The Role of Values by r900ws


									The Role of Values

Core Beliefs and Values

   The US research suggests that there are
    fundamental values underlying American public
   For example, Feldman (1988) argues that there is a
    belief in equality of opportunity and in free enterprise
   These are not ideologies since the core values are
    only rather weakly related to each other – they are
    rather distinct and sometimes competing moral
   Are there similar beliefs in Britain?
Political Values in Britain

   Heath et al (1994) explore the extent to which there
    are two broad value scales underlying public opinion
    in Britain
   They explored this question using data from the
    British Social Attitudes surveys of 1989 and 1990
   The first related to socialism/laissez-faire values
   The second related to libertarian/authoritarian
   They investigated the stability of these values over
    two waves of the BSAS surveys
Socialism/Laissez-Faire and
   They started with 17 separate Likert Scales
    (1 strongly agree; 2 agree; 3 neither; 4
    disagree; 5 strongly disagree) for the
    Socialism/Laissez-Faire scale and 16 for the
    Liberal/Authoritarian Scale
   The conducted an exploratory factor analysis
    of the items which allowed them to identify
    which indicators were most closely related to
    each other and eliminate unrelated ones
The Socialist-Laissez-Faire items

   ‘Ordinary people get their fair share of the nations
   ‘There is one law for the rich and one for the poor’
   ‘There is no need for strong trade unions to protect
    employee’s working conditions and wages’
   ‘It is government’s responsibility to provide a job for
    everyone who wants one’
   ‘Private enterprise is the best way to solve Britain’s
    economic problems’
   ‘Major public services and industries ought to be in
    state ownership’
The Libertarian-Authoritarian Items

   ‘Young people today do not have enough respect for
    traditional British values’
   ‘Censorship of films and magazines is necessary to
    uphold moral standards’
   ‘People in Britain should be more tolerant of those
    who lead unconventional lives’
   ‘People should be allowed to organize public
    meetings to protest against the government’
   ‘Even political parties that wish to overthrow
    democracy should not be banned’
Replication of the Study in 2005

   The British Election Study survey of 2005
    carried the most important eight of these
    twelve items (as measured by their statistical
    association) to see if the scales from 1989/90
    could be replicated in a later survey
   It was also interesting to see how these
    scales related to social backgrounds and
    attitudinal variables
Socialist-Laissez-Faire Items
Socialist-Laissez-Faire Items
The Libertarian-Authoritarian Items
The Libertarian-Authoritarian Items
Correlations between Socialism/Laissez
Faire Items
Correlations between
Libertarian/Authoritarian Items
Factor Structure
Meaning of the Factor Structures
   First Factor – Redistribution and Fairness (a high score means
    that someone disagrees that ordinary people get a fair share and
    agrees that there is one law for the rich and another for the poor)
    A positive score means that the individual thinks society is unfair
   Second Factor – Authoritarianism (a high score means that
    someone disagrees that young people do not show respect and
    disagrees with censorship). A negative score means that
    someone is authoritarian
   Third Factor – Tolerance (a high score means someone
    disagrees with allowing protest meetings and that people should
    be more tolerant of unconventional lifestyles). A positive score
    means that someone is intolerant.
The Redistribution and Fairness Factor
Authoritarianism Factor
Tolerance Factor
Redistribution and Fairness and
Occupational Status
Redistribution and Fairness and Age
Redistribution and Fairness and Age
Leaving Full-Time Education
Redistribution and Fairness and
Redistribution and the Left-Right Ideology

   There is evidence of a set of underlying
    values in public attitudes
   These values correlate with social
    characteristics in predictable ways (eg high
    status people think things are fair, and low
    status people think the opposite)
   The relationship between values and political
    variables such as partisanship and ideology
    are particularly significant – values influence

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