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									• Many people in hospitals die every year
  from catheter infections.
• A catheter is a perfect breeding ground for
  infectious bacteria because the immune
  system cannot reach it to defend the body.
• Through all the handling, it is almost
  impossible to prevent the contamination.
• Catheter: a flexible tube inserted into the body for medical uses
  such as injection or withdrawal of fluids
• Ampicillin: this drug has been proved to terminate hazardous
  germs
• DTAB: surfactant with a positive charge (cationic)
• Surfactant: a surface active agent
• Lysozyme: commercially available protein that exhibits
  antimicrobial activity at an interface
• Nisin: an antimicrobial protein that inhibits the growth of Gram-
  positive cells and spores
• SDS: a surfactant with a negative charge (anionic)
 • We created two concentrations
   of DTAB, Beta Lactoglobulin,
       Lysozyme, SDS, Nisin.
• We cut pieces of catheter tubing
     and then dipped them in the
   different concentrations of our
    antibiotics. We held them in
    the antibiotic for 60 seconds
   and then rinsed them in sodium
              phosphate.
 • Next we placed them in one of
   two bioassay plates containing
    either pediococcus or e-coli.
•   We inserted our plates in the
   incubator to give the bacteria a
    chance to grow and be killed.
 We knew if an antibacterial agent
 had worked if there was kill zone.
• The kill zone is an area that is
  discolored or is a circle with no
       living bacteria present.
 • We noted how our control
 substances, Ampicillin and water,
 did as predicted. The Ampicillin
  was the positive control and the
         water the negative.
• A bioassay plate is a petri
  dish that often holds agar
   to grow bacteria. In our
    project, we used e-coli
    and pediococcus in the
   agar to see what would
  kill bacteria. This would
  be indicated by a clearer
       area in the agar.
• We were trying to coat the
       catheter with an
  antibacterial agent to fend
  off bacteria that could be
     harmful. This would
     prevent infections in
   people when they have a
           catheter.
  Antibiotics        Low er Concentration Higher Concentration
    DTAB                 .31 mg/ml            31 mg/ml
Beta Lactoglobulin        .1 mg/ml             1 mg/ml
 Lysozyme                .11 mg/ml             1 mg/ml
   SDS                  .285 mg/ml           28.5 mg/ml
   Nisin                  .1 mg/ml             1 mg/ml
    Antibiotics    Concentration (mg/ml)   Kill Zone (mm)
DTAB                                0.31         none
DTAB                               31.00          11
Beta Lactoglobulin                  0.10         none
Beta Lactoglobulin                  1.00         none
Lysozyme                            0.11          8
Lysozyme                            1.00         none
SDS                                 0.29         none
SDS                                28.50          1
Nisin                               0.10          3
Nisin                               1.00          4
Ampicillin                          1.00          13
Water                                            none
    Antibiotics    Concentration (mg/ml)   Kill Zone (mm)
DTAB                                0.31         none
DTAB                               31.00           8
Beta Lactoglobulin                  0.10         none
Beta Lactoglobulin                  1.00         none
Lysozyme                            0.11         none
Lysozyme                            1.00         none
SDS                                 0.29         none
SDS                                28.50         none
Nisin                               0.10         none
Nisin                               1.00         none
Ampicillin                          1.00        4.5 mm
Water                                            none
  Since different bacteria have different types of
cell walls, certain antibiotics will have more of an
affect on one bacteria than another. For this reason
       our antibiotics were more affective on
 pediococcus than e-coli. The only antibiotic that
 killed e-coli, other than our positive control, was
 the higher concentration of DTAB. Nisin, SDS,
  lysozyme, and DTAB all had a kill zone in the
 pediococcus plate. Our control, ampicillin, was
 by far the most effective antibiotic on that plate.
There are a lot of drugs that will do many things
to different bacterium. The first question we
had was, “What is most effective on both
plates?” We found that DTAB worked well in
both bacterium, sometimes with better kill zones
than our control. In this experiment we have
decided that DTAB would do best in the use of
coating catheters.

A special thanks to our mentor, Clayton Jeffries and Dr. Michelle Bothwell for allowing
                                   us to use her lab.

								
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