the context.
   The study has come out with the conclusions that diminution and
augmentation are mainly nominal features in English and Arabic.
Both English and Arabic form their diminutives and augmentatives
via affixation, yet they are somehow different owing to the internal
system of each of the two languages. It shows also that diminution in
the two languages is semantically the same. In Arabic, sources of
‫ االسمم المصمغر‬diminutive and ‫ صمي التكبيمر‬augmentative formations, are
morphologically and pragmatically more productive and powerful
than those in English.
    Syntactics has no role in these processes, and the diminutives
and augmentatives usually retain the gender of the basic noun.
Pragmatically,    the diminutive and augmentative acquire extra
meanings from the context in which they occur.

                                    xii
  In the light of the conclusions arrived at, it becomes clear that the
hypotheses set for the study are validated.




                                  xiii

				
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